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THE PIPES OF WAR 



GLASGOW 

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY 

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PIPER JAMES RICHARDSON, V.C., i6th CANADIAN SCOTTISH 

At Regina Trench, Vimy Ridge 

Front the Painting by J. Prinsep Beadle 



The Pipes of War 

A Record of the Achievements of Vipers 

of Scottish and Overseas Regiments 

duri?ig the War 19 14-18 

BY 

Brevet-Col. SIR BRUCE SETON, Bart., of Abercorn, C.B. 

AND 

Pipe-Major JOHN GRANT 



WITH CONTRIBUTIONS BY 
NEIL MUNRO, BOYD CABLE, PHILIP GIBBS, and Others 




V 



GLASGOW 
MACLEHOSE, JACKSON & CO. 

PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY 
I92O 



BERKELEY 
MUSIC LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 



<fi 



- 



331 

UST 



XT /"HEREVER Scottish troops have fought the sound of the 
pipes has been heard, speaking to us of our beloved 
native land, bringing back to our memories the proud traditions 
of our race, and stimulating our spirits to fresh efforts in the 
cause of freedom. The cry of " The Lament " over our fallen 
heroes has reminded us of the undying spirit of the Scottish race, 
and of the sacredness of our cause. 

The Pipers of Scotland may well be proud of the part they 
have played in this war. In the heat of battle, by the lonely 
grave, and during the long hours of waiting, they have called to 
us to show ourselves worthy of the land to which we belong. 
Many have fallen in the fight for liberty, but their memories 
remain. Their fame will inspire others to learn the pipes, and 
keep alive their music in the Land of the Gael. 




~fa. 



& UT-qts 



PREFACE 

This record of the achievements of pipers during the war of 1914-18 is not 
intended to be an appeal to emotionalism. It aims at showing that, in spite 
of the efforts of a very efficient enemy to prevent individual gallantry, in 
spite of the physical conditions of the modern battlefield, the pipes of war, 
the oldest instrument in the world, have played an even greater part in 
the orchestra of battle in this than they have in past campaigns. 

The piper, be he Highlander, or Lowlander, or Scot from Overseas, 
has accomplished the impossible — not rarely and under favourable 
conditions, but almost as a matter of routine ; and to him not Scot- 
land only but the British Empire owes more than they have yet 
appreciated. 

In doing so he has sacrificed himself ; and Scotland — and the world- 
must face the fact that a large proportion of the men who played the 
instrument and kept alive the old traditions have completed their self- 
imposed task. With 500 pipers killed and 600 wounded something must be 
done to raise a new generation of players ; it is a matter of national import- 
ance that this should be taken in hand at once, and that the sons of those 
who have gone should follow in the footsteps of their fathers. 

This is the best tribute that can be offered to them. 

The Piobaireachd Society intend to institute a Memorial School of 
piping for this purpose, and all profits from the sale of this book will be 
handed over to their fund. 

The compilation of the statistical portions of the work has involved 
correspondence with commanding officers, pipe presidents and pipe majors 
of many units in the Imperial armies ; to them, for their enthusiastic 



viii PREFACE 

assistance in obtaining information, is due the credit for the mass of detail 
that has been made available. 

To the other contributors — authors, artists and poets — is due in large 
measure such success as may follow the publication of this work. They 
have helped a cause worthy of their efforts. 

It is earnestly to be hoped that Scotland will rise to the occasion. To 
the compilers it has been a privilege to record the achievements of men — 
many of them personal friends — who contributed so largely to the success 
of their gallant regiments. 

B. S. 
J- G. 






CONTENTS 



PACE 



Foreword by Field-Marshal Earl Haig of Bemersyde, K.T. - - v 

Preface ----- vii 

THE PIPES OF WAR. By Brevet Col. Sir Bruce Seton, Bart., 
of Abercorn, C.B. 

Introduction - 3 

A History of the Pipes ---------- 9 

The Pipes in the War, 1914-1918 

The Western Front -----------18 

Gallipoli -_.__. 31 

Salonika ----33 

Mesopotamia ------------33 

The Last Stage -----34 

Pipers in the Ranks ----------35 

Pipers on the March ------- . . - 37 

Pipe Tunes ------- 42 

Individual Achievements - - 46 

Foreigners and the Pipes ---------63 

The Pipes in Captivity ----------64 

Military Pipe Bands and Reform --------66 

Regimental Records 

The Scots Guards 71 

The Royal Scots 73 

The Royal Scots Fusiliers 82 

The King's Own Scottish Borderers 86 

The Cameronians (The Scottish Rifles) - - - - - - - 91 

The Royal Highlanders (The Black Watch) ------ gQ 

The Highland Light Infantry --------- 105 

The Seaforth Highlanders - - - - - - - - -114 

The Gordon Highlanders - 124 

The Cameron Highlanders - - - - - - - - -130 

The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders 135 

The London Scottish - - - - - - - - - -143 

The Tyneside Scottish - - - - - - - - - -145 



x CONTENTS 

Regimental Records pagb 

The Middlesex Regiment - - - - - - - - - -146 

The Liverpool Scottish -- 147 

The Royal Fusiliers - - - - - - - - - -147 

The Argyllshire Mountain Battery 148 

The Ross and Cromarty Battery - - - - - - - -148 

Miscellaneous ---------.--148 

The Pipe Band of the 52nd (Lowland) Division ----- 149 

Prisoners of War Band ----- - - ... 150 

Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry ------ 150 

The Royal Highlanders of Canada - - - - - - - -151 

The 48th Highlanders of Canada - - - - - - - -152 

The Canadian Scottish - - - - - - - - - -153 

The Cameron Highlanders of Canada - - - - - - -154 

The 21st Canadians ----------- 155 

The 25th Canadians - - - - -155 

The 29th Canadians - - - - -156 

The 236th Canadians ---------- 157 

The Canadian Pioneers - - - -158 

The 2nd Auckland Regiment --------- 158 

The 42nd Australians - - - - 159 

The South African Scottish - - - - - - - - -159 

Roll of Honour, 1914-1918 161 

Canntaireachd. By Major J. P. Grant, M.C., Yr. of Rothiemurchus - 179 

The Irish Pipes : their History, Development and Divergence from the 

Simple Highland Type. By W. H. Grattan Flood, Mus.D., K.S.G. - 191 

The Tuition of Young Regimental Pipers. By John Grant, Pipe Major 195 

The Spirit of the Maccrimmons. By Fred. T. Macleod, F.S.A.(Scot.) - 201 

A Gossip about the Gordon Highlanders. By J. M. Bulloch - 219 

To the Lion Rampant. By Alice C. Macdonell of Keppoch - - - 228 

The Music of Battle. By Philip Gibbs ------- 232 

The Pipes in the Everyday Life of the War. By Arthur Fetterless - 239 

The Oldest Air in the World. By Neil Munro 246 

The Pipes : Onset. By Joseph Lee, Lieut. ------ 255 

Flesh to the Eagles. By Boyd Cable 258 

The Black Chanter. By Charles Laing Warr ----- 267 

The Pipes. By Edmund Candler 2 86 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Piper James Richardson, V.C., i6th Canadian Scottish, at Regina 

Trench, Vimy Ridge Frontispiece 

From the Painting by J. Prinsep Beadle. 

Piper Daniel Laidlaw, V.C., 7TH King's Own Scottish Borderers, 

at Loos - - Page 24 

From the Drawing by Louis Weirter, R.B.A. 

" The Comrades we Left in Gallipoli " - ,.32 

From the Pipe Tune composed by Colonel H. A. C. Maclean of 
Pennycross, C.M.G. Set by Mrs. A. C. Macdiarmid. 

Piper Kenneth Mackay, Cameron Highlanders, at Quatre-Bras ,, 64 

From the Painting by Lockhart Bogle, by kind permission of the 
Officers of the 1st Cameron Highlanders. 

Pipe-Major Howarth, D.C.M., 6th Gordon Highlanders, at Neuve 

Chapelle -----...-- ,, 120 

From the Painting by J. Prinsep Beadle. 

Ben Buidhe, Argyllshire --------- ,, 136 

From the Water-colour Drawing by George Houston, A.R.S.A. 

Border of Celtic Design by Alexander Ritchie, Iona - - ,, 161 

The Pibroch - ,, 208 

From the Painting by Lockhart Bogle. 

Duniquaich, Loch Fyne -- ,, 248 

From the Water-colour Drawing by George Houston, A.R.S.A. 



THE PIPES OF WAR 



BY 

BREVET-COL. SIR BRUCE SETON, BART. 
OF ABERCORN, C.B. 



INTRODUCTION 

r ■ \HE history of the bagpipes as a military institution is a long and 
■*• honourable one, inseparable from that of Scottish troops, Highland 
and Lowland, wherever they have fought, for centuries past. The strains 
of piob mhor have been heard all over those bloody European battlefields 
on which Scottish soldiers of fortune died — too often for lost causes — from 
the time when Buchan's force joined the Lilies of France in 1422, throughout 
the Hundred Years' War, in the Low Countries, in Germany, in Austria ; 
and they have handed on a tradition which has been lived up to in the 
later days of the regular Scottish units of the British Army. 

But memories are short ; and, in the army as elsewhere, the passion 
for reform before the greatest war of all was threatening many old-established 
institutions whose utility was not immediately apparent. 

And so it came about that to many observers, indeed to a considerable 
section of military opinion, it appeared likely that along with the kilt, 
the use of tartan, bonnet, doublet and other special features of the dress 
of Scottish regiments, the bagpipe must be regarded as a picturesque 
anachronism destined to disappear as the conditions of war changed and 
as the yearning of high military authorities for a deadly khaki uniformity 
of clothing and equipment became more insistent. 

" Why," it has often been said, " should Scottish units find it necessary, 
either in peace or on active service to retain an obsolete musical instrument of 
their own ? In days past, before the rifle had revolutionised tactics, when 
shooting was erratic at 100 yards' range, there might have been something 
to say for an instrument which experience showed to be capable of stimulating 
men at the psychological moment when effort was failing ; but is it reasonable 



4 THE PIPES OF WAR 

to expect that the educated twentieth century soldier will prove to be 
responsive to any such stimulus — even if it were possible, under modern 
conditions of rifle and shell fire, to provide it ? " 

The reply to such a line of argument is clear enough ; and its truth 
has been demonstrated in every action in which Scottish troops have taken 
part during the war. 

The strength of an army depends, to an incalculable degree, on the 
strength not only of individual regimental esprit de corps, but of the national 
sentiment of its units. The retention of time-honoured territorial titles 
in the New Armies, instead of a soulless numbering of units, was itself 
due to a recognition by the authorities of the principle that the individual 
soldier is a better fighting man when he feels that he has to live up to an 
ancient and brilliant regimental record. The Rifleman, even in peace, 
would never voluntarily be transferred to a " red " regiment, nor does 
a ioth Hussar yearn for the cuirass of the Life Guardsman. When a man 
joins a regiment, voluntarily or compulsorily, he adopts for the whole 
period of his military service the customs, the prejudices, and the traditions 
of his unit, and is himself moulded by them in a manner which is as 
inexplicable as it is marked. 

And if regimental esprit de corps and tradition are strong, national 
and territorial sentiment are stronger. In the old army, as a result of the 
system of recruitment, this factor was of less importance than in the, 
comparatively speaking, unmixed units of the new army of to-day. All 
our military history shows that the appeal to such national sentiment 
is as certain in its effects as the appeal to regimental tradition ; and this 
war has enormously accentuated its importance. 

All observers agree — and military despatches confirm the view — that 
the rivalry of national sentiment has proved invaluable ; units, whether 
battalions or divisions, have literally competed for distinction for their 
own nationality, and have succeeded in associating particular exploits 
with themselves for ever. It may truly be said that behind the achievements 
of the 9th, 15th, 51st and 52nd and Canadian Divisions the motive impulse 
was national rather than merely regimental. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

In the keeping alive of this national sentiment in Scottish units, their 
distinctive dress and, still more, the retention of the national instrument, 
have played an important part ; and this applies with equal force to units 
composed of Scotsmen who have left their native land permanently or 
temporarily. 

Throughout the war these units have more than maintained the great 
traditions of their past history, carrying on the records of Scottish gallantry 
which have been excelled by no troops in the world and equalled by few. 

And so with the pipers. 

How important a contributory cause they have been to the success 
of their battalions is recognised by all alike, men and officers — and not 
least by the Field Marshal Commanding in Chief. In spite of modern 
conditions they have, in cases too numerous to record, played the part 
which was normally theirs in the olden days of set battles. 

To many of the men in the ranks the music of the pipes in peace time 
may have had no special association other than with dances and gatherings ; 
but whenever the piper assumed his historic role— so long dormant — of 
fighting man, the inherited peculiarities of the Scottish soldier were aroused 
and the music made an overpowering appeal to his national sentiment. 

Inherited sympathy of this kind is no doubt inexplicable — but it exists. 
It certainly cannot be ascribed to the Celtic strain in invididuals, for we 
know that the bagpipe was in general use for centuries all over the Lowlands 
— perhaps even before it displaced the bard and the harper and became 
the war instrument of the Highlands. We cannot analyse what Neil Munro 
describes as " the tune with the river in it, the fast river and the courageous, 
that kens not stop nor tarry, that runs round rock and over fall with a 
good humour, yet no mood for anything but the way before it " ; we only 
know that it works on some individuals and some races as no other instru- 
ment does, and we need not try to satisfy ourselves whether this is due 
to the flat seventh in the scale, or the ever-sounding drones, or the inherited 
memory it arouses. 

The idea that the piper would be too conspicuous an object to be employed 
in his proper capacity has proved to be partly true, as indicated by the 



6 THE PIPES OF WAR 

casualties among them when playing ; but the same argument might be 
applied to any other soldier in the ranks. Shells show no discrimination 
in their objective. 

To a certain extent this objection is a sound one ; but it is all a matter 
of relative values. Many commanding officers have expressed the opinion 
that at times when, on account of the all-pervading noise of the 
battlefield, not a note of his music could be heard by the men nearest 
to him, it was the actual presence of the piper that supplied the stimulus 
to the men ; in fact, it was the piper, not his instrument, that was 
followed. 

For obvious reasons pipers are harder to replace than the ordinary 
soldier, and, in trench warfare especially, most regiments have tried to 
keep them in relative security ; but in the records of units which follow it will 
be seen that, when the trouble comes, the piper has always been to the 
fore, and " the tune with the tartan of the clan in it " has been heard again 
as it has for centuries past. 

From the military point of view the bagpipe has the merit of accentuating 
national sentiment at just those moments when the stimulus is most necessary, 
of rousing the " mir cath," the frenzy of battle, and of rallying men when the 
ideal is liable to be lost sight of in the presence of the nerve shattering 
realities of action. 

In all these ways the company pipers have justified their existence. 
In the discharge of a duty which may be regarded as sentimental in the 
highest sense of the term, they have, literally by hundreds, made the 
supreme sacrifice ; wherever Scottish units have fought these men have 
exposed themselves, unhesitatingly, recklessly, playing their companies 
to the attack in conditions which, as regards intensity of personal risk, 
have never previously been experienced. Many battalions have lost all 
their pipers more than once, but, as long as reinforcements were available, 
there has never been any difficulty in getting fresh men out of the ranks 
or from home to take their place ; and the new men have followed the old, 
just as heedless, as they played their comrades forward, knowing quite well 
that for many of them the urlar of " Baile Inneraora " or " The March 



INTRODUCTION 7 

of the Cameron men " might suddenly change to the taorluath of " Ch 
till mi tuille." 

The Germans at least, though they may not recognise the tune when 
they hear it in the streets of Cologne, appreciated the grim significance of 
piob mhor when " / hear the pibroch sounding, sounding " followed the lifting 
of the barrage. 

The war also has afforded many instances of another function of the 
pipes in action. Charging the enemy at a foot pace through deep mud 
is after all but a " crowded hour of glorious life," which may or may not 
be completely or even partially successful, and men may have to be rallied 
when their nerves have given out under intolerable strain. Of this there 
have been several instances. 

It must not, of course, be imagined that regimental pipers, during 
this or any other war, have been normally employed in playing their units 
to the attack ; the whole condition of modern fighting makes this impossible 
in the same way and for the same reason that it has made impossible specta- 
cular charges by battalions in line. 

It would be a more accurate presentment of the case to say that the 
military piper, qua piper, normally exercises his functions behind the front 
line, in billets and on the line of march ; and in this respect he resembles 
other army musicians whose duty — according to old Army Regulations 
of 300 years ago — is " to excite cheerfulness and alacrity in the souldier." 

But, recognising all this, the peculiarity of the piper is that, in open 
fighting, when his unit has been committed to the attack, he often assumes 
the role which distinguishes him from all other musicians, and takes his 
place at the head of his company. 

Instances of this during the war are innumerable, and those which are 
detailed below are but typical of what has occurred in every field of opera- 
tions, and in most units which possessed pipers. 

And if it is impossible to say too much of the regimental pipers of the 
British Army, it is equally so in the case of those of Overseas units, notably 
of the Canadians. From the point of view of the historian who wishes 
to demonstrate what pipers have done during this war, no more remarkable 



8 THE PIPES OF WAR 

case could be selected than that of the 16th Canadian Scottish. The pipers 
of this distinguished battalion won one V.C., one D.C.M., one Military 
Medal and Bar, and eight plain Military Medals — a record which is unique. 
No man was put up for a decoration unless he had played his company over 
the top at least twice, and no piper was ever ordered to play in action — it 
was left to volunteers, who, it was found, had to resort to the drawing of 
lots to obtain the coveted privilege of playing. 

The colonel of the regiment — himself a V.C. — commenting on the 
casualties says : "I believe the purpose of war is to win victories, and if 
one can do this better by encouraging certain sentiments and traditions 
why shouldn't it be done ? The heroic and dramatic effect of a piper 
stoically playing his way across the ghastly modern battlefield, altogether 
oblivious to danger, has an extraordinary effect on the spirit and enterprise of 
his comrades. His example inspires all those about him." 

And so it comes to this : the method of employment of the regimental 
piper during this war has depended largely on opportunity — and still more 
on the individuality of commanding officers. Men vary within very wide 
limits in the price they are prepared to pay for attaining their object ; 
and where one man will deliberately sacrifice a certain number of men to 
get a position, another will as deliberately avoid the sacrifice, even if it 
costs him his objective. 

As far as pipers are concerned, the decision arrived at by commanding 
officers of the two schools is equally indicative of the esteem in which they 
hold them. 



A HISTORY OF THE PIPES 

AT what stages of his development primitive man discovered he could 
obtain musical sounds by blowing on a hollow reed we cannot now 
ascertain ; if we could do so we could at once determine when the pipe 
came into existence. It is unprofitable to speculate on this point. 

What we do know, however, is that men playing the pipe are portrayed 
in sculptures the date of which is fixed by the best authorities as about 
4000 B.C., and we conclude that in Chaldaea, Egypt, Assyria and Persia 
at least, the pipe — but not necessarily the bagpipe — had become a recognised 
musical instrument. 

Actual specimens of the Egyptian pipe dating back to at least 1500 B.C. 
are in existence, and we know that they had a reed giving a scale almost 
identical with the chromatic scale ; they also had a drone. Such a pipe 
had, clearly, advanced some way on the upward development to " ftiob 
mhor." 

Every stage in its evolution still persists in some country in the woild, 
and by comparing these it is possible to trace the actual process. Thus, 
besides the single pipe, which is world-wide in its distribution, we have 
the Egyptian " arghool," which consists of a pipe " chanter " and drone 
lying side by side ; and the later development, the " zummarah," has a bag. 
In India the twentieth century snake charmer has an instrument in which 
chanter and single drone lie side by side fixed into a small gourd with a 
lump of wax. The chanter has a small reed very similar to our own chanter 
reeds, and, although the scale differs, the sound produced is remarkably 

Note. — The author takes this opportunity of acknowledging his indebtedness for much of the early- 
history of the instrument to Manson's The Highland Bagpipe and Dr. Grattan Flood's The Story of the 
Bagpipe, both monuments of research. 

9 



io THE PIPES OF WAR 

similar. This instrument is essentially a single drone bagpipe, and is to be 
found all over India, in Yunnan and other parts of China. 

It would have been more than surprising if the pipe, in some form or 
other, had not been used in ancient Greece and Rome. There are, in fact, 
very many references to it in classical literature, and by ioo a.d. we know 
that the " askaulos " had evolved into the bagpipe proper, and Chrysostomos 
speaks of a man who could " play the pipe with his mouth on the bag placed 
under his armpit." 

Martial, Suetonius, Seneca, and other Latin writers refer to the " tibia 
utricularis," and there is practically no doubt that it was used as a marching 
instrument in the armies of Julius Caesar. A bronze showing a Roman 
soldier in marching order playing the utriculus has been discovered in 
England, and the writer Procopius refers to Roman pipe bands in this 
country. 

But when we come to the question of the introduction of the bagpipe 
into the British Isles, and especially into Scotland, we are at once on highly 
controversial ground. 

It is obvious enough that the instrument is not peculiar to the Celtic 
races ; that it has maintained its hold on them long after its disappearance 
in other European nations is equally so. But who introduced it into these 
favoured isles, whether the Cruithne or Prydani or Picts or the later " C " 
Gaidheal branch of the Celtic stem — who shall say ? 

Some authorities — students of the subject would be a safer term — are 
prepared to assert that the bagpipe was introduced first into England, 
thence to Lowland Scotland, and only long afterwards into the Highlands ; 
and one recent writer in the Celtic Magazine says the evidence of its associa- 
tion with the Scottish Gaels does not go back beyond the middle of the 
sixteenth century ! 

The matter is one of academic interest, no doubt, but there is no likelihood 
of its ever being settled. 

Records did not exist in the ancient Highlands, and we have to turn 
to early Irish literature for reference to the bagpipe. In the Brehon Laws 
of the fifth century it is spoken of as the " cuisle " ; and, although Tara's halls 



A HISTORY OF THE PIPES n 

are usually associated with the harp, it is recorded that at the assemblies 
which took place there in pre-Christian days it was the custom for the 
pipes to play at the banquets. 1 

It is possible the bagpipe was brought over from the north of Ireland, 
" Scotia " as it then was, on the invasion of the Highlands by Cairbre Riada, 
who founded the kingdom of Dalriada in Argyle in a.d. 120 ; or in the 
later great colonisation, about a.d. 506, under Lome and Angus, the sons 
of Ere. 

It certainly does not appear likely that the bagpipe came over from 
" Scotia " in the first place, unless we are to accept the view that the Scottish 
Celt came over by the same route ; unfortunately we have very little 
accurate knowledge of the early history of the Highlands, and there are 
no local written records extant to prove — as they do in the case of Ireland 
— that the instrument existed in those early days. We do know that 
the harper and the bard were national institutions of immense antiquity 
in the Highlands, and that, as the bagpipe became an increasingly important 
feature of everyday life, they were bitterly opposed to it. 

Even Latin authors, who were familiar with the bagpipe as a marching 
instrument in their own army, omit to refer to the existence of piob mhor 
in the Highlands. The Greek writer Procopius, in 530 a.d., dismisses 
the Highlands with the statement that " in the west the air is infectious 
and mortal, the ground covered with serpents, and this dreary solitude 
is the region of departed spirits." And so we are thrown back on tradition. 

In the absence of records of the employment of the bagpipe in war 
in the Highlands it is to Ireland, the so-called Lowlands of Scotland and to 
England that we have to turn for information ; at the same time we must 
bear in mind that evolution of the instrument itself had begun to operate, 
and the English and Lowland pipes were different from the variety now 
known as the " Highland," which has supplanted all others. 

As regards Ireland it is known that the Irish troops who fought in 
Gascony in 1286 had pipers with them, and a drawing of their instrument 
appears in a manuscript of 1300 A.D. in the British Museum. There were 

1 The Bagpipe. Grattan Flood. 



i2 THE PIPES OF WAR 

also Irish pipers at the battle of Falkirk in 1298, and they are again referred 
to in contemporary accounts of the battle of Crecy. 

The military piper therefore goes far back into history. But it was 
as a social instrument that one finds most frequent reference to bagpipes 
of some pattern or other in the Middle Ages. There was a pipe band at 
the English Court in 1327, and an old inventory of 1419 shows that at the 
Palace of St. James' were " foure baggpypes with pypes of ivorie . . . the 
bagge covered with purple vellat." 

But, whereas the English pipes went the same way as the Continental 
varieties, it was otherwise in Scotland. Two institutions existed there 
which fostered the tradition and saved piob mhor from the fate of disappear- 
ance — the Burgh piper and the Clan piper ; and by 1450 a.d. these had 
certainly become part of the national life. 

In Edinburgh in 1487 a.d. there were three town pipers, who were paid 
three pence daily ; one of their duties was " to accompany the toun's 
drummer throw toun morning and evening." In 1505 a.d. the town records 
of Dumbarton, Biggar, Wigton, Dumfries and Linlithgow refer to burgh 
pipers. 

In Aberdeen in 1630 a.d. exception appears to have been taken to the 
custom of playing through the streets, as it is placed on record that this 
was to be stopped, " it being anuncivill forme to be usit uithin sic a famous 
burghe, and being oftene found fault uith als weill be sundrie niehbouris 
as by strangeris." That the citizens of this " famous burghe " are peculiarly 
susceptible to the criticisms of " strangeris " might never have been suspected 
by superficial observers, and it is well that there is official testimony to 
the fact. 

The effect of their daily music on the inhabitants of Perth was different, — 
or perhaps Perth was less amenable to the criticisms of " strangeris." In 
any case it is recorded of a burgh piper, who used to rouse the citizens at 
5 a.m., that his music was " inexpressibly soothing and delightful." 

At Dundee the piper played through the town " every day in the morning 
at four hours and every nicht at aucht horns," and was paid twelve pennies 
yearly by each householder. 



A HISTORY OF THE PIPES 13 

The pipes, at least in the pre-Reformation days — were sometimes played 
in church ; in course of time, however, piping on Sunday scandalised the 
authorities, religious and civil, and, in the burgh records, we find repeated 
instances of pipers being punished for this misdemeanour. 

The burgh piper was a man of peace ; the clan piper was a man of war. 
For many centuries he had to compete with the " clarsair/' or harper, and 
the bard, and aroused feelings of acute hostility from the latter. In 1411 A.D. 
one bard, MacMhurich of Clan Ranald, wrote a poem of a most uncompli- 
mentary nature about the bagpipes. 

The recitation of the bard before battle was probably last heard at 
Harlaw in 1411, and the clan bards disappeared finally in 1726 ; the last 
clan harper died in 1739, and the " croistara " — the fiery cross — was sent 
round the clans for the last time in the '45. The last Scottish piper will 
pass when the Scottish race itself passes — which will certainly be the last 
of all. 

The clan pipers were highly esteemed as musicians — from the musical 
point of view they, no doubt, left us far behind. The courses of training, 
lasting over years, at the old piping schools such as existed at Boreraig, 
turned a man into a piper. As Neil Munro has it : " To the make of a 
piper go seven years of his own learning and seven generations before ; at 
the end of his seven years one born to it will stand at the start of knowledge, 
and, leaning a fond ear to the drone, he may have parley with old folks 
of old affairs." 

One of the results of the Heritable Jurisdiction Act of 1747, which 
so completely altered the conditions of life in the Highlands, was the 
disappearance of the office of hereditary clan piper. 

The tunes these men played were the old tunes we know so well ; and 
so it has happened that in this war we find companies marching into and 
through machine-gun and artillery barrage and into broken French villages 
and through German trenches while the company piper plays the same 
melodies that inspired their forebears to fight their neighbours lang syne — 
melodies which have been heard, too, in the same part of the world in the 
days when Scottish troops fought for the Lilies of France against all comers. 



i 4 THE PIPES OF WAR 

The association of the bagpipe with military operations is probably 
very ancient in Scotland. Perhaps the tradition that the Menzies pipers 
played at Bannockburn rests on an insecure foundation, but if the Bruce 
had no pipers, his son David most certainly had, as witness the Exchequer 
Rolls. In 1549 a French writer states that " the wild Scots encouraged 
themselves to arms by the sound of their bagpipes " ; and in 1598 Alexander 
Hume of Logie wrote : 

" Caus michtilie the warlic nottes brake 
On Heiland pipes, Scottes and Hyberniche." 

Incidentally, this reference to three different kinds of pipes is interesting. 

The first authentic reference to pipers in the Forces of the Crown appears 
to have been in 1627, when Alex. Macnaughton of Loch Fyne-side was 
commissioned by King Charles I. to " levie and transport twa hundredthe 
bowmen " for service in the French war. Writing in January 1628 to the 
Earl of Morton, Macnaughton says : 

" As for newis from our selfis, our baggpyperis and marlit plaidis 
serwitt us in guid wise in the pursuit of ane man of war that hetlie 
followed us." 

The records show that this company had a harper, " Hanie M'Gra frae 
Larg," and a piper, "Allester Caddell," who, in accordance with the custom 
of the time, had his gillie to carry his pipes for him. 

Regimental pipers undoubtedly existed in the numerous bodies of 
Scottish troops which served at various times on the Continent. Thus, 
in 1586, in the " State of War " of Captain Balfour's company in the Scots 
Brigade in Holland, there were two drummers and a piper ; and in " the 
worthy Scots regiment called Mackeye's " raised by Sir Donald Mackay 
in 1626 there was an establishment of thirty-six pipers. 

Pipers are also found on the rolls of the " regiment d'Hebron " — now 
the Royal Scots — and to that very distinguished regiment we may safely 
accord the further distinction of being the first " Regular " regiment of 
the British Army to have pipes. The " North British Fusiliers," now 
one of the battalions of the Royal Scots Fusiliers, also had pipes as far 
back as 1678, and probably as early as 1642. 



A HISTORY OF THE PIPES 15 

Writing in 1641, Lord Lothian said : 

" I cannot out of our armie furnish you with a sober fiddler. . . . 
We are sadder and graver than ordinarie soldiers, only we are well 
provided with pypers. I have one for every company in my regiment, 
and I think they are as good as drummers." 

The great Montrose had pipers in his armies, and tradition has it that, 
in the action of Philiphaugh in 1645, a piper stood on a small eminence 
and played the old Cavalier tune, " Whurry, Whigs, awa' man," until he was 
shot by one of Leslie's men, and fell into the " Piper's Pule " in Ettrick river. 

An exactly similar incident occurred in the case of one of the pipers 
of Bonnie Dundee at Bothwell Brig in 1679. 

At the Haughs o' Cromdale in 1690 a wounded piper climbed on to a 
big rock and went on playing till he died, thus setting an example which 
has been followed by his successors in many actions in this war. The 
stone on which this unknown hero stood is known to this day locally as 
" Clach a phiobair." 

There are many such in France and elsewhere to-day. 

In Wodrow's letters in 1716 there is a reference to the company pipers 
of the " Argyle's Highlanders " : " They entered in three companies, and 
every company had their distinct pipers, playing three distinct springs. 
The first played " The Campbells are coming "... and when they entered 
Dundee the people thought they had been some of Mar's men, till some 
of the prisoners in the Tolbooth, understanding the first spring, swung the 
words of it out of the windows, which mortified the Jacobites." 

Again, in 1715, when Argyle's troops marched to Leith, it was stated 
by Cockburn (Historical MSS. Commission) : " While our generals were 
asleep the rebels marched to Seton House, leaving the piper in the citadel 
to amuse." 

The piper, by this time, had clearly become a recognised military 
institution. 

In the '45 the unfortunate Sir John Cope was undoubtedly aroused 
by the music of piob mhor at Prestonpans, though it is doubtful whether 
" Hey Johnnie Cope " was composed for the occasion. 



16 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Prince Charlie had thirty-two pipers of his own, besides those belonging 
to the clans with him. One of these men, James Reid, was taken prisoner 
in the operations of 1746. He pleaded that he had not carried arms, but 
the Court decided that " no Highland regiment ever marched without a 
piper : therefore his bag pipe, in the eye of the law, was an instrument 
of war " — and they dealt with him accordingly. 

This view was confirmed by the Disarming Act of 1747, which nearly 
succeeded in attaining its object of abolishing the bagpipe, the kilt, the 
tartan and national sentiment generally — only Regular regiments being 
exempted from its operation. 

Penal legislation against the bagpipe was no new thing. Cromwell 
had tried it in Ireland, and, under William II., 600 Irish pipers and harpers 
were persecuted with relentless rigour. And in Ireland it succeeded. 

Saxon governments have always done the piper the honour of regarding 
him as an exponent and supporter of national sentiment. 

Even in Scotland the years between 1747 and 1782, when the iniquitous 
Disarming Act was repealed, were very nearly fatal to the continued existence 
of the bagpipe as a national institution ; and it was the Regular Army which 
saved it — though no one could ever accuse the military authorities of 
unduly favouring the instrument. Even General Officers have publicly 
sneered at them — as when Wolfe at Quebec contemptuously refused to 
allow the pipes of the Fraser Highlanders to play, or when Sir Eyre Coote 
in 1778 described them as a " useless relic of the barbarous ages." 

Both generals had to withdraw what they had said. 

The opinion of the Court Martial which tried poor James Reid, that 
his bagpipe " was, in the eye of the law, an instrument of war," was after 
all as shrewd an expression of the truth as their sentence was harsh. 

In later times the pipes in the army have received little official recognition. 
In 1858, when the King's Own Scottish Borderers applied for their pipers 
to be placed on the establishment, the Commander in Chief grudgingly 
consented " as the permission for these men is lost in time," but on 
condition that they were not to cost the public anything as regards their 
clothing. 



A HISTORY OF THE PIPES 17 

Nor has the modern War Office shown more sympathy to an institution 
whose value, even on theoretical grounds, should have been recognised. 
The ancient and honourable title of Pipe Major has been abolished and 
that of " sergeant piper " has been substituted. Pipers themselves, on 
mobilisation, are returned to the ranks with the exception of six men. In 
Lowland regiments, indeed, the piper, though tolerated, is not officially 
recognised at all. 

A bandsman may in due course become a first-class warrant officer — 
in one or two units, indeed, he has attained commissioned rank ; but the 
" sergeant piper " remains a sergeant, and can hope for nothing more. 
This, surely, is an injustice which is remediable at small cost to the nation. 

The apathy of the War Office in regard to the training of pipers as pipers 
is another matter which is in urgent need of reform Commanding officers 
and pipe presidents are sometimes pipers themselves — though not always ; 
it is absurd to leave to them the responsibility of training men in the art. 
The time has come for a thorough reform of the whole system and method 
of training of military pipe bands. 



THE PIPES IN THE WAR, 1914-1918 

THE WESTERN FRONT 

DURING the autumn x and winter of 1914-15 pipers, for obvious 
reasons, had few opportunities of attracting much attention, still 
less of performing their highest duty, viz. playing their companies into 
action. They were necessarily, on account of the extreme shortage of men, 
for the most part employed in the ranks ; and in many of the old Regular 
battalions pipe bands disappeared altogether. 

For a time it seemed that the critics were right, and that in warfare 
in the twentieth century there was no longer a place for a class of man 
which was destined to disappear, as the bard and the harper had done in 
days lang syne. 

This view was widely held, and in some regiments was never modified. 

But gradually, as attacks became more frequent and movements set 
in, and as the British Army grew stronger in numbers, the position changed, 
and the piper became more than an invaluable marching instrumentalist 
or performer at ceilidhs in billets. 

The first occasion on which pipers played, or tried to play, their companies 
into action was at Cuinchy on 25th January 1915, when the 1st Black Watch 
suffered such heavy casualties in advancing through deep mud up to their 
knees. 

It was at Neuve Chapelle in March 1915 that the company piper really 
had his first chance of showing what he could do, as a piper, in action. On 

1 Probably the first pipers to play on French soil were those of the 2nd Argyll and Sutherland 
Highlanders on their landing at Boulogne. 



THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1918 19 

this occasion the 20th Brigade had to carry the stronghold of Moulin du 
Pi£tre, and lost very heavily ; the 2nd Gordons were in the main attack 
and the 6th Gordons, a Territorial unit, in reserve. The 6th Gordons 
were called upon to support their comrades of the old Regular Army, and 
advanced, headed by their pipes and drums, with a rush which carried many 
of them beyond their objective. 

From that time onwards, right up to the end of the war, pipers have 
repeatedly played their units into action, in spite of the unfavourably 
conditions resulting from modern rifle and artillery fire and gas, and have 
established the standard of gallantry in this respect which has been at 
once the admiration of all observers and an incentive to their successors 
to emulate them. 

During the first weeks' heavy fighting, in April-May 1915, on the 
left of the attenuated British line of the Ypres salient, the pipers of Canadian 
battalions took a prominent part. In their advance on the St. Julien 
wood the 16th Canadians were led by their company pipers, two of whom 
were killed and two wounded while playing ; their places were at once 
taken by others, who played the battalion through the German trenches 
at the heels of the retiring enemy to the tune " We'll tak' the guid auld 
way." In many subsequent actions these men distinguished themselves 
in the same way. 

After the failure of the first attack on the German line at Rue des Bois 
on 9th May 1915, in the action of Richebourg-Festubert, the 1st Black 
Watch were played to a fresh attack by their company pipers. " With 
their characteristic fury they had vanished into the smoke, and the only 
evidence that remained was the sound of the pipes." When they reached 
the German trenches a piper, Andrew Wishart, stood on the parados playing 
until he was wounded. Another piper, W. Stewart, was awarded the 
D.C.M. on this occasion. 

The same thing happened in the case of the 2nd Black Watch at Festubert, 
the companies being led by their pipers. Of these men two, Pipers Gordon 
and Crichton, were specially mentioned for their gallantry. The Seaforth 
pipers, too, suffered heavily in this as in many later actions — " Caber Feidh " 



20 THE PIPES OF WAR 

has often been heard along that line which looked so weak, but was too 
strong for the Germans. 

In the action at Festubert on the 17th May the 4th Camerons got further 
than any other battalion, and were played in by their pipe major, J. Ross, 
and four pipers. These men got through untouched, though their pipes 
were all injured. 

Later again, on 16th June 1915, when the Hooge salient was straightened 
by the 3rd Division, the attack was led by the 8th Brigade, and the enemy 
front and support lines were taken. On this occasion Pipe Major Daniel 
Campbell, although wounded, played his battalion, the 1st Royal Scots 
Fusiliers, over the top. 

Dawn was just breaking when the Pipe Major scrambled out on the 
parapet and started playing. The men raced forward after him until 
stopped by uncut wire. In the hand-to-hand fighting which ensued the 
Pipe Major threw aside his pipes and, catching up a bayonet, joined in 
the attack. 

It was during the Ypres fighting, where gas was first used against us, 
that an incident occurred of which the facts are as stated, but unfortunately 
it has been found impossible to get the names of the men concerned. 

" The men, looking into the storm of shells that swept their course 
and at the awful cloud of death now almost on them, wavered, hung back 
— only for a moment. And who will dare to blame them ? 

" Two of the battalion pipers who were acting as stretcher bearers saw 
the situation in a moment. Dropping their stretcher they made for their 
dug-out and emerged a second later with their pipes. They sprang on 
the parapet, tore off their respirators and charged fonvard. Fierce and 
terrible the wild notes cleft the air . . . after fifteen yards the pibroch ceased ; 
the two pipers, choked and suffocated with the gas fumes, staggered and 
fell." 1 

Although in these earlier actions pipers had done much to maintain 
the traditions of the past they had never had the opportunities of distin- 
guishing themselves that came to them during the great operations about 

1 Echoes of Flanders. C. L. Wan. 



THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1918 21 

Loos in September 1915. The attack of two army corps, in which were 
thirty Scottish battalions, along a seven-mile front, was a chance for these 
men, and one of which they were not slow to avail themselves. Three 
pipers at least earned the title of " The piper of Loos," and one of these, 
Daniel Laidlaw, of the 7th King's Own Scottish Borderers, was awarded 
the Victoria Cross ; but, in the general orgie of gallantry which characterised 
those operations, individual pipers in very many cases won the highest 
praise in their own units but escaped the official recognition they had 
earned. 

The attack by the 28th Brigade on the Hohenzollern Redoubt was 
accompanied by fearful casualties ; with uncut wire in front, in an atmo- 
sphere heavily laden with gas, exposed to machine-gun fire in front and 
flank, the 6th K.O.S.B., 10th and nth H.L.I, and 9th Seaforths were deci- 
mated. The K.O.S.B. were played over the top by their veteran Pipe Major, 
Robert Mackenzie, an old soldier of forty-two years' service. He was 
severely wounded and died the following day. 

On the right of this Brigade the 26th had better luck, as the wire was found 
to be more thoroughly cut. The 5th Camerons and 7th Seaforths led the 
way followed by the 8th Gordons and 8th Black Watch, and reached Fosse 8, 
where they hung on, though reduced to the strength of a single battalion. 

" The heroism of the pipers was splendid. In spite of murderous fire 
they continued playing. At one moment, when the fire of the machine guns 
was so terrific that it looked as if the attack must break down, a Seaforth 
piper dashed forward in front of the line and started ' Caber Feidh.' The 
effect was instantaneous — the sorely pressed men braced themselves together 
and charged forward. The Germans soon got to realise the value of the 
pipes and tried to pick off the pipers." 

In this one attack the 5th Camerons had three pipers killed and eight 
wounded. Further south the pipers of the 2nd and 6th Gordons led their 
companies in the costly attack on Hulluch and the Quarries. An officer 
of the Devons, on their flank, writes : 

" I shall never forget those pipes. . . . During the charge a Gordon piper 
continued playing after he was down." 



22 THE PIPES OF WAR 

On the other side of the Hulluch road the 15th Division received its 
baptism of fire, and lost 6000 men in the two days' fighting. One of the 
battalions of the 46th Brigade, the 7th King's Own Scottish Borderers, 
afforded an admirable example of the value of the pipes in rallying men 
when the position is critical. The piper concerned, Daniel Laidlaw, was 
awarded the Victoria Cross and the Croix de Guerre. The London Gazette 
Notification, which does not err on the side of uncontrolled emotionalism, 
describes the award as follows : 

" For most conspicuous bravery. . . . During the worst of the bombard- 
ment, when the attack was about to commence, Piper Laidlaw, seeing that 
his company was somewhat shaken from the effects of gas, with absolute 
coolness and disregard of danger, mounted the parapet, marched up and 
down and played his company out of the trench. The effect of his splendid 
example was immediate, and the company dashed out to the assault. Piper 
Laidlaw continued playing his pipes until he was wounded." 

The evidence of eye-witnesses shows that, at the time, a cloud of gas 
was settling down on the trench and there was heavy machine-gun fire. 
Laidlaw played " Blue Bonnets over the Border," and the effect on the 
men was indescribable ; as they followed him over the top he changed 
to " The Standard on the Braes of Mar." The old tune was surely never 
played to better purpose ; and if Laidlaw's action stood alone, if he were 
the only piper during the war who stimulated a company at the moment 
when things were at their worst, surely that achievement amply supports 
the view that, even in the warfare of to-day, piob mhor is an instrument of 
war which can justify all claims made for it. As it is, Piper Laidlaw, " the 
Piper of Loos," stands as type of a class of men who, throughout the war, 
have lived up to the traditions of a great past. 

Another piper of the same battalion, Douglas Taylor, being wounded 
and unable to play, spent thirty-six hours bringing in gassed men without 
relief, until he himself was dangerously wounded. Further on, the 44th 
Brigade — the 8th Seaforths, 7th Camerons, 9th Black Watch and 10th 
Gordons — made the historic charge which captured Loos and then went 
on, until, for want of support, they could get no further and were compelled 



THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1918 23 

to retire. They rallied on Hill 70 round a tattered flag made out of a 
Cameron kilt. The battalions of this brigade were played into and beyond 
Loos ; and, when they were widely scattered and mixed up, pipers played to 
rally the men of their own battalions. Among many others, Piper Charles 
Cameron of the nth Argylls stood out in the open playing unconcernedly, 
and was thereafter known in his battalion as " the Piper of Loos." 

The shattered remnants of the 15th Division were withdrawn in the 
evening from the blood-stained slopes of Hill 70, but the battalions were 
played in by their own pipers. The 9th Black Watch numbered only 100 
of all ranks and one piper ; the 7th Cameron pipers were practically annihi- 
lated, the 8th Seaforths lost ten, and others suffered in similar degree 

It is a far cry from Hill 70 to Scaur Donald, and they were only regi- 
mental pipers, but to these brave men the words of the old song are surely 
applicable. 

" There let him rest in the lap of Scaur Donald, 
The wind for his watcher, the mist for his shroud, 
Where the green and the grey moss shall weave their wild tartan, 
A covering meet for a chieftain so proud." 

In the fighting subsidiary to the main action of Loos, at Mauquissart 
and in the neighbourhood of Neuve Chapelle, the 2nd Black Watch pipers 
distinguished themselves greatly. They played their companies into and 
beyond the first line of German trenches. One of them, A. Macdonald, 
stood playing on the German parapet while the position was being cleared, 
and then on, through a hurricane of fire, over three lines of trenches, until 
dangerously wounded. For this he was given the D.C.M. 

Three others, J. Galloway, R. Johnstone and David Armit, did precisely 
the same ; and yet another, David Simpson, behaved with such gallantry 
that he also came to be known as " the Piper of Loos," the third of the 
brave trio to earn that honourable title. He had already played over 
three lines of German trenches, and was leading towards the fourth when 
he was killed. Johnstone, on this occasion, played till he fell gassed. 

Throughout the long succession of actions which punctuated the Somme 
operations in 1916, the pipes continued to be much in evidence, and refer- 



24 THE PIPES OF WAR 

ences to them and to their effect upon the men during that bloody fighting 
are frequent in the contemporary reports of observers, and in private letters 
subsequently published. French reports also have placed on record their 
admiration for the company pipers of Scottish regiments. " Some of the 
finest work," writes one well-known French military writer, "was accom- 
plished at the very outset by the Highlanders, who carried the trenches 
in lightning fashion, urged on by the inspiriting music of their pipes." 

The fighting at Loos had shown, on a comparatively small scale, that 
the pipes, when freed from the restrictions placed upon their employment 
by the exigencies of trench warfare, were still capable of fulfilling their 
historic role in open fighting The gallantry of the pipers at Hulluch and 
Hill 70 was worthy of the units they led, and established a record which 
was hard to beat ; but for months on end their great achievements were 
emulated by those of their successors in the new armies which had poured 
into the field. 

The opening attack on the 1st July affords numerous examples of pipers 
playing their companies into action, and a few may be taken as representative 
of the whole. 

In the attack by the 32nd Division the 17th H.L.I, succeeded, with a loss 
of over 500 men, in capturing and holding part of the Leipzig redoubt, though 
unsupported for a considerable time. The Commanding Officer writes : 

" I told the Pipe Major to play ; he at once responded, getting into a 
small hollow, and playing and greatly heartening the men as they lay there 
hanging on to the captured position. Pipe Major Gilbert showed a total 
disregard of danger and played as if he were on a route march. For this 
action he obtained the Military Medal." 

In the advance on Mametz on the same day the 2nd Gordons were led 
by their company pipers. An officer of an English battalion in the 20th 
Brigade describes how " we heard their pipes play these fellows over. It 
sounded grand against the noise of shells, machine guns and rifle fire. I 
shall never forget them." 

The same thing occurred later when the battalion attacked the orchards 
of Ginchy. On both occasions the casualties were very heavy. 




PIPER DANIEL LA1DLAW, V.C., ;1h KING'S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS 

At Loos 

From the Drawing by Louis Weirter, R.B.A. 



THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1918 25 

At Fricourt Pipe Major David Anderson of the 15th Royal Scots stood 
out in front of the battalion until he was wounded, and played across 
shell-beaten ground under heavy fire. He was awarded the Croix de 
Guerre. 

The two battalions of Tyneside Scottish were similarly played to their 
attack on La Boiselle and the ridge in front of it on the opening day of the 
battle of the Somme. A correspondent who was present says : 

" The Tynesiders were on our right, and, as they got the signal to advance, 
I saw a piper — I think he was the Pipe Major — jump out of the trench and 
march straight towards the German lines. The tremendous rattle of machine- 
gun and rifle fire completely drowned the sound of his pipes, but he was 
obviously playing as though he would burst the bag, and, faintly through 
the roar of battle, we heard the mighty cheer his comrades gave as they 
swarmed after him. How he escaped I can't understand, for the ground 
was literally ploughed up by the hail of bullets ; but he bore a charmed 
life, and the last glimpse I had of him as we, too, dashed out showed him 
still marching erect, playing on regardless of the flying bullets and of the 
men dropping all round him." 

Of the two battalions 10 pipers were killed and 5 wounded, and Pipe 
Major Wilson and Piper G. Taylor both got the Military Medal. Many 
of these pipers, having played their companies up to the German trenches, 
took an active part in the fighting as bombers. 

Again, at Longueval on 14th July, regimental pipers were conspicuous. 
As the 26th Brigade — 8th Black Watch, 10th Argylls, 9th Seaforths, and 
5th Camerons — commenced their advance, they were exposed to frontal 
and enfilading machine-gun fire, and shrapnel mowed them down ; but 
their pipers led the way, and the men followed cheering and shouting. 

" Where we were the brunt of the action fell on two New Army battalions 
of historic Highland regiments. Their advance was one of the most magnifi- 
cent sights I have ever seen. They left their trenches at dawn, and a torrent 
of bullets met them. They answered immediately — with the shrill music 
of the pipes, and, indifferent apparently to the chaos around them, pushed 
steadily on towards their objective." 



26 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Describing the attack by the ioth Argylls, another observer writes : 

" We came under a blistering hot fire, but the men never hesitated. In 
the middle of it all the pipes struck up " The Campbells are coming/' and 
that made victory a certainty for us. We felt that whatever obstacles 
there barred our path they had to be overcome. . . . The last fight was 
the worst of all. It was at the extreme end of the village, where the enemy 
had possession of some ruined houses. They had a clear line of fire in all 
directions, and we were met with a murderous hail of fire. For a moment 
the men wavered. I doubted if they were equal to it. Then a piper sprang 
forward, and the strains broke out once more. The attacking line steadied 
and dashed at the last stronghold of the Huns. Their line snapped under 
our onslaught." 

On this occasion the Pipe Major, Aitken, a man of sixty, was awarded 
the Distinguished Conduct Medal. One of the pipers referred to in the 
above incident was James Dall, and his Commanding Officer considers 
his action in playing the regimental march at this juncture was the means 
of his company gaining their objective ; the other was D. Wilson, who 
was also mentioned in despatches with Dall. 

Of the attack by the gth Seaforths a wounded officer writes : 

" We swept on until we finally carried the German trench with a rousing 
cheer to the strain of the pipes. The heroism of the pipers was splendid. 
In spite of murderous fire they kept playing on. At one moment, when the 
fire was so terrific it looked as if the attack must break down, one of the 
pipers dashed forward and started playing. The change could be felt at 
once, the sorely pressed men gave a mighty cheer and dashed forward 
with new zeal." 

North of Longueval the ist Gordons made a furious attack, on the 18th 
July, and on this occasion they were led by their pipers. 

" They were out of sight over the parapet, but we could hear at intervals 
their shouts of ' Scotland for ever ! ' and the faint strains of the pipes. Then 
we saw them reappear, and then came prisoners." 

Similar accounts were given of the 6th and 7th Gordons. In the 6th 
Gordons Piper Charles Thomson had his arm blown off while playing. " The 



THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1918 27 

gallantry of these men who wear the tartans of the old Scottish clans would 
seem wonderful if it were not habitual with them. Their first dash for 
Longueval was one of the finest exploits of the war. They were led forward 
by the pipers, who went with them, not only towards the German lines, 
but across them and into the thick of the battle. ... In that September 
fighting the pipe major of a Gordon battalion played his men forward and 
then was struck below the knee ; but he would not be touched by a doctor 
until the others had been tended. He was a giant of a man and so heavy 
that no stretcher could hold him, so they put him in a tarpaulin and carried 
him back. Then he had his leg amputated and died." 1 

On the 3rd September the 4th Black Watch were played into action 
and had to capture a village. According to an eye-witness : 

" It was magnificent to see these men charge up the narrow street leading 
to the second barricade. Amid the ruined houses on each side the enemy 
were posted. At the moment when it was hottest the strains of the pipes 
were heard. The men answered with a cheer and swept steadily on over 
the barricade and through the ruins ; and the village was ours." 

Of a Seaforth battalion a similar story is told : 

" The men simply raced into the storm of bullets ... at last it became 
too terrible for any human being to stand against it. The attacking lines 
melted away, the men seeking what cover could be found. ... It was 
here that the pipers of the Seaforths had their chance. They took it. 
As the men advanced again to the attack they were cheered on by the 
strains of the pipes, which could just be heard. The men dashed through, 
clearing out the enemy as they went." 

During the attack on Beaumont Hamel in October, as in the earlier 
fighting at Thiepval, the pipers of the 15th H.L.I, lost very heavily when 
leading their companies. 

Such instances of the bravery of pipers and of the stimulus afforded 
by the pipes to men in action became matters of almost every-day occurrence, 
and, though everyone recognised the tremendous losses that were the 
result of their exposure, there were occasions when those losses were more 

1 Philip Gibbs. 



28 THE PIPES OF WAR 

than compensated for at the time by the results obtained. Everywhere, 
at Contalmaison, Martinpuich, Pozi£res, Delville Wood, wherever Scottish 
troops were employed, their pipers played their historic role, and, to quote 
Philip Gibbs, " over the open battlefields came the music of the Scottish 
pipes, shrill above the noise of gunfire." 

Nor were the pipers of purely Scottish regiments left to establish these 
records of bravery unchallenged. They had keen rivals in battalions of 
overseas Scots, notably the South African Scottish and the Canadians. 

During the fighting for Delville Wood in July the South Africans were 
torn to pieces by shell fire. The remains of the battalion hung on for 
days, losing all their officers but the colonel. When relief came their 
pipers headed the blackened and weary warriors out of the wood of 
death. 

Similarly, the 16th Canadian Scottish pipers maintained the fine reputation 
they had earned on the Ypres salient. When the battalion moved up 
to the attack on the Regina trench on 8th October, there was keen com- 
petition among the pipers as to who should be allowed to play them over. 
" Four pipers, Richardson, Park, M'Kellar and Paul marched ahead of the 
battalion with the Commanding Officer for a distance of half a mile under 
intense machine-gun fire and escaped scatheless. They could be heard 
clearly as they played ' We'll take the good old way,' and, as they passed, 
wounded men lying in shell holes raised themselves on their elbows and 
cheered them. When they got near the German line the battalion encountered 
uncut wire which, being unusually heavy, took some time to cut. While 
this was going on Piper Richardson played up and down outside the wire 
for twenty minutes in the face of almost certain death. . . . Shortly after- 
wards a company sergeant major was wounded, and Richardson volunteered 
to take him out. After he had gone he remembered he had left his pipes 
behind. He left the sergeant major in safety in a shell hole and returned. 
He was never heard of again." 

This brave man was awarded a posthumous V.C., the second piper to 
obtain this coveted distinction. Piper Paul was subsequently given the 
Military Medal. 



THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1918 29 

At the capture of the Vimy Ridge on 9th April, 1917, by the Canadians, 
the pipers of some of their battalions took a prominent part. On this 
occasion the 16th Canadian Scottish repeated what they had done in previous 
engagements, their companies being led by pipers. The pipers concerned 
were Pipe Major Groat and Pipers M'Gillivray, M'Nab, M'Allister, M'Kellar 
and Paul, and they advanced a distance of over a mile under heavy fire 
without any casualties. The Pipe Major was awarded the Military Medal. 

Similarly the 25th Canadians had their pipers out in this action, and 
Piper Walter Telfer, who went on playing after being severely wounded, 
was given the Military Medal ; Piper Brand got the same decoration. 

Later on, in the fighting round Arras, a battalion of the Camerons was 
played to the attack : 

" When the order came our men went over with right good will. It 
was a thrilling moment, especially when the pipes struck up the Camerons' 
march. I believe it was that music, at that particular moment, which made 
it possible for us to go through the ordeal that followed." 

Once again " The March of the Cameron Men " was the undoing of 
an enemy which had to stand up against the Camerons ; and in one part 
of the line, when the attack was most furiously resisted, the company piper 
changed his tune to the old " Piobaireachd Dhomnuil Duibh " — 

" Fast they came, fast they come, 
See how they gather ! 
Wide waves the eagle's plume 
Blended with heather." 

An account of the few minutes before " zero " by a piper of this battalion 
appeared in the Scottish Field (" Pipes of the Misty Moorland," John 
M'Gibbon), and affords a good example of the steadying effect of the pipes 
in a period of great strain on morale : 

" I looked down at the company and I could see they were shaken . . . 
I slung my rifle over my back and took up the pipes ; that cheered them. 
I played through two or three tunes and then birled up ' Tullochgorum.' 
They fairly hooched it and stamped time with their feet. It was close 
on ' zero "... when I changed to ' The March of The Cameron Men.' Our 



30 THE PIPES OF WAR 

guns burst out with drum fire behind us . . . and the men jumped the parapet 
like deer and raced over the broken ground at the double. I kept up ' The 
Cameron Men.' ... I reached the parapet of the first enemy trench ; when 
I ' stopped one ' with my leg, and down I went in a heap. ' ' 

The pipes were again to the front in the fighting for Hill 70 on the Lens- 
Loos line in August, 1917. It was surely appropriate enough that, in the 
advance over the very country in which so many Scottish regiments had 
fought, with only temporary success, two years before, the pipes should again 
be at the head of the units which recaptured those blood-soaked positions. 

An officer, describing the advance of the 13th Royal Highlanders of 
Canada, says : 

" Our advance was resumed and we swarmed over the top at three 
different points. Away to the left, which was the objective of our advance, 
the strains of the pipes could be heard, and across the hills, where so many 
Scottish lads had fallen two years ago, there burst a loud triumphant cheer 
as the Canadian Highlanders pressed on to complete their work." 

And so it happened that the gallant lads of the 15th Division were 
avenged. 

Opportunities for pipers continued during the later fighting in 1917-18. 
Records of individual companies and platoons show that on several occasions 
the pipes encouraged the men to further effort. In one case near Albert, 
a company of the Black Watch was temporarily cut off from its supports 
after getting into a German trench and suffered heavily ; the men were 
crushed by superior numbers, and the prospect was black until the piper, 
who was present as a stretcher bearer, started playing. This had a great effect 
on the company, which held on to the position until reinforcements arrived. 

In the fighting about Albert in August, 1918, several instances occurred 
of pipers playing their companies to the attack. 

On the whole, however, at this stage in the war, it was being found 
increasingly difficult to renew the depleted ranks of the pipe bands, and most 
regiments were simply driven to keeping their pipers out of action as far 
as possible, except on special occasions. But there were still enough left of 
them to lead their units ever further eastward as the tide of war rolled back. 



THE WESTERN FRONT, 1914-1918 31 

Incidents frequently occurred showing that their experience of four 
years' fighting had not damped the ardour of pipers in action. 

On one occasion a 16th Canadian piper went into action playing on 
top of a tank, and was killed. At Amiens, the pipers of the 16th and 
48th Highlanders of Canada played the battalions to the attack in 
August, 1918. 

As the German defeat became increasingly apparent and the British 
forces drove the enemy before them, pipers again got an opportunity of 
leading their companies to the attack. During the fighting about Albert- 
Arras in August, 1918, Scottish troops were heavily engaged. Lieut. 
Edouard Ross, of the French interpreter staff, describes an attack by a 
battalion of the Black Watch in which a detachment with a piper got into 
the German trenches ; they were all wounded, and their position was 
dangerous, but the piper started playing, and the sound rapidly brought 
reinforcements, who captured the position. 

GALLIPOLI 

In Gallipoli, as on the Western front, pipers added lustre to their reputa- 
tion ; and incidents which occurred to some of them showed that they were 
stout fighting men even after their pipes were put out of action. 

The nature of the terrain generally precluded the more spectacular duty 
of playing their units to the attack, and the heavy casualties in the force 
and the constant demand for men resulted in their being frequently 
employed in the ranks ; nevertheless, several cases did occur of company 
pipers acting as such. 

On 12th July, 1916, when the 6th H.L.I, captured three lines of Turkish 
trenches, Pipers W. Mackenzie and M'Niven played at the head of their 
companies ; M'Niven was killed, and Mackenzie, putting down his pipes, 
took part in the fighting with a Turkish shovel and did great execution. 

On the same day the pipers of the 7th H.L.I, led their battalion into 
action, and only one of them was wounded. Of these men one, Piper 
Kenneth MacLennan, was subsequently awarded the Distinguished Conduct 



32 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Medal " for playing his pipes during the attack and advancing with the 
line after his pipes had been shattered by shrapnel, and heartening the 
wounded under fire." Another, Piper Cameron, played his company over 
three lines of trenches, with a revolver hanging on his wrist, and earned 
a mention in despatches ; and Piper Macfarlane played through two bayonet 
charges until two of his drones were blown off by shell fragments. 

Writing of the fighting on 12th July, a wounded officer writes : 

" The sound of the pipes undoubtedly stirred them on, a piper belonging 
to each of the two battalions, 5th Argylls and 7th H.L.I., having mounted 
the parapets of their own trenches, and there in full danger played their 
comrades on to victory." 

In the attack on Achi Baba there was no opportunity for pipers as 
such, though Pipe Major Andrew Buchan played the 4th Royal Scots " over 
the top," and, as an officer writes : " fearless of all danger went along the 
line and did much to hearten the men." Buchan was killed. 

Of the pipers of the 5th Royal Scots none survived the early days of the 
fighting on the Peninsula. An officer of the regiment wrote that they 
" gloriously upheld the traditions established long ago." In the Achi Baba 
fighting four were killed and four wounded. 

Casualties in action and by disease took heavy toll of the pipers of all 
these battalions, and after a few months on the Peninsula the pipe bands 
temporarily ceased to exist. 

Even before the withdrawal of the force from Gallipoli it was found 
that so many casualties had occurred among the pipers of the battalions 
engaged that the bands were well on the way to extinction. Consequently, 
under the able management of Colonel Maclean of Pennycross a divisional 
band numbering twelve pipers and six drummers — all that remained — 
was organised out of the wreck of the pipe bands of the 52nd Division. 
That band, though never sent into action, individually or collectively 
played frequently under shell fire ; and " Hey Johnnie Cope " could be 
heard quite distinctly every morning in the firing line up to within a few 
days of the evacuation. 

The divisional band served on the Desert front in Egypt, and then 



THE COMRADES WE LEFT IN GALLIPOLI. 



Set by Mw.A.0. MAC'DIARNGD 



From the Pipe Tune Composed by 
Col. H. AC. MACLEAN 0.510 of Pennycoss. 






"So. Dimpfe 



I 



GALLIPOLI 33 

accompanied the Division right into Palestine, playing the leading battalion, 
the 4th K.O.S.B.'s, over the frontier to " Blue Bonnets over the Border." 

Later on, more pipers and more Scottish units appeared ; and so we 
find the 2nd London Scottish being played into Jerusalem, and "Dumbarton's 
Drums " sounding at the head of the Royal Scots as they took over the 
guard on the Holy Sepulchre — as is the right of "Pontius Pilate's Bodyguard." 



SALONIKA 

Opportunities for the employment of pipers as such were comparative!}' 
rare in the course of the Salonika operations, for obvious reasons. At 
Karadzakot Zir, however, the 1st Royal Scots pipers played their companies 
to the attack on the village, and the CO. reported that, in his opinion, 

" It was largely due to the presence of the pipers with the leading wave 
that the enemy evacuated their trenches and retired in disorder." 

MESOPOTAMIA 

Playing the pipes in the Golden East is a far greater effort than it is 
at home, and every piper who has soldiered there knows how the heat 
and the dryness of the atmosphere affect his bag and reeds. But the cult 
of piob mhor thrives east of Suez, and at least as much enthusiasm is shown 
by regiments stationed in India as in a home station. 

And when Scottish troops were called upon to take their part in the 
Mesopotamia operations, we find the pipes as prominent a feature in the 
fighting as they were on the Western front. At Sheikh Saad on 7th January, 
1916, the 1st Seaforths — the " Reismeid Caber Feidh " — were played to the 
attack across absolutely open ground by their Pipe Major Neil M'Kechnie 
and other pipers. An officer who was present describes the incident as 
follows : 

" As we advanced over the dead flat open desert the Turks suddenly 
opened a very heavy fire from well concealed trenches at a range of from 
600 to 800 yards. The battalion immediately advanced by rushes towards 



34 THE PIPES OF WAR 

the enemy's position in spite of very heavy initial losses. Foremost among 
the men was our acting Pipe Major, M'Kechnie, who immediately struck 
up the regimental charge or ' onset,' ' Cabar Feidh.' 

" His fine example as well as his music had a remarkable effect on the 
men at such a critical moment. He was shortly afterwards wounded, and 
had to drop behind as the lines went on." 

In the same action the 2nd Black Watch were played in by their pipers 
just as they had been on many previous occasions in France. In the act 
of playing Corpl. Piper MacNee was mortally wounded. This brave man 
had been wounded before at Mauquissart and awarded the Distinguished 
Conduct Medal. The Pipe Major, John Keith, was awarded the D.C.M. 
for " gallant and distinguished service throughout the operations." 



THE LAST STAGE 

For four years and a half the pipes of war played their part in the greatest 
war in history ; in the front, under conditions in which they could never 
have been expected to exist at all, they have led men to victory, have rallied 
them when victory eluded their grasp, and have marched them back un- 
dismayed by the tortures of battle ; behind the lines they have headed 
the long columns of Scottish troops on their way up to the furnace in which 
the fate of nations was cast. 

But, everywhere, they expressed the ideal of the race and led men to 
follow causes, even causes which appeared lost ones, through to the end. 

When silence fell on the nth November, 1918, along the blasted line 
where rival civilisations had so long struggled for mastery, the rdle of the 
pipes changed, and it was no longer the " onset " that the piper was impelled 
to play. The consummation of long effort had been attained — and what 
instrument more entitled to bear witness to the fact than the one which 
had sounded over the blood-stained slag-heaps of Loos, the shell-swept 
heights of Vimy ? 

As the British First Army entered Valenciennes, the pipers of a historic 
Scottish division played through the " place " opposite the Hotel de Ville, 



PIPERS IN THE RANKS 35 

and must have awakened in the old gabled houses memories of the centuries 
old alliance between the Lilies of France and the Thistle. 

Further east, along the roads that led to Cologne, the pipes played 
unceasingly, as befitted the occasion, impressing on the population that 
this was indeed the coming of " Scotland the Brave." 

And so, over the great Rhine bridge, the pipes of the gth and Canadian 
Divisions led the way, and Germany learnt at last that when piob mhor 
sounds " Gabhaidh sin an rathad mor " 1 it generally attains its objective. 



PIPERS IN THE RANKS 

The piper is, first and last, a fighting man ; and when a regiment is 
mobilised it at once loses most of its pipers. Whatever the strength of 
the band may have been in peace time, only the " sergeant piper " — a hideous 
official term for the pipe major — and five " full " pipers are normally retained 
as such. The remainder, while acting as pipers when opportunity offers — 
and designated accordingly — serve in the ranks. 

During this war, and notably during the early years of it, it was often 
found necessary to make use of full and acting pipers in some purely military 
capacity, i.e. either in the ranks, or as Lewis gunners, bombers, orderlies, 
runners or stretcher bearers. This fact accounts for many of the honours 
awarded to pipers, and, at the same time, for the heavy casualties among 
them. 

It is quite impossible to do justice to individuals or units in regard 
to the part they played in performing such duties ; for those who obtained 
official recognition, in some form or other, hundreds have merely had the 
satisfaction of playing the game, in accordance with the rules laid down 
by all ranks of the British army. The few examples given in this place 
are typical of the whole. 

At Festubert in June, 1915, the pipers of the 6th Seaforths worked 
continuously day and night, and brought 170 casualties from the front 
line to the dressing station ; at Loos the 9th Black Watch lost nearly all 

1 "We will take the high road," 



36 THE PIPES OF WAR 

their pipers when similarly engaged, and at the two actions of Loos and 
Neuve Chapelle the 6th Gordons had two killed and ten wounded. 

Again, the 2nd Royal Scots pipers lost heavily on the Somme, and 
were on one occasion highly commended for bringing water up to some 
newly captured trenches under heavy fire. 

The comments of General Sir William Birdwood in a despatch to the 
Australian Government, though intended to apply to Australian stretcher 
bearers, are very applicable to pipers acting in this capacity, whether 
individually or collectively : 

" Where all have done so well it is very hard to differentiate, but as 
a class the stretcher bearers have been beyond praise. Never for a second 
have they flinched from going forward time after time, absolutely regardless 
of the fire brought against them ; and I so deeply regret that they should 
have suffered in consequence." 

Another and most hazardous class of duty, which was largely performed 
by pipers in some battalions, was that of " runners " or despatch carriers ; 
this often involved crossing heavily shelled country, and has resulted in 
many casualties. Notable cases have occurred of men carrying despatches 
through intense barrages, and some have received rewards ; the majority 
of such cases, however, have necessarily been unnoticed. 

Some men appear to have specialised in this duty, e.g. Pipe Major Mathe- 
son, ist Seaforths, who got the D.C.M. " for gallant conduct on many 
occasions in conveying messages under heavy fire," and Lance-Corpl. Piper 
Dyce, 13th Royal Highlanders of Canada, who on one occasion carried 
a most urgent despatch through artillery barrage when badly wounded. 

In other cases pipers, individually and collectively, have done admirable 
service in bringing up ammunition. 

Many instances of acts of heroism by individual men are detailed below. 



PIPERS ON THE MARCH 37 

PIPERS ON THE MARCH 

Playing the pipes in action, though essentially the most important, 
is, for obvious reasons, only one of the duties of the soldier piper. Every 
unit of an army is not always in close touch with the enemy, and every 
battalion puts in a good many miles of marching in a year in conditions 
which are rarely ideal and very often acutely miserable. It is here that 
the pipes have rendered such conspicuous service as the marching instrument 
par excellence ; and the cult of the bagpipe has spread to units and nationa- 
lities which, before the war, would never have thought it possible that 
the company piper would become one of their most cherished institutions. 

That Irish regiments should again adopt the national instrument that 
had played their ancestors on to the battlefields of France in 1286 is so 
natural as to need no comment ; but when we find English and Australian 
units, battalions of the United States army, and ships of His Majesty's 
Navy, to say nothing of field ambulances and transport units, adopting 
the bagpipe, no further evidence is required to substantiate its claim to 
be a highly important feature of modern military organisation. 

It is indeed to a recognition, in the very early days of the war, of the 
great value of the pipes in " exciting alacrity and cheerfulness in the soldier" 
that is due the fact that so many units have deliberately tried to keep 
their pipers out of harm's way, and have only allowed them, under protest, 
to accompany their companies into action, and then only in limited numbers. 
Commanding officers have appreciated that, as a stimulus to tired men, 
to men marching weary miles to take up a position, to men returning worn 
out from a spell of duty, the music of the pipes has proved invaluable. 

Instances of this stimulating effect are too numerous to mention, but 
a few, taken from contemporary accounts of the war, may be regarded 
as typical. 

The following incident in the retirement from Mons has frequently 
occurred elsewhere. " I shall never forget how one General saw a batch 
of Gordons and K.O.S.B. stragglers trudging listlessly along the road. He 
halted them. Some more came up, until there was about a company in 



3 8 THE PIPES OF WAR 

all, with one piper. He made them form fours, put the piper at the head 
of them, ' Now lads, follow the piper and remember Scotland,' and they 
all started off as pleased as Punch, with the tired piper playing like a hero." 1 

The Rev. Dr. Maclean, C.M.G., describes a case of the effect of the pipes 
on tired men : 

" It was a sweltering hot day, and the road was deep with dust. The 
long snaky khaki column came marching steadily down the hill, silent 
under the weight of their accoutrements with the grinding heat of an April 
sun. ... As the Scots came by he gave the sign to the piper. He stepped 
forward and struck up one of the great battle marches of our race. The 
scene that followed baffled description. A roar of cheering burst from 
the ranks." 

Another instance, 2 by one who was himself in the ranks, may be regarded 
as typical. The regiment concerned was the Glasgow Highlanders, but 
the description is applicable to every Scottish regiment in the Army List : 

" Kilometre after kilometre we marched, through the hottest hours 
of the middle day, and our feet and backs ached under the weight of all 
we carried, our faces were dabbled and streaked with dust and perspiration, 
and in our mouths was only dust to chew 

" Walking had become a purely mechanical exercise, our limbs controlled, 
as it seemed, by some power outwith us ; our brains were numb and dazed 
with fatigue and the maddening persisting pain that was our every step. 
Blindly, dumbly, helplessly we staggered on . . . in infinite weariness we 
dragged ourselves to the beginning of the street, and then — 

" Then the pipes suddenly set the heavens and the earth dancing to 
the strains of 'Highland Laddie.' the regimental march of the Glasgows. 
And at the skirl of the pipes, and before the eyes of those critical spectators, 
every man braced himself, his step assumed as much of jauntiness as he 
could put into it, and he had a laugh and a jesting answer ready on his 
lips for every outsider who spoke to him. ... It was something more 
potent than wine that put the boldness into their step, it was the sense 

1 Th e Adventures of a Despatch Rider. Major W. H. Watson. 
-More Adventures in Kilt and Khaki. Thomas Lvon. 



PIPERS ON THE MARCH 39 

of the tradition and honour of their regiment : the feeling that on no account 
must they present other than a brave front to the world, that the one 
unpardonable offence would be to let the battalion down." 

Examples could be multiplied indefinitely, but the best tribute to the 
value of the pipes as a marching instrument and in keeping the men cheery 
is, after all, the fact that regiment after regiment felt constrained to keep 
them out of action entirely — whether as pipers pure and simple or in other 
military capacities. 

Statements to this effect have been received from nearly all the regiments 
whose views have been asked, commanding officers being almost unanimous 
in their opinion that, only where it is imperatively necessary, should a 
pipe band be exposed to the chances of annihilation inseparable from modern 
shell fire. 

And in just the same manner as the pipes have helped battalions along 
the " via dolorosa " into action so they have, time and again, played them 
back to rest and comparative security. In some cases they had shared in 
the action itself, in others they waited until their services were required. 
Many commanding officers and observers have referred to this as one of 
the most important of their duties. In describing the return of a battalion, 
or what remained of it, from Longueval, Philip Gibbs writes : 

" There was a thick summer haze about, and on the ridges the black 
vapours of shell bursts. ... It was out of this that the Highlanders came 
marching. They brought the music with them and the pipes of war playing 
a Scottish love song, ' I lo'e na a laddie but ane.' Their kilts were caked 
with mud, they were very tired, but they held their heads up, and the 
pipers who had been with them played bravely . . . and the Scottish love 
song rang out across the fields. 

An officer of an Argyll battalion, writing of the days of trench fighting, 
says : " They have done much to hearten us on long marches. They came out 
of Bethune after Loos and played what was left of us back to billets." 
Another, in the Royal Scots, referring to the return of the battalion from 
Kemmel, says : "I shall never forget the effect on the men ; as they struck 
up they fairly shouted themselves hoarse with delight." 



4 o THE PIPES OF WAR 

" Wonderful pipes ! The men get tired and would fall out, but the 
pipes make a unity of them. Invisible tendons and muscles seem to connect 
the legs of all files, and all move as one, mechanically, rhythmically, certainly. 
The strong are reduced to the step, the weak are braced up to it. All bear 
the strain and share the strain. So we go on, and the miracle is in the 
power of the music." 1 

A final quotation — one of a very great number received — reflects the 
opinion of all ranks : 

" I have often seen a company just out of the trenches straggling along 
the road too wear}' to think of keeping in formation, let alone in step. On 
the first sound of the pipes these same men would double up to their place 
and march along with the best of them." 

The ubiquity of the pipes on the Western front has been remarked 
by all observers. " The music of the pipes is now as much a part of the 
great orchestra of this war as the incessant rumbling of distant guns, as 
the swirl of traffic along the transport lines, as the singing of birds above 
No Man's Land. . . . And where there are pipes there are Scotsmen — 
Scots everywhere from the sea to St. Ouentin, in old French market towns, 
and in Flemish villages . . . and in camps behind the fighting line not beyond 
the reach of long range shells, and up in the trenches where death is very 
near to them. ... As long as history lasts the spirit of France will salute 
the memory of these kilted boys and of all the Lowland Scots who have 
gone into the furnace fires of this war to the music of the pipes, and have 
fallen in heaps upon her fields. A thousand years hence, when the wind 
blows softly across the ground where they fought, old Scottish tunes will 
sound faintly in the ears of men who remember the past, and all this country 
will be haunted with the ghosts of Scotland's gallant sons." 2 

Nor has it been on the Western front alone that the value of the pipes 
has made itself appreciated. In every other theatre of war as well has 
" the tune with the tartan of the clan in it " been heard at the head of 
columns toiling through the dust and heat, or through pitiless rain. In 
Egypt and Gallipoli and the Holy Land, in Mesopotamia and the Balkans, 

1 Stephen Graham. — The Times, 1 6th January, 1919. - Philip Gibbs. 



PIPERS ON THE MARCH 41 

the pipes have been the prelude to great happenings. " Bundle and Go " 
in the early dawn of an Eastern day, " Soldier lie down " at night — these 
have been the preliminaries which led up naturally to " Cabar Feidh " in 
a hail of machine gun fire, or " Horo mo nighean donn bhoidheach " in the 
streets of captured Bagdad. 

" Many a soldier sadly misses his pipe, which of course may not be lit 
on a night march ; but to me a greater loss is the silence of those other 
pipes, for the sound of the bagpipes will stir up a thousand memories in 
a Highland regiment, and nothing helps a column of weary foot soldiers so 
well as pipe music, backed by the beat of a drum." 1 

When the British army advanced into German territory the pipers 
had an opportunity to play with an abandon that had never been felt 
before. 

" Next day, with the skies still streaming, we made the longest continuous 
march, some 36 kilometres, and by that effort got well into Germany. The 
roads improved as we got farther on, but the tramp through the forest of 
Zitter was long, marshy, and melancholy. Our company was first after the 
pipers, and had the full benefit of the music all the way. And we wandered 
inward ; inward, with our seeking and haunting Gaelic melodies, into the 
depths of the hanging, silent wood. It was strange how aloof nature seemed 
to these melodies. In Scotland, or even in France, all the hills and the 
woods would have helped the music. But in this German land all were cold 
toward us, and those endless pine trees seemed to be holding hands with 
fingers spread before the eyes to show their shame and humiliation. There 
was a curious sense that the road on which we trod was not our road, and that 
earth and her fruits on either hand were hostile. 

"And how tired the men became, with half of them through the soles 

of their boots and with racking damp in their shoulders and backs from their 

rain-sodden packs. But we listened still whilst voluminous waves of melody 

wandered homeless over German wastes and returned to us, 

I heard the pibroch sounding, sounding, 
O'er the wide meadows and lands from afar. 

1 " The battle beyond Baghdad. — 'A Highland Officer.'" — Blackwood's Magazine. 



42 THE PIPES OF WAR 

or to the stirring strains of the ' March of the Battle of Harlaw,' or to the 
crooning, hoping, sobbing of ' Lord Lovat's Lament,' and so went on from 
hour to hour through the emptiness of Southern Germany. When we thought 
we had just about reached our camping ground for the night, we came to a 
guide post which showed it still to be seven kilometres on. But that was 
at the top of a long hill, and the road ran gently down through woods the 
whole way. The colonel sent a message to play ' Men of Portree.' The 
rain had stopped, and an evening sky unveiled a more cheerful light. So, 
with an easy inconsequent air, we cast off care and tripped away down to 
the substantial and prosperous bit of Rhineland called Hellenthal, well on 
our way to Cologne." 1 

The interminable marches are over and their goal has been attained ; 
and the instrument which has a tune for every human emotion can now 
play " The Desperate Battle " in German towns with a safety which has 
been long unknown. To many a man, however, as he fingers his chanter, 
the feeling will come, as he thinks of the good men and true who never 
reached the nth November, 1918, that the tune that is most appropriate 
is " Lochaber no more." 

PIPE TUNES 

Pipe tunes — as every piper knows — have local associations, associations 
with particular incidents, particular emotions ; and in military piping 
this is never overlooked. In war everything has changed — everything 
but the elemental courage and passions of the men who are engaged in it ; 
and, as piob mhor is essentially the instrument on which those elemental 
passions can be best expressed, it is not uninteresting to observe how 
individual pipers have resorted to particular tunes, to suit particular 
occasions. In many, perhaps in most, cases there were traditional or regi- 
mental reasons for playing one tune rather than another, and such tunes 
were often in the highest degree appropriate ; but in other cases the 
individuality of the performer determined the choice. 

Of a selection based on tradition the best authenticated instance is 
that of the Gordon piper who played Cogadh na Sith, " War or peace," 

1 Stephen Graham. — " A Private in the Guards." 



PIPE TUNES 43 

during the Somme lighting. The tune itself, a piobaireachd composed 
by the great M'Crimmon some 400 years ago, was played by the Gordons 
at Waterloo and by a Cameron piper, Kenneth M'Kay, at Quatre Bras. 

" 1 About the middle of June a draft of about a hundred and twenty men 
arrived in camp for the Gordons — the finest draft the commanding officer 
declared he had ever seen. On the 18th, they were ordered to the front. 
I found they had a piper with them, and immediately laid hold on him 
to play the men down to the station. I brought him up to my tent and 
provided him with a set of pipes which I had reserved for my own particular 
work. ... I found something more interesting than that. His great- 
grandfather had been a piper in the regiment in the days of the Napoleonic 
war, and at the Battle of Waterloo he stood within the square and played 
the ancient Highland challenge-march ' Cogadh na Sith,' as the French 
cuirassiers hurled themselves upon the immovable ranks in vain. 

" ' John,' I said, ' this is the anniversary of Waterloo, and you will lead 
the men out to that very tune which your great-grandfather played on 
that great day.' I told the colonel, and his eyes gleamed as he said to me, 
' Ah ! padre, we'll do better than that. You will tell the men about it, 
and I will call them to attention, and your piper will play his tune in memory 
of the men of Waterloo.' 

" And so it was done, and a thrilling incident it was as the men stood 
rigid and silent in full marching order, and the piper strode proudly along 
the ranks, sounding the wild, defiant challenge that stirred the regiment 
a hundred years before." 

Regimental tunes appeal enormously to the men who hear and know 
them ; it was probably as much the sound of " Blue Bonnets over the 
Border " as the sight of Piper Laidlaw piping along the parapet that made 
the men, shaken with shell fire and gas, go straight forward ; and red hackles 
have followed " Highland Laddie " in circumstances when another tune might 
have failed to exert the same extraordinary influence. But, having played 
his regulation onset, the piper has an opportunity of suiting his own taste 
and selecting a tune appropriate musically and emotionally, as well as 
in name, to the occasion. 

x With the Gordons at Y/>res.—Kev. A. M. Maclean, C.M.G. 



44 THE PIPES OF WAR 

On many occasions when the choice of a tune has not been restricted 
by regimental custom or tradition, individual perfoimers have made selec- 
tions which indicated the remarkable mentality of the British soldier. 

At Loos, where Pipers Simpson and M'Donald of the 2nd Black Watch 
played their company over the top and through the attack, the tune they 
commenced with was " Happy we've been a' thegither," — only later changing 
into the ceremonial onset " Highland Laddie." To men in a trench who have 
suffered untold nerve strain waiting for Zero and who happen — as do most 
men in Highland regiments — to know one tune from another, no more 
appropriate combination of " onsets " could have been selected. 

At Beaumont Hamel, when the 17th H.L.I, took the German trenches 
and had an opportunity of bombing out the occupants, Pipe Major Gilbert 
played another popular and very suitable tune, " The muckin' o' Geordie's 
Byre," and greatly encouraged the men in their task. This same tune 
has done duty on many similar occasions. 

It was to " We'll tak the guid auld way " that the 16th Canadians attacked 
at Vimy, and many Cameron pipers have played the " Piobaireachd Dhomh- 
nuill Duibh "in similar circumstances. 

Another very favourite tune was " The Macgregor's Gathering " which 
was played with great effect in the capture of many villages during the 
Somme fighting. 

A curious coincidence was the selection by the pipers of the 1st H.L.I. 
of " I'll gang nae mair tae yon toun " as they marched out of Marseilles 
on 1st November, 1914, on their way to the front. During the first six 
months they lost seven pipers killed, eight wounded and two taken prisoner, 
and the band ceased to exist. 

" Baile Inneraora," — otherwise " The Campbells are Coming " — was 
the tune to which the first Highland regiment of the Expeditionary Force, 
the 2nd Argylls, landed in France ; from that time onward it has immorta- 
lised on every front, if that were necessary, the town of which Burns wrote : 

" There's naething here but Highland pride 
And Highland scab and hunger. 
If Providence has sent me here, 
'Twas surely in his anger." 



PIPE TUNES 45 

The Argylls long ago took Burns' song and treated it with the contempt 
it deserves when they adopted " Baile Inneraora " as their " onset." It 
was played at the taking of Longueval, in the attack at Loos, and 
at the subsequent rally after that glorious disaster, and in many other 
actions. 

During the fighting on the Somme for the heaps of ruins which had once 
been a French village, an incident occurred which takes us back to the 
legend connected with the pibroch " A Cholla, mo run." Long ages ago, 
when the Campbells heard they were going to be attacked by Coll Kiteach 
at Dunivaig, they set an ambush and captured the advance guard. All 
were hanged except the piper, who was given permission to play a lament 
over his comrades. The piper at once started the warning, which was 
heard and understood by his comrades, 

" Coll of my love avoid the strait, avoid the strait, avoid the strait, 
Coll of my love, go by the Mull, gain the landing place." 

The poor piper was instantly stabbed by the infuriated Campbells. 

It is a far cry from those days, when men could converse to each other 
in pibroch, to 1916 ; but another tune — not " A Cholla, mo run " — was 
played by another piper in a French village when his party was cut off. 
Two officers, a sergeant, and a piper of an Argyll battalion, got separated 
from the main body, and found themselves unable to get away when the 
village was again attacked by our men. The small party at once started 
bombing the enemy from the rear, but the piper, appreciating the un- 
pleasant possibility of their own presence not being recognised, struck up 
the regimental onset. This alarmed the Germans, who thought they were 
being attacked from a fresh quarter, and materially contributed to the 
success of the operation. 



46 THE PIPES OF WAR 

INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS. 

" Agus bha iad am measg uam fear treuna 'n an luchd-cuideachaidh 's a' chogadh." 

To attempt to compile a complete record of the achievements of individual 
pipers or of the pipe bands of units is an impossible task ; it would involve 
a review of the whole course of the war. A long time must elapse before 
the histories of battalions are completed, and even then we shall probably 
never know fully the extent to which their pipers have contributed to the 
attainment of success. 

Throughout the war correspondence has been carried on with individuals 
who, in spite of their appalling environment, have found time to supply 
information. They at least have the satisfaction of knowing that to them 
is largely due the fact that brave acts have been saved from oblivion. 

Such a review as follows is but a fragmentary one, based on information 
obtained from officers, N.C.O.'s and men of the battalions concerned — 
but almost never from individual pipers. Among these men there appears 
to have been a conspiracy of silence, and attempts to obtain fuller information 
as to the reason for the granting of awards or the names of pipers whose 
identity disappeared under the blue pencil of the Censor have proved in 
very many instances unavailing. 

The omission from these pages of mention of achievements of pipers 
of many battalions must be regarded as indicating lack of space to record 
them, or of failure to obtain the desired information. 

The original Expeditionary Force landed in France with seven Scottish 
battalions possessing pipe bands ; when the armistice was signed the 
number of such units exceeded a hundred. Although on mobilisation 
the number of " full " pipers in a battalion is only six it must be remembered 
that there are always " acting pipers " serving in the companies who are 
available — until that source of supply is exhausted — to take the place of 
casualties ; and it is safe to reckon that the ioo battalions have had more 
than 2500 pipers at various times. 

The numbers that served in various units during the campaign varied 
enormously ; in some, which freely utilised their pipers in the front line — in 
the ranks, as bearers, and as pipers in action — as many as seventy or eighty 



INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS 4 7 

have been borne on the strength at different times ; in others, which kept 
these men invariably behind the front line, the casualties were negligible 
and comparatively few were used up. 

This difference in method of employment largely explains the variations 
in the casualty lists and honours of different units ; and, in some cases, it 
has been found impossible to obtain anything like complete information. 

8543 Piper James Mackenzie, 1st Scots Guards. 

During the desperate fighting about Ypres in October, 1914, Piper Mackenzie 
greatly distinguished himself bringing up ammunition to the firing line. He was killed 
while doing so. Awarded a mention in despatches. 

8081 Piper Charles Scott Maguire, 2nd Scots Guards. 

On the 27th October, 1914, near Ypres, an advanced trench was blown to pieces 
by shell fire, most of its occupants being killed or wounded. Hearing calls for help. 
Piper Maguire went forward from the support trench to report. He crawled 15 yards 
on hands and knees to the wrecked trench and found several men had been buried 
by the explosion. Although without any protection from enemy fire he dug out a 
man and found he was dead ; he continued his task and got out another, placing 
him for safety under cover of the dead body. He then crawled back to his trench. 
The N.C.O. in charge had been killed meantime, and no official report of his conduct 
was possible. Maguire himself was wounded shortly after, his back being broken ; he 
died of paralysis some seven months later. 

1 1002 Piper J. McMillan, 1st Royal Scots. 

Was awarded the D.C.M. for conspicuous gallantry as a battalion scout. 



10123 Corpl. E. Collins, ~| 

vis 



10754 Rper J- Clancy, I gt x Scots 

10639 ,, J. Smart, 
10032 ,, P. Mallin, J 



During the operations on the Salonika front the battalion had to capture Karadzakot 
Zir. The men had to advance over open country to the attack. These pipers played 
over three successive charges to the enemy's position, and the commanding officer 
considered their gallantry on this occasion was to a large extent instrumental in bringing 
about the success of the attack. In spite of their exposed position they all got through 
without being touched. 

1 1065 Piper H. M'Leod, 2nd Royal Scots. 

Was repeatedly mentioned in despatches for gallantry in attending wounded under 
fire, and was recommended for the D.C.M. 

1235 Piper W. Sinclair, 5th Royal Scots. 

Shortly after the original landing on the Gallipoli Peninsula, a critical retirement 
took place. Piper Sinclair, on his own initiative, gathered together a handful ol 



48 THE PIPES OF WAR 

stragglers, and, taking up a favourable position, covered successfully the withdrawal 
of the battalion. He was killed. 

Pipe Major John Buchan, 4th Royal Scots. 

Just before the attack on Achi Baba on 28th June, 1915, Pipe Major Buchan played 
along the line as the battalion went over ; he was killed. 

7271 Pipe Major J. M'Dougall, 8th Royal Scots. 

Was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal " for gallant conduct under very 
trying circumstances " as a stretcher bearer at Festubert in May, 1915. 

Corpl. Alexander Forsyth, 9th Royal Scots. 

At Arras in April, 1917, this man, who was a highly skilled bomber, volunteered 
to bomb the Germans out of a position in which they were covered by machine guns. 
He crawled up and succeeded in his object, but was killed. He was given the Distin- 
guished Conduct Medal. 

13283 Pipe Major A. Colgan, 12th Royal Scots. 

In the Loos attack the pipe major played the battalion over the top and was 
wounded. Subsequently, in the great German offensive in 1918, when pipers had to 
serve in the ranks, he got the Military Medal " for good leadership and courage." 

Pipe Major John Mouat, 13th Royal Scots. 

During the final advance in 1918 the pipers were employed as bearers, and suffered 
heavy casualties. Pipe Major Mouat received a mention in despatches. 

Pipe Major Murdoch Macdonald, 13th Royal Scots. 

A heavy shell burst among a company and buried a number of men. Pipe Major 
Macdonald went out alone, under very heavy shell fire and brought in six wounded men 
unaided. 

Pipe Major David Anderson, 15th Royal Scots. 

In the opening attack on the Somme front on 1st July, 1916, the battalion was 
played forward by the pipe major, to the old regimental tune " Dumbarton's drums." 
He was hit shortly after going over the top, but continued playing ; he was again 
wounded after crossing the third line of trenches and fell to the ground. He tried 
to go on playing while sitting on the ground, but his pipes were shattered by a shell 
bursting near him. He managed to get up and was at once attacked by a German, 
but succeeded in knocking him out with his fists, and then continued fighting with 
a rifle until overcome by his wounds. 

Pipe Major Anderson was given the one Croix de Guerre allotted to his Division 
for the most conspicuous act of bravery. The pipes he was playing on this occasion 
were of historical interest as they had been taken to the Antarctic by a member of 
Scott's expedition, and had been played also in the Arctic expedition of 1907. 

Another interesting feature of Anderson's achievement was that several Germans 
surrendered to him as he played on the parapet of one of their trenches. 

Pipe Major David Campbell, 1st Royal Scots Fusiliers. 

Although he had been wounded in the arm on the previous day Pipe Major Campbell 
played his battalion to the attack on the German position at Hooge on June 16, 1915. 



INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS 49 

He played on right up to the German wire entanglements when, throwing his pipes 
aside, he caught up the bayonet of a comrade who had just been shot by a German 
officer and at once attacked the latter. He captured the officer. 

9884 Piper Higginson, ist K.O.S.B. 

The initial engagement of the battalion was the landing on Gallipoli. During the 
first few days the pipers were fighting in the ranks, and the gallant exploit of Piper 
Higginson is eloquent indication of the fact that they played the part of the fighting 
man right well. All the officers and N.C.O.'s of his Company having been killed or 
wounded during the heavy fighting of 26th April, 1915, Piper Higginson rallied the 
remainder, and organised and led a bayonet charge with such dash and bravery that 
the Turks were swept back from a line they had captured earlier in the day. Just 
as success was attained Piper Higginson was mortally wounded, and died some hours 
later. Had he survived he was to have been recommended for the D.C.M. 

1315 Piper Maitland, ) 

8248 Pipe Major W. Mackenzie,/ lst KOSB - 

During most of their stay on the Gallipoli peninsula the pipers had to bring up 
ammunition, rations, stores, etc., a job which was at all times most trying and often 
extremely hazardous. For conspicuous bravery in charge of these carrying parties 
the Pipe Major and Piper Maitland were awarded the Military Medal. 

556 Piper A. Erskine, 5th K.O.S.B. 

Was mentioned in despatches for gallantry as a stretcher bearer in Gallipoli. 

14851 Pipe Major Robert Mackenzie, 6th K.O.S.B. 

At the battle of Loos 25th September, 1915, when the battalion went forward to 
the attack in which it was decimated, the first over the top was the Pipe Major, who 
started playing at once. He was wounded and fell after a comparatively short distance, 
but managed to crawl back. His leg had to be amputated, and he died of shock 
shortly afterwards. Mackenzie was a man of nearly sixty years of age, and had forty- 
two years' Army service. He was awarded a mention in despatches. Before the 
action he had been detailed, on account of his age, to be postman, but insisted on going 
into action. 

15851 Piper Daniel Laidlaw, V.C., 7th K.O.S.B. 

Just before the attack on Hill 70 and Loos on 25th September, 191 5, the battalion, 
which was under heavy shell fire, was exposed to a cloud of poison gas. Many of 
the men succumbed to this gas, and the remainder were shaken by what they were 
going through. The commanding officer, seeing Laidlaw standing waiting with his 
pipes for the order to advance, called to him, " Pipe them together, Laidlaw, for God's 
sake, pipe them together," and he immediately climbed out on to the parapet, and 
marched up and down, regardless of danger, playing " Blue Bonnets over the Border." 
The effect on the men was magical ; at the same moment the order came to advance, 
and the officer shouted " Come on, the Borderers, who'll be the first to reach the 
German trenches ? " The survivors of the company swarmed up and over to the 
assault following the piper. The men were falling all round him, but Laidlaw continued 
to advance until he got near the German line, when he was wounded and the officer, 

P 



5 o THE PIPES OF WAR 

who was alongside of him, was killed. As he lay on the ground he tried to go on 
playing, and then managed to get up and hobble after the battalion. 

He was awarded the Victoria Cross " for most conspicuous gallantry," and the 
French Croix de Guerre. 

The sobriquet " Piper of Loos " was commonly applied to Piper Laidlaw ; though, 
in fairness to two other men, it must be admitted that he only shared that distinction 
with them. 

Pipe Major Douglas Taylor, 7th K.O.S.B. 

During the attack on Loos when Piper Laidlaw got the V.C., the other pipers 
were chiefly employed in bringing in the casualties. There were large numbers of 
men lying about who had been gassed. Pipe Major Taylor, though himself wounded 
in the hand, continued bringing in these men for thirty-six hours, until he was himself 
shot down with a bullet in the heart. He recovered ultimately — one of the surgical 
miracles of the war. 

Pipe Major W. Robertson, 2nd Scottish Rifles. 

Was awarded the Military Medal for gallantry in the field. 

Pipe Major Neil Macleod, 8th Scottish Rifles. 

Greatly distinguished himself in the Dardanelles fighting in attending on the 
wounded. He was killed in the attack on 12th July, 191 5. 



406 3 I Corpl WHITELAW.j Scott . sh 

17806 Piper MGurk, J v 



17806 Piper 

In a daylight raid at Arras in February, 1917, these two men played their companies 
over, standing on the parapet, and then followed them up to the German position. 

Pipe Major J. M'Coll, 10th Scottish Rifles. 

Was awarded the Military Medal for gallantry during the Somme fighting. 

1 4631 Piper Alexander Stevenson, nth Scottish Rifles. 

On 20th April, 1917, Piper Stevenson observed a comrade, who had been out 
on a night patrol, lying wounded in No Man's Land, and calling for help. He at once 
went over the parapet in broad daylight and brought liim in, although the Germans 
brought a machine gun to bear on him as soon as he exposed himself. While assisting 
the medical officer to dress the wounded man he was killed. His name was mentioned 
in despatches for gallantry. He had previously done excellent work carrying messages 
in action. 

Piper Andrew Wishart. j igt Hack Watch 
9430 Piper W. Stuart, I 

After the failure of the first attack on Richebourg, 9th May, 1915 — the attacking 
battalions simply melting away under a sheet of lead — a second attack on the position 
was ordered for midday ; the leading battalions on this occasion being the 1st Black 
Watch and 1st Camerons. The men went over the top with a tremendous dash, 
and each company was led by its pipers. Two at least actually reached the German 
trenches and continued playing — 9430 W. Stuart, and Andrew Wishart of the Black 



INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS 51 

Watch. They were under very heavy fire, and both got wounded. Wishart fell 
into a shell hole and lay there for four days before he succeeded in crawling back to 
our trenches. When he fell there were loud shouts " The piper's down," and the men 
made frantic efforts to get into the enemy's trenches ; but the machine gun fire was 
too heavy, and they had to withdraw. Piper Stuart was awarded the D.C.M. 

Piper George Galloway, 7th Black Watch. 

On one occasion Piper Galloway rescued five men who had been buried by a shell 
explosion. Subsequently, when employed as a runner, he was called on to deliver 
an important message under very heavy fire. This he accomplished in almost impos- 
sible conditions, and was given the Military Medal. 

L/Corpl. G. Swan, 7th Black Watch. 

Served in the ranks during the Somme fighting. lie was killed in action, and was 
awarded the Military Medal. 

1919 Piper Alexander Pratt, 2nd Black Watch. 

Pipers throughout the war have been employed in a great variety of ways besides 
piping. Piper Pratt was reported in Mesopotamian Force Despatches as "one of the 
bravest and most intelligent bomb sergeants in the regiment ; on three occasions 
he has proved his high capacity for leadership in the attack. He has been twice 
wounded. His power of training grenadiers and his influence over his men are quite 
exceptional." He was promoted in the field to Sergeant and awarded a D.C.M. 

941 Piper Peter MacNee, 2nd Black Watch. 

Also distinguished himself greatly as a bomber. He won the D.C.M. at Neuve 
Chapelle. In France he was twice wounded, but went to Mesopotamia with the 
battalion. In the fighting at Sheikh Saad in January, 1916, he was mortally wounded. 

1839 Piper Alexander Macdonald,' 

736 Piper David Simpson, 

365 Piper R. Johnstone, !-2nd Black Watch. 

699 Piper David Armit, 

187 Piper J. Galloway, 
In the attack by the 2nd Black Watch at Mauquissart, 25th September, 1915, the 
pipers took a prominent part, playing their companies up to and through the German 
first and second lines. After three fines had been captured the order to attack the 
fourth was given. 736 Piper David Simpson at once dashed forward playing, followed 
by his company ; he was killed just as they reached the objective. His bravery 
earned him the title, for long after, of " The Piper of Loos." He was recommended 
for the Victoria Cross. Further on, 1839 Piper Alexander Macdonald alternately 
played from one trench to the next and assisted in bombing the enemy out of their 
dugouts. In the third trench he marched, playing " Macgregor's Gathering," down 
the trench at the head of the bombers, and then climbed on to the parapet and continued 
playing. He was ultimately wounded and lost his leg. For his gallantry he was 
given the D.C.M., but did not long survive to enjoy the honour as he died soon after 
his discharge. At the same time 365 Piper R. Johnstone went on playing until he 



52 THE PIPES OF WAR 

fell gassed. As pipers fell out wounded others took their places, and the battalion 
was played continuously into and through the action. It appears to have been a 
tradition among the pipers of this battalion that they were always to play whenever 
an opportunity occurred. Pipers David Armit and J. Galloway also played right up 
to and through the German support trenches. 

1 198 Pipe Major D. M'Leod, 4th Black Watch. 

Piper M'Leod played his company into action at Loos. 

During this action the commanding officer was mortally wounded ; he was brought 
in, under intense fire, by Pipe Major — then Corpl. Piper — M'Leod, who received the 
Military Medal for his gallantly. He subsequently got a bar to the Medal for repeated 
acts of gallantry during the great advance of 1915. 

410 Pipe Major Alexander Low, 4th Black Watch, 

Received the Military Medal for devoted attendance to the wounded at Neuve 
Chapelle. 

1568 Piper Alexander Howie, 5th Black Watch. 

At Neuve Chapelle Piper Howie greatly distinguished himself in bringing in 
casualties. He was killed while performing this duty. Mentioned in despatches. 

Piper R. Pirnie, ~| 

Piper A. Forbes, I fith Black Watch 

Piper A. Tainsh, 

Piper R. MapletonJ 

These men played the battalion in to the attack on High Wood, 14th July, 1916. 
Though much exposed they escaped unwounded. 

Piper Ferguson, 6th Black Watch. 

At Laventie this man marched from one end of the line to the other playing "Johnny 
Cope," which aroused the enemy, who, expecting an immediate attack, at once started 
a barrage. No attack was ever intended. 

2126 Piper Alasdair M'Donald, 6th Black Watch. 

Near Laventie in July, 1916, a small patrol of four men operating in No Man's Land 
ran into some Germans, with the result that two of them were badly wounded and 
could not get back to our lines. Volunteers were asked for, and M'Donald and another 
man went out. They met a German patrol and dipersed it, but this at once brought 
hostile machine gun fire on to them. They had to hunt about for a considerable 
time in high grass full of barbed wire before finding the wounded men, and, in bringing 
them back, had to make use of part of a German communication trench. Piper M'Donald 
was mentioned in despatches. 

290056 Pipe Major Thomas Macdonald, \ 

292440 L/Corpl. G Swan, I ^^ Wafch 

200509 Piper A. Mands, 

Piper George Galloway, 



INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS 53 

All these men received the Military Medal for gallantry in carrying despatches 
during the Somme actions. On several occasions they performed quite invaluable 
service in this way. 

7671 Piper Alexander Henderson, ist Cameron Highlanders. 

On October 22nd, 1914, Piper Henderson went out to an officer of the battalion 
who was lying wounded in a very exposed position, and applied fir6t field dressings. 
He then helped this officer back to our position under heavy machine gun fire and 
then returned to his duty in the ranks. He was awarded the Distinguished Conduct 
Medal. 

Sergt. Johnson, 2nd Cameron Highlanders. 

Received the Military Medal for conspicuous gallantry on the night of nth March, 
1917, when on a reconnoitring patrol on the Struma. He killed the enemy's sentry 
before he had time to wam his group, thus enabling the party to account successfully 
for five out of seven of the enemy. Also for continuous good work as sergeant in charge 
of regimental scouts. 

As scout sergeant he subsequently still further distinguished himself, and by his 
initiative and daring in incessant patrol work, materially assisted in gaining complete 
ascendancy over all the ground between our own and the Bulgar trenches. " His display 
of daring, initiative and courage has been a splendid example to all the men under him." 

56 Pipe Major John Ross, 4th Cameron Highlanders. 

Played the battalion to the attack at Festubert on 17th May, 1915, along with the 
other pipers of the battalion. 

17128 Piper J. Scobie, Cameron Highlanders. 

Obtained the M.M., D.C.M. for gallantry in action. 
9158 Acting Pipe Major J. MacLellan, ist Seaforth Highlanders. 

During the advance in Mesopotamia ammunition happened to run short at a point 
only 50 yards removed from the Turk trenches. MacLellan at once volunteered to 
fetch some, and was killed as he was bringing it up. 

8391 Pipe Major D. Mathieson, ist Seaforth Highlanders. 

Was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal " for gallant conduct on many 
occasions in conveying messages under heavy fire, and also for gallantry in attending 
on the wounded on an exposed part of the line." 

9446 Pipe Major Neil M'Kechnie, ist Seaforth Highlander. 

During the engagement at Sheikh Saad on 7th January, 191 6, the battalion had 
to advance for a long distance over perfectly flat country under very heavy fire. 
Casualties among our men were very numerous. The pipe major and Pipers Colin 
M'Kay and Alex. M'Kay at once started playing " Caber Feidh," and continued to 
do so for some time. M'Kechnie and Alex. M'Kay were both wounded. 

At Neuve Chapelle M'Kechnie had distinguished himself as a bomber, and was 
mentioned in despatches and awarded the Russian Order of St. George. 

766 Pipe Major Mackenzie, ist Seaforth Highlanders. 
Was mentioned in despatches for gallantry in Palestine. 



54 THE PIPES OF WAR 

412 Piper William Barry, 1st Seaforth Highlanders. 

Went out into No Man's Land under heavy machine gun fire to the assistance of 
a wounded comrade who was lying unable to move, and whose clothing had caught 
fire. Piper Barry was recommended for the D.C.M. ; he was mentioned in despatches. 

529 Piper Colin M'Kay, 1st Seaforth Highlanders. 

During the advance at Sheikh Saad some of the pipers had to bring up ammunition. 
The Turkish barrage was generally late and missed the advancing battalion, but came 
down behind it ; this resulted in severe casualties among ammunition parties. Piper 
M'Kay was specially promoted on the field for gallantry in performing duty as an 
ammunition carrier. 

201307 Piper P. Stewart, 4th Seaforth Highlanders. 

A company on the Ypres sector in September, 1917, had to advance a distance of 
nearly two miles over flooded ground badly cut up by our artillery. The men were 
very heavily laden with extra ammunition, bombs, etc. ; Piper Stewart played them 
along until he fell and damaged his pipes. When they reached their position volunteers 
were called for to go out and try to establish communication with the brigade on 
the left, whose position was not known. Piper Stewart went out and performed this 
task, but was badly wounded in the arm. He had previously done excellent work 
in collecting casualties and putting them in an abandoned gun emplacement. He was 
awarded the Military Medal. 

599 Piper Donald M'Kay, 5th Seaforth Highlanders. 

Was killed at Beaumont Hamel when carrying despatches. His CO. said of him, 
" It was by devotion such as his that victory was bestowed on us that day." 

21629 Piper D. Fraser, } Highlanders. 

4661 Piper B. Hamilton, I ' ° 

In the attack at Loos, when the battalion was played in by their pipers, most of 
these men were killed or wounded. At one time the position became very serious and 
the advance was checked. Pipers Fraser and Hamilton at once got up into the open 
and started playing " Caber Feidh " ; the effect was very marked as their companies 
dashed forward after them. They were both killed. 

8535 Piper D. Davidson, 7th Seaforth Highlanders. 

This man, when serving in the ranks, showed such gallantry and initiative that 
he received both the Distinguished Conduct Medal and the Military Medal. 

81 12 Pipe Major Alexander Mackenzie, 8th Seaforth Highlanders. 

At Loos, when the battalion was played into action, there were very heavy losses 
among the pipers. Pipe Major Mackenzie distinguished himself greatly, and was given 
the Distinguished Conduct Medal. 

81 19 Pipe Major G. Gordon, 9th Seaforth Highlanders. 

Played the battalion into action at Longueval on 14th July, 191 6, and was awarded 
the Belgian Croix de Guerre. 



INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS 55 

5745 Piper Charles M'Lellan, gth Seaforth Highlanders. 

At the battle of Loos he was acting as orderly to his captain ; as they got over 
the parapet the officer was hit, and died a few minutes afterwards. Piper M'Lellan 
then reported himself to another officer who sent him back, under heavy fire, for 
reinforcements. Having done this several times, he went to look for his captain and 
brought in his body. He was awarded the Military Medal. 

10744 Corporal A. Godsman, ist Highland Light Infantry. 

During the action at Neuve Chapelle he repeatedly brought up ammunition to 
the firing line under the heaviest fire, until he was wounded. He was awarded the 
Distinguished Conduct Medal and the Russian Order of St. George. 

1 1480 Piper John Brodie, 2nd Highland Light Infantry. 

This man was one of the party with the late Col. W. L. Brodie when that officer won 
the V.C. 

240881 Piper William Mackenzie, 6th Highland Light Infantry. 

In the action of 12th July, 1915, in which the battalion captured three lines of 
Turkish trenches in Gallipoli, Piper Mackenzie went into action armed with a revolver 
and a shovel, displaying great gallantry and doing great execution with both these 
weapons until he was wounded. 

191 4 Piper Kenneth MacLennan, 7th Highland Light Infantry. 

Was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal " for playing the pipes during the 
attack (on the Turkish trenches, 12th July, 1915) and advancing with the line after 
his pipes had been shattered by shrapnel, and heartening the wounded under fire " 
(London Gazette). After his pipes had been broken he continued to play on his chanter 
for some time. He then made several journeys across the open to fetch water for 
the wounded under heavy fire ; and also brought up boxes of ammunition. 

1 90 1 Piper D. Cameron, 7th Highland Light Infantry. 

In the attack on the Turkish trenches on 12th July, 1915, Piper Cameron played 
his company right up to the captured trenches and was awarded a special mention in 
Divisional Orders (52nd Division). On this occasion, while playing, he had a revolver 
hanging from his wrist, and on reaching the trenches started using it with good effect. 

Piper Donald Macfarlane, 7th Highland Light Infantry. 

In the same action in Gallipoli on 12th July, 191 5, Piper Macfarlane played his 
company through a bayonet charge and continued doing so until a shell burst shattered 
his pipe drones. He then devoted himself to giving water to the wounded. 

Corpl. Piper Allan M'Nicol, 12th Highland Light Infantry. 

During the fighting at Loos and Hill 70 Corpl. M'Nicol was employed carrying an 
artillery observation flag, and signalling successive positions to our guns as they were 
captured. For his gallantry in action he was awarded the Military Medal. 

15006 Pipe Major William M'Comb, 16th Highland Light Infantry. 

On 14th February, 191 6, the Pipe Major, though stunned and sick from a blow 



56 THE PIPES OF WAR 

by a branch of a tree which had been hit by a shell, went forward and dug out several 
men who had been buried. There was heavy shell fire at the time. He was given the 
Military Medal. 

12095 Piper (Pipe Major) Thomas Richardson, 16th Highland Light Infantry. 

Was awarded the Military Medal for gallant conduct at Roupy in the night of 
2nd April, 191 7, when the company in support was heaWly shelled and casualties were 
heavy. " Pipe Major Richardson organised carrying parties and showed an utter 
disregard of danger under the continuous fire of heavy guns." 

Pipe Major B. M'Donald, Highland Light Infantry. 

An ammunition dump having caught fire he went in under heavy machine gun 
and shell fire and succeeded in dragging out boxes of bombs and throwing them into a 
shell crater full of water. By this means he stopped the conflagration. At the time 
he had just been given a commission, and he received for this action the Military Cross. 

16094 Pipe Major Young Gilbert, 17th Highland Light Infantry. 

On the 1st July, 1916, the battalion crawled up to within 100 yards of the Leipzig 
redoubt and rushed the latter when the barrage lifted, and held on. The position was 
a very perilous one, and the CO. called on the Pipe Major to play to the men. This 
he at once did and continued doing so, with the most stimulating effect on the 
battalion. For this action he was awarded the Military Medal. 

5495 Piper James Ritchie, 2nd Gordon Highlanders. 

On the 14th July, 1916, the battalion had to attempt the capture of the road from 
High Wood to Longueval. Advancing beyond the first objective they advanced 
further and tried to dig in, but came under deadly fire from flank and rear. Of the 
two leading platoons only one wounded officer and five men ever got back. Piper 
Ritchie volunteered to carry a message to regimental headquarters and bring up 
reinforcements. He did this twice. He was awarded the Military Medal. 

6349 Pipe Major Charles Anderson, 2nd Gordon Highlanders. 

Was awarded the Military Medal. His CO. writes : " Has done splendid work 
throughout ; his cheerfulness and gallantry have been at all times most marked, and 
he was a splendid example to all until he was severely wounded at Hulluch on 25th 
September, 1915." 

6863 Piper R. Stewart, 2nd Gordon Highlanders. 

From the commencement of the war Piper Stewart's gallantry was repeatedly 
brought to notice and especially during the fighting in October and November, 1914, 
and at Ypres. He was specially promoted to Sergeant and awarded the D.C.M. and 
the Russian Order of St. George for bringing up ammunition under particularly trying 
circumstances at Ypres. He was killed at Loos. 

Pipe Major (Sergt. Major) Angus Maclean, 2nd Gordon Highlanders. 

Rejoined his old battalion on the outbreak of war and was transferred from the 
pipes to a company as sergeant major. He was awarded the Military Medal for " con- 
spicuous courage and ability in organising work under very dangerous conditions." 



INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS 57 

The 2nd Gordon Highlanders in Italy. 

In the summer of 191 8 the pipers, during the offensive, were attached for duty 
to the 23rd Field Ambulance. All the wounded had to be carried across a deep and 
very rapid burn, which was difficult to get across for a single man. These pipers, 
however, with four men to a stretcher and four more to steady them, and without their 
kilts and hose, succeeded in getting large numbers of casualties over. They stood in 
the water for many hours. Subsequently they went out to look for wounded and 
brought in many more. " But for the work of the pipers and drummers it would have 
been impossible to evacuate the wounded that night." 

Piper George Paterson, 4th Gordon Highlanders. 

In the fighting outside Cambrai in November, 191 7, Piper Paterson played the 
battalion into action and charged in three successive waves ; he also played it into Can- 
tanig under heavy fire. Here he was wounded. He was awarded the Military Medal. 

Piper William Webster, 4th Gordon Highlanders. 

In the face of heavy fire during the retirement in March, 191 8, repeatedly brought 
up ammunition to men in the front line. Was awarded the Military Medal. 

Piper P. Bowie, ~\ 

Piper P. Paterson, I , „ 

_.* _ _ >4th Gordon Highlanders. 

Piper R. Prentice, H ° 

Piper G. Davidson, I 

In the Ypres fighting on 31st July, 1917, Piper Bowie rallied the men at a time 

when things were looking very bad. He was awarded the Military Medal. At the 

Marne, too, he and Pipers P. Paterson, R. Prentice, and G. Davidson played their 

companies into action " and the example set by them roused the troops to further 

efforts to force the enemy from a difficult position and enabled them to gain a great 

victory." 

1985 Piper Charles Thomson, 5th Gordon Highlanders. 

At Festubert Piper Thomson showed great courage as an observer, and repeatedly 
crossed a heavily shelled zone, which was also under fire by snipers, carrying messages 
to battalion headquarters. 

Piper H. Lunam, 5th Gordon Highlanders. 

In the action at High Wood on 18th July, 1916, Piper Lunam " very heroically 
played his company into action in face of heavy machine gun fire and a heavy enemy 
barrage. He got no official recognition, but the thanks and respect of his comrades 
who followed him." 

10115 Pipe Major J. Howarth, 6th Gordon Highlanders. 

During the fighting at Loos Pipe Major Howarth was acting as orderly to the 
commanding officer, and, in the course of the advance, was wounded in the feet. A 
shell had burst and knocked over a dozen of our men and he at once went off to give 
first aid. On the way he saw Captain — ■ — of the 2nd Gordons lying wounded. As, 
on account of his own wound, he was unable to carry the wounded officer in, he took 

off his own puttees, wound them round his knees as a protection, took Captain on 

his back and crawled back on hands and knees to our own line. 



58 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Pipe Major Howarth had already received the D.C.M. for his gallantry in tending 
the wounded at Neuve Chapelle. For his action on this occasion he was awarded a 
bar to the medal. 

10700 Piper W. Bannerman, 6th Gordon Highlanders. 

In the fighting at Givenchy on 2nd June, 191 5, some of the pipers were employed 
in the ranks. Piper Bannerman was mentioned in despatches for great gallantry in 
leading a bayonet charge. 

Piper (Sergt.) Peter Dean, 2nd Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

When serving in the ranks as a machine gun sergeant he worked his gun alone in 
an exposed position when the rest of the gun team had all been killed or wounded. He 
was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal. 

3162 Piper William Carlyle, 6th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

After a bayonet charge at Festubert on 16th June, 1915, the battalion was lying 
on the ground under heavy fire. Near the enemy's line was a wounded man. Piper 
Carlyle crept out on hands and knees to try and bring him in ; just as he reached the 
man and had started to lift him, he was killed. Piper Carlyle was mentioned in 
despatches. 

Piper John Walls, 7th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

Was awarded the Military Medal for devotion to duty as battalion runner through 
the barrages on 23/24^1 July, 1915. 

Pipe Major J. Wilson, 8th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

On the 8th April, 1916, a German raiding party of considerable strength entered 
our trenches in the Labyrinth after the explosion of several mines which inflicted heavy 
casualties. Pipe Major Wilson at once organised a counter attack and drove out the 
enemy. He received a Divisional certificate of gallant conduct. 

266 Piper George Shearer, 9th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

When employed as a bearer on 24th May, 1915, brought in a wounded man out of 
No Man's Land under particularly difficult circumstances, and was awarded the D.C.M. 

4627 Pipe Major Thomas Aitken, 10th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

During the fighting at Longueval in July, 1916, although a man of sixty years of 
age, Pipe Major Aitken, at his own request, acted as orderly to the commanding officer 
for the whole day ; he was ultimately wounded. He was awarded the Distinguished 
Conduct Medal " for conspicuous gallantry on this and many other occasions." 

6191 Piper J. Dall, ■) 

2616 Piper D. Wilson,/ Ioth At ^ 11 and Sutherland Highlanders. 

When the battalion attacked Longueval it was met by heavy machine gun fire, 
which caused very severe casualties. Part of the enemy wire had been left uncut by our 
bombardment, and this caused momentary confusion in the ranks, as it was very 
dark. The advance was held up by some ruined dwellings in the streets of the village 



INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS 59 

which had been turned into machine gun nests. Pipers Dall and Wilson at once started 
playing, and in spite of the noise of shell fire all round them, they succeeded in rallying 
the men, and in leading an attack which proved to be irresistible. Piper Dall was 
wounded. Piper Wilson was awarded a mention in despatches. 

569 Piper G. Gamack, ioth Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

Received the Military Medal for great gallantry in evacuating casualties during 
the storming of the St. Quentin Canal, Sept., 1918. 

Pipe Major Donald Macfarlane, nth Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

In the action of Loos the Pipe Major was employed as a despatch runner carrying 
messages back from Hill 70. He continued doing this though severely wounded in the 
arm. He was recommended for the Distinguished Conduct Medal. 

Piper Charles Hoey,"\ 

Piper J. Barnett, j-nth Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

Piper T. Wallace, J 

In the attack at Loos these men all played their companies into action. Piper 
Barnett was killed while doing so. 

Piper Charles Cameron, nth Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

When the battalion attacked Hill 70 on 25th September, 1915, the pipers led their 
companies and suffered heavy casualties. The 15th Division hung on to the slope of the 
hill until next day, but ultimately had to fall back, being heavily counter-attacked. 
The men of different units got mixed up in the hand to hand fighting which ensued, and 
it was necessary to rally them in their own units. Piper Cameron stood under heavy 
fire playing, and rallied the men of the nth. His bravery resulted in his being known 
in the division as " The Piper of Loos." 

598 Corpl. Piper R. Stevenson, 12th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

Many of the pipers of this battalion were employed as scouts, and Corpl. Stevenson 
rendered particularly good service in this capacity, especially in August, 1918, 
when, in spite of heavy enemy fire, he went forward and carried out a successful 
reconnaissance of the wire on the enemy's trenches. For this he got the Military 
Medal. 

139 Corpl. Piper H. G. Latham, 1st London Scottish. 

On account of heavy losses at Messines the pipers of this battalion during the early 
part of the war were employed in the ranks. Corpl. Latham was a crack shot and had 
got into the final stage of the King's Hundred at the Bisley Camp in 1914. He was 
accordingly employed as a sniper with much success. He took a prominent part in the 
bayonet attack at Messines. He was killed at Zillebeke 16th November, 1914. Was 
awaided a mention in despatches. 

Piper Sydney Wilson, Liverpool Scottish. 

This man served in the ranks. He was awarded the certificate for gallantry on three 
separate occasions. 



6o THE PIPES OF WAR 

290 Pipe Major John Wilson,"! , _ . , „ ... , 
3 „. r ' J ^ J-ist fyneside Scottish. 

1525 Piper George Taylor, J ' 

Both these men received the Mihtary Medal for bravery in playing their battalion 
into action at La Boiselle on 1st July, 1916. The whole of the pipers of this and the 
2nd Battalion took part in this, one of the most spectacular attacks on the Somme ; 
and their behaviour was an inspiration to the men. They were exposed to very heavy 
fire and to every sort of obstacle on the ground, but went on playing after ten pipers 
had been killed and five wounded. 1525 Piper James Phillips of the 2nd Battalion, 
after having his pipes shattered, started bombing the German trenches. He was 
mentioned in despatches. 

Sergt. John Macdonald, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. 

At Hooge on 8th May, 1915, after a front trench had been obliterated by shell fire, 
Sergt. Macdonald dug out two wounded men who had been buried, and carried one 
on his back and assisted the other to a place of safety under very heavy shell and rifle 
fire. He was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal. In Sept., 1916, he died of 
wounds. 

2401 1 Lance Corpl. J. Dvce, 13th Royal Highlanders of Canada. 

During the Ypres fighting in April, 191 5, Corporal Dyce was employed as a despatch 
runner and had to cross ground heavily bombarded by the enemy. While doing so 
he was shot through the chest, and became unconscious ; on coming to, knowing the 
importance of the despatch he was carrying, he started crawling in to deliver it at 
battalion headquarters, collapsing when he arrived there. He was mentioned in 
despatches. 

29327 Pipe Major James Groat, 16th Canadian Scottish. 

In the attack on the Vimy Ridge Pipe Major Groat and the pipers of the battalion 
played them to the attack, Groat accompanying the commanding officer. They had 
to advance over a mile under terrific fire. On this occasion he received the Military 
Medal. 

Subsequently, in the attack on Hill 70 on 15th August, 1918, he again led the 
battalion and was awarded a bar to the Medal ; and on 2nd September, 1918, at Arras, 
he got the Distinguished Conduct Medal for a similar action. He had played the 
battalion through five successful attacks when he was finally wounded. 

28930 Piper James Richardson, V.C., 16th Canadian Scottish. 

At Festubert in May, 1915, he showed the greatest gallantry in carrying despatches, 
and also saved a wounded comrade's life. In the attack on the Regina trench on 
8th October, 191 6, he played his company to the attack. When they got near the 
enemy's position very heavy wire entanglements were encountered, which took a 
considerable time to cut through ; while this was being carried out Piper Richardson 
marched up and down outside the wire playing, while the men were falling all round 
him. When the wire had been cut he continued at the head of his company, and 
played the " Reel of Tulloch " on the German parapet, followed by the " Deil in the 
Kitchen " as the battalion started bombing the dugouts. At this moment the Company 



1 6th Canadian Scottish. 



INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENTS 61 

Sergeant Major was dangerously wounded and Richardson volunteered to take him 
out. He successfully accomplished this and then said he must go back to fetch his 
pipes which he had left behind in the captured trench. He never returned and must 
have been killed. The Commanding Officer i writes of him : " I really think his V.C. 
performance was one of the great deeds of the war. The conditions were those of 
indescribable peril and terror. The lad's whole soul was bound up in the glory of 
piping, and he was only taken into action after imploring his colonel with tears 
in his eyes. Altogether a most wonderful example of high souled courage and 
enthusiasm." 

A year after Piper Richardson's death he was awarded a posthumous Victoria 
Cross. 

28557 Piper Alexander M'Gillivray,' 

29048 Piper Allan Cameron M'Nab, 
429603 Piper George Paul, 
466703 Piper John M'Allister, 
603174 Piper Gordon Cruickshank, 
467573 Piper Alexander Robertson, 
737176 Piper John M'Lean, 
633179 Piper Archibald M'Dowell. 

The whole of these men received the Military Medal for playing their companies 
into action on different occasions. No man was ever recommended for reward unless 
he had played into action on three different occasions, and every man had to volunteer 
for the duty. As a matter of fact so keen was the competition that lots had to be 
drawn to decide who should play. 

429603 Piper George Paul, 16th Canadian Scottish. 

After winning the Military Medal for his gallantry in playing his company to the 
attack on Hill 70 on 15th August, 191 8, Piper Paul went into action at Amiens playing 
on top of the tank " Dominion." While doing so he was killed. His action on this 
occasion roused the wildest enthusiasm among his comrades and contributed greatly 
to the success of the operation. 

59224 Corpl. William Currie, 21st Canadians. 

On several occasions Corpl. Currie showed extraordinary gallantry in bringing 
in wounded men from positions in which any attempt at rescue appeared hopeless, on 
account of the heavy fire brought to bear on any one trying to approach. The last man 
rescued by Corpl. Currie had been shot by a sniper and was lying in a trench only a foot 
deep. Currie succeeded in getting him away although he was badly wounded in the 
process. He was several times complimented officially and was finally specially 
promoted and awarded the Military Medal. He subsequently got a Commission and 
won the Military Cross for gallantry. 

60115 Piper Hugh Mackenzie, 21st Canadians. 

At Hill 70 volunteers were called for to bring in a man who was lying wounded in 
'Lieut. -Col. Cyrus Peck, V.C, D.S.O. 



62 THE PIPES OF WAR 

No Man's Land. Mackenzie was one of three who volunteered to get him ; two of 
these men were killed. Mackenzie was given the Military Medal. 

Piper W. Brand, "I ,, _ ,. 

_. „. _ }--25tn Canadians. 

Piper Walter Telfer, J J 

In the attack on the Vimy Ridge gth April, 191 7, these two pipers played their 
companies into action. Telfer was so badly wounded that his leg had subsequently 
to be amputated, but continued playing, until he fell. Both of them were awarded 
the Military Medal. 

1246 Piper John Macdonald, 1st Canadian Machine Gun Corps. 

During an action the attack was held up and most of the teams of the machine 
guns were killed. Piper Macdonald succeeded in pushing forward to the objective 
with a gun and held on until dark. He was the last to leave, carrying the gun on his 
shoulders. For this he was promoted Quartermaster Sergeant, and was awarded 
the Military Medal. 

Pipe Major Alexander Grieve, \ 

Piper J. Waterhouse, V South African Scottish. 

Piper A. Gray, J 

When the Germans advanced on the Cambrai front in March, 1918, the pipers were 
frequently called upon to serve in the ranks in various capacities. At Houdincourt they 
were suddenly required to reinforce a position and piled their pipes on the ground. 
A shell burst destroyed the whole of the pipes. For gallantry when acting as despatch 
runners Pipe Major Grieve got the D.C.M. and Pipers Waterhouse and Gray the Military 
Medal. 

Pipe Major J. Robertson, 2nd Auckland Regiment. 

The pipers served in the ranks. Pipe Major Robertson received the D.C.M. for 
conspicuous gallantry at Bapaume. 

Piper A. Aitken, 1 , . ... 
_, r _ „ >42nd Australians. 

Piper R. Gillespie, J * 

These men were employed as scouts and both received the Military Medal for 
valuable observation work prior to the action at Messines in June, 1917. 



FOREIGNERS AND THE PIPES 63 

FOREIGNERS AND THE PIPES 

Brought in contact as Scottish troops have been with those of our Allies 
it is not surprising that military pipers have attracted the attention of 
observers and writers who, before the war, knew nothing of their existence. 
From the early days of the war the pipes, the tartan and the kilt aroused 
the liveliest interest in France ; and perhaps the sincerest tribute to them 
is the fact that, in their caricatures of the nations, the Germans usually 
depicted the British soldier as a particularly unattractive Highlander. 

At first the French writers were mildly sarcastic about the players of the 
" cornemuse," and regarded them as an amiable weakness of the comrades 
of the " auld alliance " ; but gradually they discovered that pipes and 
tartan were the outward and visible signs of a spirit which won their whole- 
hearted admiration, and then their attitude changed. 

Describing an attack by the 51st Division a French observer wrote : 

" Resolutely they crossed what seemed to be impossible ground . . . they 
charged to the shrill sounds of the bagpipes . . . they charged like heroes 
of Walter Scott — leurs bonnets a rubans et leur jupes de danseuses." 

Though the Breton bignon, the cornemuse, the German dudelsackpfeife 
are no longer — if they ever were — instruments of war, the instinctive admira- 
tion for the pipes remains in the most unexpected quarters ; and in France, 
Flanders, Italy, the Balkans, and even the occupied portions of Germany > 
" piob mhor " has aroused race memories long dormant. One effect of 
this is the demand which has recently arisen in Italy for pipes from this 
country ; another is the fact that the French Government have added a 
painting of a piper by a French artist to the official collection of war pictures. 

American observers were often very ignorant of the mysteries of the 
bagpipe. A writer in the Boston Evening Transcript, after eulogising the 
piper as a military institution, informs his readers that in the hands of a 
really skilled performer the strains of the pipes can be heard for a distance 
of six miles against the wind or ten miles if the conditions are favourable. 
The writer may have been of M'Crimmon descent, but his enthusiasm 
exceeded his powers of observation. 



64 THE PIPES OF WAR 

One thing is quite certain, viz., whatever their inmost feelings regarding 
the musical qualities of the pipes, foreigners generally appreciate their 
military value in war and share the opinion of the court-martial in 1746 that 
they must be regarded as an " instrument of war." 

The Germans certainly were not slow in forming an estimate of the 
military value of the piper. From a very early stage in the war they learned 
to associate the instrument with a type of troops for whose mentality, 
as exhibited in the attack, they had more respect than sympathy, and 
the piper at once became a marked man whenever he went over the top. 
The casualties among pipers while playing would of themselves suggest 
that this was the case ; but the statements of officer prisoners show that 
orders were given to pick off pipers for precisely the same reason as officers 
commanding platoons or companies. 

THE PIPES IN CAPTIVITY 

Even pipers fall into the hands of the enemy occasionally, but they 
were never allowed to take their instruments with them into captivity. 
Gradually, as " comforts," pipes were sent out to individual officers and 
men ; and the following letter from an officer of the Gordon Highlanders 
who was at Friedberg Camp, indicates how popular pipe music became 
among his fellow-prisoners of the Allied armies. 

" Friedberg, 11/1/1917. 

Though only a young player I play here every day and do not find 
people too hostile to me. The Russians, French and even the Germans 
greet me with great interest and seem to find pleasure in listening to me — 
though as I said I am no great player ; the most unsympathetic are always 
to be found among the ranks of the " Sassenach." I learnt to play in 1911, 
on joining my Regiment, under George MacLennan, who was Pipe-Major 
at that time. While on leave in Edinburgh I used to have lessons with 
his father — J no. MacLennan. Up till now I have only attempted " The 
Glen is mine " and " Struan Robertson " in Piobaireachd, but having 
been thoroughly taught by the MacLennans I naturally follow their way 




PIPER KENNETH MACKAY, CAMERON HIGHLANDERS 
At Quatre-Bras 

From the Painting by Lochhart Bogle, by kind permission of the Officers 
of the 1st Cameron Highlanders 



THE PIPES IN CAPTIVITY 65 

of thinking. Yesterday I played to a Russian who is a very good player of 
the piano. He was delighted with the Pipes and I could not play too 
many tunes for him. Strathspeys and Reels are greatly appreciated by all 
our Russian friends. Last St. Andrew's Day we organized an Exhibition 
of dancing which was a complete success. As the Scottish Colony here 
is so small we asked the Russians to come and help us. This they did 
right well with dances and songs, the music being provided, in both cases, 
by " Balalaika," or Russian national instrument. For our part we danced 
two foursome Reels (dancing two different sets of steps), a Sword Dance 
and a Highland Schottische. In the latter dance we each took a Russian 
as a partner, they having been trained up for the event. We sang " Bonnie 
Dundee," " Lassies of Scotland," " MacPherson," and finished up with 
" Auld Lang Syne." For the Reels my Russian friend provided the music 
on the piano. Our costume was of course improvised. Kilt, shoes and 
hose we had, we wore white shirts with lace cuffs, a strip of tartan fastened 
with a brooch at the shoulder to do duty as a plaid and a black velvet band 
with a lace ruffle, falling down in front, round our necks. Our sporans, 
with the exception of one which was made out of a local rabbit, all came 
from home. I had several pretty compliments paid to me by the Russians 
and French, both on our costume and dancing. Five of us took part 
altogether. I wonder if it would be too much to ask you to send me instruc- 
tions for dancing the " Lochaber Broadswords " and the " SeannTriubhas," 
in case we have the misfortune to pass another St. Andrew's Day here in 
Germany. If we do we shall give another Exhibition and I would like 
to be able to vary it. I only know 12 Strathspey steps and 8 Reel steps. 
Since I have been a prisoner I have taught over 30 people to dance the 
Reel — including two Frenchmen and one Russian, and at present I have 
five pupils on the chanter. We are 16 Scots here, so can you say we are 
losing our national distinctions ? I have only told you this because I 
thought it would interest you." 

In Holland, in the internment camps, an organised pipe band was 
instituted by the writer of the above letter, and consisted of thirteen pipers 
of whom two were pipe majors. 



66 THE PIPES OF WAR 

MILITARY PIPE BANDS, AND REFORM 

In preparing this record of the pipe bands of our Armies during the 
war the opportunity has been taken of consulting pipe presidents and pipe 
majors as to the present condition of military piping and the manner in 
which obvious defects might be remedied. Like other experts they exhibit 
divergences of opinion, sometimes as regards the nature of the defects, 
sometimes as to the best method of remedying them. In certain matters, 
however, there is absolute unanimity, and these are deserving of attention 
by the military authorities. 

" Sergeant piper." — Throughout the Army there is, and has always 
been, a strong objection to the title of " sergeant piper," which in official 
parlance is employed instead of " pipe major." No one ever calls a pipe 
major a sergeant piper, except in returns ; and withdrawal of this modern 
and indefensible title could result in nothing but good. As there is no 
financial aspect involved in the change, it would be a graceful and inexpensive 
concession to a body of men to whom the Army and the nation owe much. 

Rank of the Pipe Major. — On another point there is absolute unanimity 
of opinion, viz., the rank of the pipe major. As responsible for a band 
possibly numbering twenty or more pipers, the pipe major ought to have the 
same rank as a bandmaster. To limit the career of a piper to the possibility 
of becoming a pipe major with the rank of sergeant is to prevent good 
men accepting the position ; and many a man, seeing he can hope for no 
advancement, leaves the pipes and returns to the ranks, thus getting a 
chance of rising to warrant rank. 

This question of rank has a most important bearing on the interests 
of piping generally, and is therefore a national one. As instructor to 
his men the pipe major should be a first-class performer himself, and 
this — although the public appear to be unaware of the fact — involves 
long and assiduous training. It is useless asking a man to attain the neces- 
sary standard of excellence for this purpose and to offer him the pay of a 
sergeant in return. The consequence is pipe majors are not always the 
best pipers — from the professional point of view — in their units ; and this 



MILITARY PIPE BANDS, AND REFORM 67 

ought to be remedied, even though it does cost the nation the difference 
between the emoluments of a warrant officer and of a sergeant in each 
unit. 

The Appointment of " Piper. "—Another necessary reform, which also 
has the merit of costing nothing, is the official recognition of " piper " 
as an appointment. In the Army " drummer " is an appointment, but 
a piper is a private. 

One result of this is that, on mobilisation, all pipers revert to the ranks, 
excepting six (including the sergeant piper) per battalion. Apart altogether 
from the special liability to casualties among the " full pipers " when playing 
in action, it is evident that so small a band may, under the ordinary conditions 
of modern warfare, be put out of action ; and then great difficulty is 
experienced in raising another band. In many battalions during the war 
this happened, sometimes more than once ; and it is these battalions which 
are most insistent on the strength being twelve instead of six pipers. 

Lowland regiments. — A grievance which cries for remedy at the hands 
of the War Office is the treatment of pipers in Lowland regiments. The 
official view appears to be that the existence of the pipes in regiments 
such as the Royal Scots, the K.O.S.B.'s and others is an unreasonable 
concession to a sentiment which is vulgarly called " Scotch," but which, 
though believed to be nebulous, happens to be too strong for the military 
reformers to ignore altogether. This view indicates ignorance of the history 
of the pipes and of the Lowland regiments ; the one may be pardoned, 
the other is inexcusable. 

It is absolutely certain that Lowland regiments had pipers before the 
existing Highland regiments were raised at all ; and the pipes were a national 
instrument all over the Lowlands for centuries before there was any Regular 
Army at all. 

This being so it is quite illogical that the maintenance of their pipe bands 
should be a greater financial burden on officers of a Lowland than of a High- 
land regiment. The value of the institution, from a military point of view, 
is the same in both ; and pipe bands should be treated as part of the recog- 
nised establishment in one as in the other. 



68 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Standardisation of military pipe music. — There is one grave defect in 
military piping which is capable of being remedied quite easily. Anyone 
who knows anything of piping knows that each individual piper learns 
his tunes after the setting of some well-known authority, and is for ever 
after prepared to maintain that that version alone is the correct one. Un- 
fortunately every battalion has its own setting for every tune played in 
the band and declines to admit the possibility of any other setting being used 
in any circumstances. Even in the case of distinctively regimental tunes, 
e.g. " Cabar Feidh," the two Regular battalions of the Seaforth Highlanders 
play — or used to play, just before the war — different settings of that tune, 
and a man transferred from one battalion to another had to learn the slight 
differences which his new unit preferred. The same remarkable indivi- 
duality exists in every battalion and makes it very difficult indeed to get 
a number of pipe bands to play even the best-known tunes together without 
considerable practice. 

This is quite wrong. By all means let the individual piper learn and 
adhere to the setting of piobaireachd by his favourite authority ; but to 
have as many settings of an ordinary march as there are battalions in the 
Army is not to the advantage of piping. 

The remedy is simple enough, — the standardisation of pipe tunes for 
military purposes, in precisely the same manner as obtains with the National 
Anthems and trumpet and bugle calls ; and, just as no departure to meet 
regimental custom or prejudice is permitted in the case of these latter, 
so the setting laid down for the Army in the case of pipe tunes should be 
strictly denned and adhered to. 

The superiority of one setting over another does not enter into the 
question ; what is essential is uniformity. 

Many pipe majors have pointed to this standardisation as one of the 
most important measures to be adopted after the war, in the interests of 
piping in the Army. 

Neglect of Piobaireachd. — It is open to argument whether the military 
piper does or does not exert a determining influence on the cause of piping 
generally. Allowing fully for the great value of the recognised societies and 



MILITARY PIPE BANDS, AND REFORM 69 

the periodical piping meetings throughout Scotland, in keeping up the 
standard of the national instrument and offering inducements for its study, 
it will be readily admitted that, by their mere existence as permanent 
institutions, military pipe bands keep up the cult of the pipes, at home 
and abroad, to so marked a degree that any decline in their standard must 
have a deleterious effect on piping generally. 

To what extent, then, if at all, is military piping conducted to the best 
advantage of the cause of piping, and is there room for reform ? 

It may be taken as generally the case that, in so far as a military pipe 
band is regarded as designed for duty on the march, and for various routine 
military musical duties, it fulfils its functions tothe satisfaction of allconcerned. 
It is too much to expect the War Office — or even individual commanding 
officers — to accept the view that neglect of " ceol mor " is not compensated 
for by a high standard of excellence in the " middle music " and in dances 
and marches. Individual pipers in every battalion are players of " piobair- 
eachd " ; but any one with experience of regimental or garrison piping 
competitions knows how small is the number of men who enter for that 
class of event, as compared with performers of the march, strathspey 
and reel. 

The explanation is simple enough — the men play what their audience 
demands, and " Leaving Glen Urquhart " or " Duntroon " appeals to more 
people, military or civil, than the finest piobaireachd. Pipe majors, even 
when themselves anxious to teach their pipers the higher class of music, 
recognise that to attempt to do so would often be wasted labour — men 
come to them too old to make piobaireachd players, and, in any case, the 
opportunities for playing it in the Army are too few to make it worth while 
trying to get men to go through the initial drudgery. Being human they 
naturally turn to march and dance music ; and the result is that, except 
in the case of professional pipers who have enlisted, the soldier piper generally 
ignores altogether the classical side of his music. 

This is a defect in military piping, and it should be remedied by insisting 
that, before promotion to pipe major, a piper should pass an examination 
in every branch of pipe music. 



?o THE PIPES OF WAR 

A school uf piping. — The time has come to establish a school of piping for 
the army at which likely pipers could undergo refresher courses of instruction 
in all classes of pipe music, in the correct writing of music — a subject which 
is lamentably ignored, in the theory of music, and in methods of instruction 
of recruit pipers. In other words it should fulfil the same functions as 
regards the training of future pipe majors, and the improvement of the 
standard of playing in the army, that Kneller Hall does in the case of 
bandmasters and military musical education generaUy. 

No piper should be promoted pipe major until he has undergone a 
complete course lasting at least six months, and has passed an examination 
at the end of it. 

Such a school should be open to civilian pipers and should become the 
Macrimmon school of to-day. 

The Piobaireachd Society have already decided to institute a memorial 
to fallen pipers which shall take this form, and to the necessary endowment 
the proceeds of this book will be devoted. But the army must contribute 
towards its maintenance. 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 

THESE Records are not based on military returns, and are therefore 
not, in all cases, complete. They have been obtained by corre- 
spondence with commanding officers, pipe presidents, pipe majors and 
many others, but the exigencies of war have prevented the information 
so obtained being absolutely accurate. 

In many cases, units, reduced by fighting to mere cadres, have been 
absorbed into other units and their pipers scattered ; in others, the field 
records of the units themselves have been lost or have ceased to be available ; 
and, in several, correspondence has been abruptly terminated by the corres- 
pondent himself being killed or wounded. 

In the circumstances it is satisfactory that so much information has 
been obtained. 

THE SCOTS GUARDS 
ist Battalion. 
During the first few months of the war there were very heavy casualties 
among the pipers, and the band soon ceased to exist in consequence. It was 
reconstituted in 1916, but was not again utilised in the front line. 

REG. NO. RANK. NAME. RECORD. 

Pipe Major Alex. Ross 
3707 Sergt. Samuel Richardson Died of wounds, Battle of Aisne, 

14/9/14- 
6495 Lance-Cpl. David Smith Wounded, the Aisne, 14/9/14- 

6926 Piper Kenneth M'Kay Wounded, Ypres, 31/10/14. 

6999 „ Bruce Hobson Wounded, Ypres, 31 /10/14 ; taken 

prisoner. 
99! n Alexander Martin, D.C.M. Won D.C.M. ; killed 19/2/16. 

71 



72 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


8543 


Piper 


James M'Kenzie 


Killed, Ypres, 31/10/14 ; de 
spatches. 


7529 


,, 


Murdoch M'Donald 


Wounded. 


8423 


Corporal 


James Carstairs 


Wounded, Ypres, 26/10/14. 


6456 


Piper 


Robert Paton 


Wounded, Ypres, 31 /i 0/14. 


5437 


,, 


A. M'Rury. 




1 1 150 


,, 


Christopher M'Pherson 




9456 


" 


Alan M'Phedran 
Hector M'Nair 






,, 


J. Smith 


Wounded. 




,, 


Thomas Anderson 






,, 


Malcolm M'Kenzie 


Killed, Oct. 1914. 




„ 


J. M'Donald 


Wounded. 




M 


E. Kennedy 






,, 


J. Ormiston 








D. M'Innes 






Corpl. 


D. Howison 






Piper 


A. Carmichael 


Killed, 1915. 




,, 


T. Brownlow, D.C.M., M.M 


Military Medal, D.C.M. 






D. Taylor 






tl 


D. Marshall 






,, 


C. M'Pherson 






,, 


J. Coventry 






,, 


R. Paton 


Wounded. 




tl 


J. Johnstone 






,, 


W. M'Leod 


Wounded. 




,, 


C M'Rae 


Wounded. 



2nd Battalion 
There were heavy casualties in the Ypres fighting in Oct. 1914, and by 
the end of March, 1915, practically no pipers remained. The band was 
subsequently reconstituted, but like that of the sister battalion, was as 
far as possible saved from further decimation. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

Pipe Major William Ross 

7743 Sergt. Andrew M'Intosh 
Donald M'Intosh 

3681 Lance-Sgt. Archibald M'Kimm 

Lance-Cpl. Hector M'Kimm 

5539 Piper Alexander Russell 

7281 ,, William Grant 

8053 ,, John Connor 



Invalided. 



Wounded and taken prisoner, 

Zonnebeke, 26/10/14. 
Killed, Zonnebeke, 26/10/14. 
Wounded, Ypres, 21/10/14. 
Wounded, Gheluvelt, 28/10/14. 
Wounded, 28/10/14. 



THE SCOTS GUARDS 



73 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


7725 Piper 


James Welstead 


8341 


William M'Donald 


8349 


Archibald M'Pherson 




M. M'Pherson 


8081 


Charles M'Guire 


8852 


Colin Livingstone 


11148 


James Coventry 


7°39 


James M'Donald 




T. Marshall 




C Munro 




D. Marshall 




W. Craig 




D. M'Phedran 




J. M'Phedran 




D.jM' Arthur 




J. Walker 



record. 
Wounded and taken prisoner, 

Zonnebeke, 26/10/14. 
Wounded ; invalided, 26/10/14. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 1 1 /3/15. 

Died of wounds at Ypres, 29/10/14. 
Wounded, Ypres, 27/10/14; burned 

with liquid fire, Neuve Chapelle, 

I3/3/I5- 

Wounded, 13/3/15. 



Wounded, Ypres, 27/10/14. 



These two battalions, in the first year, had 7 pipers killed and 17 wounded. 

THE ROYAL SCOTS 
ist Battalion 

In the capture of Karadzakot Zir, in the Salonika operations, the battalion 
was played to the attack by Pipers Collins, Clancy, Smart and Mallin, and 
the CO. considers that their services on this occasion " were of inestimable 
value ; it was largely due to the presence of the pipers with the leading 
wave that the enemy evacuated their trenches and retired in disorder." 
Besides their value on the march and in billets " they were invaluable in 
inspiring esprit dc corps under fire." 

Pipers were also employed as observers, messengers, scouts, etc. 



Promoted Pipe Major, ist R.S.F. 
Wounded, May 191 5, France. 

Invalided. 



REG. NO 


NAME. 




RAt> 


IO369 


Pipe Major 


G. 


J. Allan 


8473 


Sergt. 


J- 


M'Nab 


IOI22 


Corpl. 


R 


SOFTLEY 


IOI23 


,, 


E 


Collins 


IO183 


Piper 


J- 


Clancy 


10754 


,. 


J- 


Burns 



74 REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


RECORD. 


II002 


Corpl. 


W. M'MlLLAN, D.C.M. 




IOO32 


Piper 


P. Mallin 


Invalided. 


9885 


» 


W. M'Arthur 
E. Duguid 


Invalided. 


IO639 


,, 


J. Smart 




8450 


,, 


R. Drummond 


Wounded, May 191 5, France. 


3929I 


,, 


H. Thomson 




I0273 


,, 


R. Armour 


Wounded, Karadzakot, Sept. 1916. 


13859 


,, 


D. White 




43315 


„ 


H. M'Williams 


Wounded, Aug. 1918. 


32844 




J. Noble 




48594 


,, 


D. M'Donald 


Died in hospital, Bulgaria. 


ID443 


,, 


A. Alves 




200297 


,, 


W. Hovan 





2nd Battalion 

The 2nd battalion took part in the original fighting of the war. During 
the retirement from Mons the pipers were chiefly employed as despatch- 
runners and orderlies. They went out with 16 pipers and lost 6 during 
the first few weeks. Four pipers, including Pipe Major Duff, were taken 
prisoner at Audincourt on 26th August, 1914. 

During the Somme fighting they were employed as stretcher-bearers 
and suffered severe casualties. On one occasion they did invaluable service 
in bringing water up to the battalion. At Ypres in September, 1916, the 
pipers were carrying barbed wire up to the front when a shell wounded 
three. After that the band was withdrawn from the front line and employed 
in playing the battalion to and from the trenches. By the end of 1918 
there had been 7 pipers killed, 16 wounded and 4 taken prisoner, and, to 
quote the pipe major, " I have seen 3 bands disappear and the fourth is 
now on German soil." 

Apart from the difficulty of replacement of casualties one of the 
reasons why pipers were not used in attacks was because it was felt 
" when the men heard the pipes they would lose control of themselves 
and, in their eagerness to get forward would be apt to rush into their 
own barrage." 



THE ROYAL SCOTS 



75 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

8696 Pipe Major J. Duff 

5815 Pipe Major J. A. Dunbar 

9357 Lance-Cpl. G. M'Donald 



325127 


Corpl. 


J. MacKay 


10535 


Piper 


D. Wheelan 


9865 


- 


A. Smart 


9867 


Lance Cpl. 


Groves 


11161 


Piper 


J. Steele 


9356 


Piper 


J. Hunter 


10541 




F. M'Ewan 


1 1065 




H. M'Leod 


11484 




D. Lindsay 
A. Mackinlay 


4918 




A. Cruickshanks 


9356 




R. Hunter 


13459 




William Fisher 


250240 




William Black 


8516 




J. Robertson 


325547 




R. Robertson 


8450 




J. Drummond 


8906 




J. Henry 


9787 




J. YOUNGSON 


9061 




J. Johnston 


7929 


„ 


J. Anderson 


3190 


„ 


J. Thompson 


10536 




E. Duguid 


270014 




J. Sinclair 


32553 




W. Hutcheson 


11613 




A. Macdonald 


8899 




R. Scholes 


10178 




J. Scott 


1 1 486 




J. Clark 


270037 




J. Paul 


270045 




A. Stocks 


325080 




R. Johnstone 


250240 




W. Black 


270821 




D. Shane 


"437 


Lance Cpl. 


A. SWINNEY. 



record. 
Wounded, taken prisoner, Audin- 
court, 26/8/14. 

Wounded, taken prisoner, Audin- 

court, 26/8/14. 
Wounded, 23/1 1/17. 
Wounded, taken piisoner, Audin- 

court. 
Wounded, taken prisoner, Audin- 

court. 
Wounded, Kemmel, Nov. 1914. 
Wounded, Kemmel, Nov. 1914. 
Wounded, Ypres, 28/5/15. 
Wounded, 23/5/15, 12/4/18, 

8/10/18. 
Recommended for D.C.M. ; 

wounded, Ypres, 28/5/15. 
Killed, 4/5/17. 
Killed, 9/4/18. 
Killed, 27/9/18. 
Wounded, 23/5/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15 ; killed, 

15/4/16. 
Wounded, 12/11/17. 
Killed, Croix Barbes, 13/10/14. 
Wounded, 9/4/18. 
Killed, The Bluff, 23/1/16. 
Wounded, Somme, 13/7/16. 
Wounded, The Bluff, 4/3/16. 
Wounded, 13/9/14. 
Wounded, Kemmel, April, 1915. 
Died, 30/8/15. 
Killed (gas), 10/5/18. 
Wounded, 9/4/17. 
Wounded, 26/3/18. 
Wounded, 12/4/18. 



7 6 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



4th Battalion (Queen's Edinburgh Rifles) 
This battalion served in Gallipoli, and took part in the attack on Achi 
Baba on 28th June, 1915. On this occasion the Pipe Major John Buchan 
was killed when playing along the line as the regiment commenced their 
advance. 



Killed, Gallipoli, 28/6/15. 
Died of dysentery, June, 1915. 
Wounded on Achi Baba, 28/6/15. 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


Pipe Major 


Andrew Buchan 


Piper 


C. Rutherford 


,, 


E. Alexander 


,, 


J. Christie 


,, 


A. Murray 


,, 


J. Duncan 


„ 


W. Armstrong 


„ 


J. Hughes 


,, 


P. Laidlaw 



5th Battalion (Queen's Edinburgh Rifles) 

During the Gallipoli fighting the whole of the pipers became casualties, 
some of them while acting as pipers, others while serving in the ranks. 
Shortly after the landing, 1235 Piper Sinclair gathered together some 
stragglers and successfully covered the retirement of his battalion at a 
critical period. He himself died of his wounds. The band ceased to exist 
until again started in 1916. Writing of their subsequent experiences the 
commanding officer says " they gloriously upheld the traditions achieved 
by their predecessors." 



Killed, 2/5/15, Gallipoli. 

Died of wounds, 8/5/15, Gallipoli. 

Killed, 28/4/15. 

Killed, 7/5/15. 

Wounded, April, 1915 , Gallipoli. 

Wounded, 7/5/15. 

Wounded, May, 1915. 

Wounded, 4/6/15 ; and again, 

Gallipoli. 
Wounded, 28/6/15, Gallipoli. 
Killed, July, 1916. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


1417 


Pipe Major 


James Peden 


1303 


Piper 


G. Hardie 


1235 


,, 


W. Sinclair 


766 


,, 


A. Lawson 


1824 


,, 


G. W. Downie 


47 1 


,, 


J. Uncles 


1885 


Corpl. 


D. Swan 


1156 


Piper 


J. G. Scott 


1364 


» 


N. M'Elhinny 


1539 




W. M'Ivor 


8109 


,, 


David Ross 



THE ROYAL SCOTS 



77 



6th Battalion 
Pipers were almost entirely employed behind the front line owing to 
the difficulty of replacement. 

The battalion was ultimately merged with the 5th Royal Scots. 



.Died, Egypt. 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


Pipe Major 


R. Anderson 


Corpl. 


J. Greer 




R. Rough 


Piper 


T. Leake 


,, 


A. M'Kenzie 




R. Bremner 


,, 


J. Fisher 


" 


R. Irvine 




5/6 Battalion 


REG. NO. RANK. 


name. 


Pipe Major 


J. A. Gordon 


Corpl. 


A. Jack 


Piper 


R. Davidson 


,, 


R. Martin 


,, 


R. Fletcher 


,, 


J. Marshall 


„ 


J. Hannah 



7th Battalion 

This battalion lost the pipe major and 2 pipers in a railway accident 
before going overseas. While in Gallipoli they were employed in the ranks. 
After the Gallipoli operations the band was brought up to strength and 
played the battalion into Palestine to the old air of " Blue Bonnets over 
the Border." 

record. 
Killed in train in England. 
Killed in train in England. 
Killed in train in England. 
Wounded. 

Wounded in train smash. 
Killed, 12/7/15. 

Killed, 6/11/17, Palestine 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 




Sergt. Piper 


James Gear 




Piper 


George Smeaton 
Alex. Nicol 




Lance-Cpl. 


James Campbell 




Piper 


James Pearson 
Fred Turner 
Thomas Clachers 


25II4I 




Peter M'Neill 



7 8 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



8th Battalion 
At Festubert and elsewhere the pipers were employed as stretcher- 
bearers, and Pipe Major J. M'Dougall was awarded the D.C.M. " for gallant 
conduct under very trying circumstances." After the first two years it 
was decided to keep the band out of action as far as possible. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


7271 


Pipe Major 


J. H. M'Dougall, D.C.M. 


Wounded, 22/5/15 ; D.C.M. 


7124 


„ 


J. Sterrick 


Time expired, 6/5/16. 


335120 


„ 


J. Stevenson 




325II9 


Lance- Cpl. 


S. Thomson 




335062 


Piper 


D. Sheills 




335II3 




A. Euman 




7059 


,, 


J. Stirling 


Wounded, 20/5/15. 


594 




J. Martin 


Wounded, 21/12/14. 


335"8 


tt 


R. A. Dodds 




7112 


,, 


A. Sterrick 


Invalided, Dec, 1914. 


7132 


,, 


R. Crawford 


Invalided, May, 1915. 


819 


,, 


G. Darling 


Wounded, 13/10/16. 


4244 


„ 


T. Forrest 


Invalided, 26/2/15. 


4467 




A. NOTMAN 


Invalided, 13/10/16. 


330041 




W. Brown 




335074 


,, 


F. Confrey 


Invalided, 10/8/18. 


330347 




J. Dickson 




330400 


,, 


G. Reid 




10027 




A. Methven 




9885 




R. M'Arthur 




42591 


,, 


H. Cameron 




302447 




J. O'Donnell 





9TH Battalion 
The band was kept out of action as far as possible as it was regarded 
as an invaluable asset on the march and in billets. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

Pipe Major C. M'Kinley 

William Reid 
Lance-Cpl. A. L. Forsyth, M.M. 



Piper 



J. M'Ewan 

R. Houston 
J. Urquhart 



record. 
Wounded, 17/5/15. 

Wounded, 17/5/15 ; awarded Mili- 
tary Medal ; killed, 23/4/17. 

Wounded, 7/4/15 ; and again 
23/5/I5- 



THE ROYAL SCOTS 



79 



REG. 


NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 




Piper 


W. B. Martin 
J. Charge 
H. C. Clark 
C. Manderson 


Invalided. 




Corpl. 


G. Lauder 
James Robertson 


Killed, 23/5/17. 




Lance-Cpl. 


E. M'Donald 






Piper 


William Ritchie 


Wounded, 25/3/18. 








William Legg 


(Lieut. Royal Air Force) 








A. Cannon 


Invalided. 








J. Tully 










G. COCKBURN 










J. Robertson 










J. Clark 


Wounded, Soissons, 29/7 








P. M'Lean 










J. Armstrong 










W. Duffy 










W. Ross 










D. Ross 










R. Connolly 





iith Battalion 
In spite of their frequent requests to be allowed to play in action the 
pipers were not permitted to do so, as the band was regarded as too valuable. 

REG. NO. RANK. NAME. RECORD. 

3451 Pipe Major J. Clark 

227629 Sergt. W. Sinclair 

27230 Piper Robert Marshall Wounded, 7/7/16. 

8906 Lance-Cpl. W. Henry 

200521 Piper W. Christie 

29304 ,, G. Combe 

29519 „ J. Harper 

29331 ,, T. Hermiston 

41216 ,, R. Johnstone 

40063 ,, G. Muir 

20857 .. W. Stewart 

40057 ,, W. Bruce 

40787 ,, A. Young Wounded, 23/3/18. 

27237 ,, A. Potts 

J. Kane Killed, 14/7/16. 

12TH Battalion 
During the advance of the 26th Brigade at Loos in September, 1915, the 
companies were played to the attack by their pipers, and suffered heavily. 



8o 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



Normally they were kept out of the front line owing to the difficulty of 
replacement. During the German offensive of 1918 they were in the ranks, 
and Pipe Major Colgan got the Military Medal " for good leadership and 
courage." The casualties among them were heavy, two having been killed 
and nine wounded. 



REG. NO, 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 




13283 


Pipe Major 


A. Colgan, M.M. 


Military Medal. 




IOI22 


,, 




R. SOFTLEY 


Wounded, 25/9/15. 




I299I 


Piper 




Thomas Hislop 


Killed, 25/9/15. 




2OO737 


Lance 


■Cpl. 


P. West 


Killed. 




13459 


" 




William Fisher 


Wounded, Sept., 1915 ; 
15/4/16. 


killed, 


270322 


Pipei 




H. Barrie 






3H37 






D. Bowes 


Wounded, 25/9/15. 




I6036 


,, 




C. Campbell 






13530 






W. Cowe 


Wounded, 25/9/15. 




43280 


,, 




J. Gray 






I299I 






D. M'Donald 


Wounded, 25/9/15. 




27OO99 






J. MTntyre 






34°4 


,, 




N. MTntyre 






270324 






J. M'Knight 
G. M'Phee 






43345 


,, 




A. Robertson 






6392 


,, 




J. Robertson 


Wounded four times. 




270326 


,, 




D. Ross 






40300 






D. Thomson 


Wounded, 191 6. 




18516 






G. Watson 


Wounded, 1916. 





13TH Battalion 
At Loos, 25th September, 1915, and in subsequent actions, the pipers 
were employed as bearers. There were heavy casualties among them in 
the last advance in 1918, when 2 were killed and 5 wounded. 



Pipe Major Murdoch Macdonald 



record. 
Invalided ; died, 9/2/16. 





John Mouat 


Mentioned in despatches, 


Sergt. 


Robert M'Kay 




,, 


Thornton 


Invalided, 1917. 


Corpl. 


F. Dalgleish 




Piper 


John Ford 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15 


,, 


John Marr 


Wounded, 26/8/18. 


,, 


William M'Neill 


Wounded, 26/8/18. 


,, 


Peter Campbell 


Wounded, 26/8/18. 



THE ROYAL SCOTS 



RANK. 


NAME. 


'iper 


Thomas Flood 




• 


Robert Campbell 






John Crowborough 




, 


John Falconer 




f 


John Ferrier 




f 


John Kilpatrick 




t 


John Macmillan 




, 


John Rankin 




, 


John Rough 






Robert Norris 




, 


Angus Macdonald 




t 


William Tweedie 




f 


Robert Mitchell 




, 


J. Findlay 






F. Gray 




t 


G. Guild 




t 


M. M'Lennan 




, 


F. Morris 




t 


J. M'Lean 




t 


W. Whitehead 




, 


J. Clunie 



record. 
Killed, 26/8/18. 
Wounded, 25/9/15 ; taken prisoner 

and died. 
Wounded, April, 1918. 
Invalided. 

Invalided. 
Invalided . 
Invalided. 
Invalided. 
Wounded, 2 7/1 /1 6. 

Wounded, 28/3/18. 
Died of wounds, 26/8/18. 



15TH Battalion 
The battalion was played to the attack on Fricourt on the 1st July, 1916, 
by Pipe Major David Anderson, who was subsequently awarded the Croix 
de Guerre. Only one decoration was available for the Division, and his 
was considered the most conspicuous act of bravery. 

i6th Battalion 
After suffering heavy losses this battalion was absorbed by the 9th Royal 
Scots. 



Invalided. 

Killed, Somme, July 1916. 

Killed, Arras, April 1917. 



RANK. 


NAMI 


Pipe Major 


W. Duguid 


Corpl. 




D. Sinclair 


Lance 


Cpl. 


P. GOLDIE 


Piper 




W. Adams 
M. Bethune 
H. Grey 
D. Hendry 
A. Jack 
A. Loch 



Wounded, 1918. 



82 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



RANK. 


NAME 


Piper 


A. Noon 


„ 


G. Philp 


tr 


D. Ross 


tr 


J. Thomson 


■■ 


H. Tuohy 




E. Tuohy 




A. Wilson 



Killed, Arras, April 191 7. 
Invalided. 



Wounded, Somme, 1916 ; in- 
valided. 



17TH Battalion 
The pipers, when employed in action at all, went as bearers. 





RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


Pipe Major 


M'DONALD 


Invalided. 


" 




Donald M'Lean 


Became Lieut. 1st Gordons ; killed 
July 1918. 


)f 




A. M'Phedran 




Corpl. 




C. M'KlNNON 




Lance 


Cpl. 


Lawrie 
J. Moon 


Prisoner of war. 


Piper 




Ramage 
Calder 


Wounded ; invalided. 








Swanson 


Wounded ; invalided. 








Wilson 


Invalided. 




9 




Douglas 


Invalided. 




t 




M'Anulty 










Peebles 






t 




M'Garvie 






t 




Brennan 






, 




J. Thomson 






, 




A. Collins 






, 




Jas. Hogg 






, 




P. Mack 





THE ROYAL SCOTS FUSILIERS 
ist Battalion 
The battalion was played to the attack on the German trenches at Hooge 
on 16th June, 1915, by the Pipe Major David Campbell. 

RANK. NAME. RECORD. 

Pipe Major David Campbell Wounded, Hooge, 15/6/15. 

,, J. M'Nab From ist Royal Scots, 20/11/15. 



THE ROYAL SCOTS FUSILIERS 



83 



2ND Battalion 
After the first battle of Ypres only one piper remained, but a small 
band was made up from such acting pipers as could be spared from the 
trenches. Drafts from other battalions ultimately brought the band up 
to strength. The pipers who were taken prisoner, along with one of the 
officers, started a band in a German prison camp. 



RANK. 


NAME. 


RECORD. 


Pipe Major 


A. Meikle 


Prisoner of war. 


Sergt. 


D. Duncan 


Prisoner of war. 




J. Jamieson 


Wounded. 


(J 


D. Bryce 


Wounded. 


Corpl. 


H. Ellis 




,, 


A. W. Richardson 


Killed. 


tt 


J. Duff 


Wounded. 


,, 


A. Jennings 


Killed. 


Piper 


W. Cruickshank 


Piisoner of war. 




J. Urquhart 


Prisoner of war. 


,, 


J. Verrall 


Wounded. 




W. BUTTERWORTH 


Killed. 




A. M'Garva 


Prisoner of war. 


, ( 


W. Stewart 






G. Gillespie 


Three times wounded. 


,, 


J. Hunter 


Wounded. 


,, 


H. Fullstone 


Wounded. 




W. Moore 


Wounded ; invalided ; died, 


,, 


D. M'Lean 


Killed, Messines, 1917. 


,, 


M. Watt 




,, 


G. Lawrie 




M 


G. Prattis 




„ 


T. Alston 




,, 


G. Withers 


Invalided. 


tM 


C. Connor 


Invalided. 


,, 


J. Bain 




,, 


A. Lees 




n 


F. Coutts 




M 


G. Greig 




,, 


W. Sinclair 




„ 


A. Mathieson 





4TH Battalion 
Pipers in Gallipoli were originally employed as duty men in their com- 
panies, and in the action on 12th July, 1915, three of them were killed. 



8 4 REGIMENTAL RECORDS 

The band was gradually reduced to vanishing point, and was reconstituted 
in France in 1918 from men of the 7th R.S.F. In France they were kept 
out of the front as they were regarded as too valuable an institution to be 
lost again. 



Pipe Major 


M' Queen 




,, 




N. Shaw 






C. M'Innes 


Lance 


-Cpl. 


J. W. M'Allister 


Piper 




P. Greig 
J. Milner 
A. Gordon 


Lance 


Cpl. 


W. Highet 


Piper 




W. Batchelor ' 
J. Smith 
J. Rae 
R. Storrie 
J. Kiddie 




„ 




J. Crews 




tt 




J. K. Stephen 




tt 




R. Currie 




tt 




J. Woods 




ff 




D. Innes 




tt 




H. Hoggan 




,, 




R. Hoggan 





Invalided, Nov. 1915. 

Died of wounds, Palestine, 2 1/4/1 7. 

Killed, Gallipoli, 12/7/15. 
Killed, Gallipoli, 1 2/7/1 5. 
Killed, Gallipoli, 12/7/15. 
Invalided, Nov. 191 5. 



Transferred from 6/7 Battalion to 4th Batt. 
on return to France from Palestine. 



5th Battalion 

In Gallipoli the pipers served in the ranks. The CO. considers, however, 
their value in keeping the men cheery, and on the march, so great that 
they should not be allowed in the front line at all. " When the men were 
exhausted and inclined to straggle the effect of the pipes was most marked, 
the men at once pulled themselves together." 



6909 Pipe Major 

24*387 

7797 Lance-Cpl. 

7613 Piper 

6348 

7107 

5726 Lance-Cpl. 
241579 Piper 



NAME. 

Andrew Thom 
John MacPhee 
John Murdoch 
Hugh Dick 

Alexander Caldwell 
Andrew Hope 
William Johnstone 
William Lenaghen 



Invalided 
Killed, 13/7/15- 
Wounded, 12/7/15. 



REG. NO. RANK. 

9806 Piper 
24001 1 
240190 ,, 

240834 



THE ROYAL SCOTS FUSILIERS 

NAME. REC 

James M'Connell 
Robert Magie 
Thomas Shanks 
H. Samson 



85 



7TH Battalion 
When the battalion went out it was found necessary to put the pipers 
in the ranks. After the amalgamation of the 7th with the 6th Battalion 
they were kept out of the front line for a time. 



RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


Pipe Major 


Watson 




Piper 


T. Marr 


Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 


n 


W. Marr 


Wounded. 


tf 


R. Rommie 


Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 


]( 


Balsillie 






Davidson 




tI 


W. Barclay 




„ 


M' Arthur 


Invalided. 


,, 


Finlayson 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15 



6th and 7TH Battalion. 



rank. 


name, 


Pipe Major 


D. Innes 


Piper 


J. Kiddie 


,, 


W. Craig 


„ 


J. Wood 




J. Stephens 




J. Crews 




R. Currie 


3t 


D. Tunes 


,, 


J. Jamieson 


fJ 


Claydon 


,, 


Balsillie 


,, 


Davidson 



The combined battalions were ultimately broken up, and the pipers 
transferred to the 4th Battalion, which had returned from Palestine with 
its pipe band no longer in existence. 



86 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



8th Battalion 
Owing to the difficult}? of replacing casualties the pipers were not allowed 
to go into action. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record 




Pipe Major 


H. Peters 
W. M'Cormick 
J. Duff 


Invalided. 




Corpl. 
Lance-Cpl. 


G. Gray 
A. Alves 






,, 


J. Noble 


Invalided. 




Piper 


J. M'Nab 
A. M'Kay 










P. M'Guinness 










J. Blaylock 










G. Glendinning 










F. Morrison 










W. Murray 










J. Ferguson 


Invalided. 








A. Lave 


Invalided. 








B. Paterson 


Invalided. 








R. Storie 


Invalided. 








J. M'Farlane 


Invalided. 








W. Haran 


Invalided. 








P. Abernethy 


Invalided. 






IITH 


Battalion 


REG. NO 


RANK. 


name. 


RECORD 


26522 

59663 

265732 

59415 
265763 


Pir 
Ser 
Pil 


>e Major 

gt- 
>er 


T. PORTEOUS 

R. Hailstones 

A. M'DONALD 

D. M'Bain 
A. Forbes 





THE KING'S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS 
ist Battalion 
In the landing on Gallipoli the pipers of the battalion had to take their 
places in the ranks in the first line fighting ; here they distinguished them- 
selves. During the subsequent operations in the Peninsula the pipers 
were employed in miscellaneous duties behind the front line. 



THE KING'S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS 



87 



Of the 10 pipers who landed only 4 remained to accompany the battalion 
on its evacuation. 

In France they were employed in any and every capacity ; "as bearers 
and ammunition carriers they had tasks to carry out that were almost 
superhuman, but as a band they ceased to exist until May 1917, when they 
were reconstituted. It was then decided to keep them out of the front line 
altogether." 

The opinion of the officers is that pipers are far too valuable an institution 
to be employed in action in any capacity. The CO. considers the band 
" plays no inconsiderable part in promoting the efficiency of a fighting 
force." 



8248 Pipe Major W. Mackenzie, M.M. 
6863 Sergt. 



8400 Corpl. 
11412 Piper 



7936 
11315 



8629 

9545 
10884 



F. PURGAVIE 

H. M'DONALD 

COLGAN 

HlGGINSON 

LlIXIE 

Maitland, M.M. 

R. Scott 

Turnbull 

Trotter 



Military Medal. 

Wounded, Flers, 25/1 1/16, while in 

charge of a Dump. 
Wounded, Suvla Bay, 10/8/15. 
Wounded, Gallipoli, 4/6/15. 
Killed while leading bayonet 

charge, Gallipoli, 26/4/15. 

Killed at Paschendaele, 27/4/17 ; 

awarded Military Medal. 
Wounded, Gallipoli, 4/6/15. 

Wounded, Gallipoli, 1/6/15 ; Cam- 
brai, 28/1 1/17. 



2ND Battalion 
The officers of the battalion regard the pipers as a most necessary adjunct 
to a unit on active service, but consider that owing to the difficulty of 
replacement they should not be employed in action. 

RECORD. 

Wounded, Givenchy, 27/9/15. 



Wounded twice. 



:eg. no 


RANK. 


NAME. 




Pipe Major 


J. MacIntyre 


II537 


,, 


W. Mackie 


9059 


Corpl. 


T. Hope 


10340 


,, 


L. Rodgers 


10693 


,, 


F. Cairns 


6342 


Piper 


W. Woods 


8401 


„ 


J. Black 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


RECORD 


10632 


Piper 


W. Macdonald 


Wounded. 


1 1 893 


,, 


M. Halliday 




III72 


,, 


1". Marr 


Wounded twice. 


40089 


,, 


G. Lockie 


Wounded. 


44039 


,, 


A. Bruce 




23492 


,, 


R. M'Roberts 




202225 




A. Lennox 




201229 


,, 


J. Cairney 




44069 


,, 


J. Cassidy 




9876 




J. Black 




8274 


,, 


J. Riddle 




8366 


„ 


J. Roach 


Prisoner. 


7152 


,, 


ROBB 


Wounded twice. 


22122 


,, 


J. Hall 





4th Battalion 
In Gallipoli the pipers were principally employed as messengers and 
bearers, and most of them became casualties. When the band was recon- 
stituted the pipers were kept out of the front line. 



Wounded. 

Wounded. 
Died of wounds. 
Died of wounds. 
Missing. 
Missing. 



REG. NO 




RANK. 


NAME. 


28 


Pipe Major 


C. Forbes 


6074 


Piper 


J. Young 


179 




W. Scott 


729 




, 


F. Wood 


478 




, 


J. LOCKHART 


593 




, 


B. MOWATT 


778 




, 


T. LUNHAM 


779 




, 


J. Kerr 


306 




, 


C. Street 


822 




, 


A. Hendry 



5th Battalion 
In Gallipoli the pipers were mostly employed as stretcher-bearers, and 
nearly all of them became casualties. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME 


record. 


1 163 


Lance 


Sgt. 


Porter 




1333 


Corpl. 




J. Priestly 


Wounded, 12/7/15. 


554 


Piper 




A. Erskine 


Congratulated for bravery 


686 


,, 




R. T. Arrall 


Wounded, 22/6/15. 


308 


,, 




R. Brown 


Killed, 1 2/7/1 5. 


833 


„ 




J. Clint 





THE KINGS OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS 



LG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record 


I760 


Piper 


T. E. Martin 


Killed, 12/7/15. 


1762 


,, 


H. C. Burnett 


Wounded, 30/6/15. 


995 


,, 


J. Dickson 




556 


,, 


J. Erskine 




1489 




J. Jackson 




1622 


,, 


D. M'Minn 




799 




M. Stewart 


Wounded, 12/7/15. 


1377 


,, 


D. Wilson 


Wounded, 12/7/15. 




,, 


Jas. Gorman 


Killed. 



6th Battalion. 
In the attack on the Hohenzollern redoubt in September 1915 the 
battalion was played over the top by the Pipe Major, Robert Mackenzie. 
The casualties in this action, 4 killed and 3 wounded, residted in the temporary 
disappearance of the band. At Arras, Ypres, and in later engagements, the 
men were employed as bearers. 

REG. NO 

14851 



). RANK. 


NAME. 


RECORD. 


Pipe Major 


R. Mackenzie 


Loos, 25/9/15 ; died of wounds 
despatches. 


,, 


T. Richardson 


Transferred to Depot. 


;, 


J. Day 




Corpl. 


J. Wallace 




Lance-Cpl. 


J. Lomas 
J. Marshall 


Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 


„ 


A M'Kenna 


Invalided. 


Piper 


J. Sime 

J. Bloomer 


Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 


,, 


P. Moffat 


Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 


,, 


D. Hanlon 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 


,, 


G. M'Gregor 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 


•' 


J. Pringle 


Missing ; killed, Somme, Octobe 
1916. 


,, 


J. Ferguson 




,, 


D. Barry 


Wounded, Gallipoli, 1915. 


,, 


J. Gray 


Wounded, Hill 60, 1915. 


,, 


H. Stott 




,, 


J. Jenkins 


Invalided. 


,, 


W. Little 




„ 


H. Sherry 




,, 


J. Phillips 




,, 


G. Stevenson 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 


,, 


W H. Smith 




,, 


T. Rankine 





go 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



7TH Battalion. 

Just before the attack at Loos when there was a very heavy bombard- 
ment and gas discharge, Piper Daniel Laidlaw got up on the parapet and 
played the men over the top and continued until he fell wounded. Fo 1- 
this act he was awarded the V.C. Another piper, Douglas Taylor, who 
had been wounded in the hand and could not play, went out and brought 
in several wounded men who had been gassed ; he continued until he was 
dangerously wounded. 

During the first eighteen months of the campaign the whole of the pipers 
were wounded. 

The enormous value of pipes to a battalion returning from the front line 
is recognised by all ranks. 



Loos, wounded, 25/9/15. 

Loos, 25/9/15, wounded ; V.C. 

Loos, 25/9/15, wounded. 

Loos, wounded, 25/9/15. 

Wounded. 

Wounded Hulluch ; invalided. 

Wounded, Arras. 

Wounded, Dardanelles. 

Died of wounds, Arras. 

Invalided. 



1EG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


Pipe Major 


Douglas Taylor 


15S51 Piper 


Daniel Laidlaw, V.C. 




J. MlLLIGAN 


,, 


G. Stevenson 


,, 


G. Dutton 




W. Irvine 


,, 


J. M'Donald 


,, 


W. Lamont 


. 


J. Taylor 




G. Black 



8th Battalion 
This battalion, on account of its losses, was absorbed into the 7th K.O.S.B. 
The casualties among the 23 pipers of the two battalions were heavy, viz. 4 
killed and 10 wounded. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

8352 Pipe Major J. Balloch 

14875 Lance-Sgt. J. Broadwood 

8365 Corpl. R. Halliday 

14277 Lance-Cpl. A. M'Vittie 

Piper D. Balloch 

A. Simpson 



record. 
Invalided ; Meritorious Service 

Medal. 
Invalided. 
Promoted Pipe Major of 7/8th 

K.O.S.B. 
Killed, Arras. 



THE KING'S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS 



91 



RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


Piper 


C. Reid 


Killed, Somme, July 191 6. 


tl 


P. Ogilvie 


Wounded, Ypres. 


lt 


J. Young 


Wounded, Arras. 




W. Buchanan 


Wounded, Ypres. 


tt 


G. Swinton 


Killed, Arras. 


s 


J. Cairney 






D. Reid 





THE CAMERONIANS (THE SCOTTISH RIFLES) 
ist Battalion 

During the early part of the campaign the casualties among pipers 
were so heavy that it was found necessary to keep them as much as possible 
out of the front line. By the end of 1915 the band had practically ceased 
to exist. Of 25 pipers who have served during the war 3 have been killed 
and 9 wounded. 



REG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


6062 


Pipe Major 


J. Alexander 


Wounded. 


265008 


,, 


D. M'Gruer 




8453 


Corpl. 


R. Gordon 




I0873 


„ 


G. Peters 




674O 


Lance-Cpl. 


W. Smith 




9429 


Piper 


T. Best 


Killed. 


9441 


,, 


R. Black 


Killed. 


IO786 


,, 


T. Brodie 




8899 


,, 


D. Cameron 


Invalided. 


8890 


,, 


W. Cattanach 


Wounded. 


10688 


,, 


W. Dick 


Wounded. 


10006 


,, 


R. Fleming 


Wounded. 


9209 


„ 


C. Gullan 


Prisoner oi war. 


8883 


,, 


C. Henderson 




8254 


,, 


J. Hamilton 


Wounded. 


1 064 1 


,, 


W. Kingsman 


Invalided. 


7739 


„ 


R. Menzies 


Discharged. 


36628 


,, 


G. Miller 


Wounded. 


8809 


,, 


A. M'Culloch 


Invalided. 


10924 


,, 


P. Robertson 


Killed. 


10326 


,, 


R. Stewart 


Wounded. 


10765 


,, 


W. Shane. 


Prisoner of war. 


22436 


,, 


J. Strachan 


Wounded. 


8393 


„ 


G. Whitehead 


Discharged. 


53509 


» 


J. Williamson 





92 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



2ND Battalion 
Pipers during the first part of the war were chiefly in the ranks, and 
the casualties among them were so heavy they had to be withdrawn. The 
band was reconstituted, and the pipers were then kept out of the front line. 
In March 1918 they again had to be employed as rifles. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

Pipe Major W. Robertson, MM. 

,, D. Macdougall 

A. Cameron 

Corporal A. Wyllie 

,, J. Campbell 

,, A. Horne 

D. M'Culloch 



6703 Piper 



Ian Macpherson 

A. Macdonald 

Forsyth 

Nicol 

Fleming 

Ferguson 

Parker 

Stark 

Clark 
E. O'Neil 
Lauder 
A. M'Donald 
C Barclay 
J. Ingram 
C. Robertson 
G. Latham 
W. Campbell 



Military Medal ; 
Sept. 1918. 



gassed, Lens, 



Killed, 4/2/15, Laventie ; acting 

platoon sergeant. 
Wounded, 10/3/15, Neuve Cha- 

pelle. 
Killed, La Bassee, 1 6/5/1 5, while 

leading section. 
Killed, 3I/7/I7- 
Wounded ; promoted P.M. 13th 

Scottish Rifles. 
Wounded, Nesle. 
Killed, Laventie, Jan. 1915. 
Killed, Bois Grenier, July 1915. 
Invalided. 
Wounded, 23/10/16. 
Wounded, Dec. 1914. 
Invalided. 
Wounded, 10/3/15 ; Neuve Cha- 

pelle ; invalided. 
Killed, 1 0/3 /i 5, Neuve Chapelle. 
Invalided. 
Died of wounds, March 191 8. 



5th Battalion 
The original pipers served in the ranks and became casualties, and from 
early in 1915 to the end of 1916 the band ceased to exist. Since the recon- 
stitution the men have been employed behind the front line as far as possible. 



THE SCOTTISH RIFLES 



93 



In April 1917 they plajred the battalion back out of the Hindenburg line 
which had just been captured. During the last phase of the war they had 
to be employed in the ranks. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


RECORD. 


5476 


Pipe Major 


C. G. Taylor 


Invalided, 1/10/15. 




,, 


Paterson 


Accidentally killed. 


5515 


Piper 


D. M'Phee 




5474 




C. Robertson 




6408 


,, 


J. Sloan 


Wounded 3 times ; invalided 


6240 




F. Watt 


Invalided. 


6471 


,, 


A. Mackay 


Invalided. 


6595 


,, 


M. Dunbar 




6572 


M 


K. Sutherland 




6696 


,, 


R. M'Gregor 





6th Battalion 
This battalion was merged into the 5th in July 1916. The pipers were 
employed in the ranks. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


20II24 


Pipe Major 


J. C. PURDIE 


Killed. 




Lance 


■Cpl. 


Jas. Kirk 


Wounded, Festubert, 1 6/6/1 5. 


202159 


Cpl. 




D. M'Dougall 






Lance 


■Cpl. 


A. M'Donald 


Transferred to 2nd S.R. 


2O2I40 


,, 




D. Gardiner 




20I2I3 


Piper 




H. M'Gregor 


Wounded, 24/2/16; invalided 


240869 






J. Begg 




6435 






D. M'Gregor 


Wounded ; invalided. 


202I62 






J. Graham 




202l6l 






L. M'Dougall 




2O205I 






M. MTntyre 


Invalided. 


202I60 






T. Pollock 




24OO24 






J. Potter 




202164 






W. Sweeten 




240653 






R. Kerr 




290665 






P. MacCulloch 




39875 






A. Ferguson 




54252 






S. Bell 




291284 






D. Lamont 




39693 






A. M'Phee 





94 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



7th Battalion 

In the Dardanelles and Palestine the pipers were employed as bearers 
and suffered heavy casualties. It was then decided to keep them out of the 
front line. 



152 

166 
1 103 
1106 

868 
1178 
1260 

404 
1095 



265902 
265858 
265803 
265958 
1817 



Pipe Major 
Piper 



E. J. M'Pherson 

Louis Beaton 

W. Jamieson 

Archibald Ramage 

Archibald Shearer 

William Deans 

J. Campbell 

W. Taylor 

J. Paterson 

J. M'Donald 

A. Thomson 

D. M'Kenzie 

R. MTntyre 

J. MTver 

J. Strachan 



Invalided. 

Killed, 28/6/15, Dardanelles. 
Killed, 23/7/15, Dardanelles. 
Killed, June 1915. 

Wounded, 28/6/15 ; invalided. 

Wounded, 23/1 1/1 7, Palestine. 

Wounded, 2/11/17, Palestine. 
Killed, 1 2 /i 1 /i 7, Palestine. 
Killed, 4/1 1 /i 7, Palestine. 



8th Battalion 

Pipers were principally employed, when in Gallipoli, as bearers, and 
suffered very heavily. On the 28th June, 1915, three were killed, and 
from Jan. 1916 for a year only one piper remained. There were also heavy 
losses in Palestine. They were chiefly employed in the ranks. 



Pipe Major Neil Macleod 
Corpl. Alexander Stenton 

Piper D. Macdougall 



record. 
Killed, Dardanelles, 12/7/15. 

Transferred to 2nd Batt. as Pipe 
Major. 



,, 


G. Latham 




,, 


John Macintyre 


Killed, Gallipoli, 28/6/15. 


,, 


James Ferguson 


Killed, Gallipoli, 28/6/15. 


,, 


Robert Whitelaw 


Killed, Gallipoli, 28/6/15. 


,, 


John Mackenzie 


Wounded, Gallipoli, 28/6/15 


,, 


James MTndoe 


Killed, France, 29/7/18. 


Lance-Cpl. 


James Middleton 




Piper 


William Dickie 


Wounded, Gaza, 19/4/17. 



THE SCOTTISH RIFLES 



95 



RANK. 


NAME. 


recor 


D. 


Piper 


James Anderson 


Wounded, Gaza, 


I9/4/I7 


rt 


Robert Cameron 


Wounded, Gaza, 


i9/4/!7 


lf 


A. F. Clark 








T. Rae 







9TH Battalion 

The whole band went into action at Loos, and suffered so heavily it took 
months to restore it. In a daylight raid at Arras in February 1917 Corpl. 
Whitelaw and Piper M'Gurk played their companies over the top. 

During the Somme fighting pipers were employed in bringing up 
ammunition. 



REG. NO 




*ANK. 


NAME. 




1886 


Pipe Major 


M. Ferguson 




4063I 


Lance 


Cpl. 


R. Whitelaw 




30503 


Piper 




Hugh Macara 


Killed, Ma 


40643 


Lance 


Cpl. 


W. Johnston 




II619 


Piper 




A. Macpherson 




43338 








H Lennox 




16458 








J. M'Kenna 




IIII3 








W. Millar 


Wounded. 


267072 








H. Baird 




12094 








T. Macfarlane 




I7806 








M. M'Gurk 




IO542 








J. Nicol 




I2325 








T. Stewart 




1 1 797 








G. Muir 




1 1 839 








J. Thompson 


Wounded. 


1 1064 








J. Shields 


Invalided. 


28525 








H. Cameron 


Invalided. 


10588 








J. Gilchrist 
G. Napier 


Wounded. 
Gassed. 



ioth Battalion 
The pipers were used as stretcher-bearers. Pipe Major M'Coll won the 
Military Medal when in charge of the stretcher party on the Somme. 



killed, 



RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


Pipe Major 


J. M'Coll, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


Piper 


Robert Black 


Wounded, Loos, i5/9'i5 ; 
28/1/16. 


,, 


Duncan Mackenzie 


Killed, 17/11/15. 


„ 


Alex. Harris 


Killed, 27/1 /16. 



9 6 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



iith Battalion 
Pipers were frequently employed as runners, orderlies, and to bring up 
stores and ammunition. 



REG. NO 




RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


I55I5 


Pipe Major 


A. FlNLAYSON 


Invalided. 


I4786 


Corpl. 


W. FvEID 


Wounded, 8/5/17. 


I6195 


Piper 


W. Robertson 


Invalided, 29/9/16. 


1 463 1 


•• 


A. Stevenson 


Killed, 28/4/17; despatche 
29/11/17. 


14324 






W. Lewis 




I5I74 






R. M'Kay 




14595 






R. Tuix 




H597 






G. CURRIE 




I4687 






A. Tait 


Wounded, 8/5/17. 


1 1 839 






J. Thomson 


Wounded, 8/5/17. 


"5°5 






D. Hunter 




30547 






J. Coull 




35462 






J. Richmond 




18176 






W. Hewitt 





THE ROYAL HIGHLANDERS (THE BLACK WATCH) 

ist Battalion 

During the opening stages the pipers were necessarily mostly employed 
in the ranks, and, within the first three months, practically the whole of the 
13 pipers were casualties. During the Somme fighting the companies 
were repeatedly played to the attack by their pipers ; on one of these 
occasions the pipe major, M'Leod, was killed. At Rue des Boisin May 1915, 
when the battalion attacked the German positions near Festubert, every 
company was played up, and Pipers Stuart and Wishart distinguished 
themselves, and Stuart was awarded the D.C.M. 



killed. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME 


record 


462I 


Pipe Major 


T. Clark 


Invalided. 


7068 


,, 


Hugh Maxwell Thom 


Pipe Major, 22/8/16. 


635 


Lance-Cpl. 


J. Reid 


Invalided. 


9617 


Piper 


D. M'Leod 


Promoted Pipe Major ; 
21/8/16. 


7820 


,. 


H. Bruce 


Wounded ; missing, 9/5/15 



THE BLACK WATCH 



97 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


2053 


Piper 




W. Burns 


Wounded, 26/1 /1 5 ; invalided. 


2487 


Lance 


Cpl. 


R. Knowles 


Wounded, 26/10/14. 


I3H 


Sergt. 




R. Smith 


Wounded, 8/9/14. 


2190 


Piper 




T. Cardownie 


Wounded, 24/10/14. 


I956 






T. M'Intyre 


Killed, 14/8/14. 


1738 






B. Bain 


Wounded, 26/10/14 ; invalided. 


I77I 






T. Peters 


Wounded, 14/9 '14 ; invalided. 


Il86 






G. Robertson 




943 


Lance 


Cpl. 


J. Brown 


Transferred as Pipe Major 
8th Batt. ; 3 times wounded. 


740 


Piper 




R. Jaap 












J. Lees 


Wounded, 25/1/15. 










N. M'Leod 












A. Stewart 


Wounded, 9/5/15. 










P. M'Ginn 












A. Wishart 


Wounded, 9/5/15. 


943° 


Lance 
Piper 


Cpl. 


W. Stuart, D.C.M. 
T. Hardy 


Wounded, Rue des Bois, 9/5/15 
awarded D.C.M. 


9088 








David Wemyss 




43"5 








Robert Muir 




699 








David Armit 




779 








Andrew Hadden 




40034 








Andrew Sime 




40154 








John Carmichael 




43H4 








Alex. Sheriff 




1892 








Dugald M'Dade 




15895 








James Higgins 




2045 








John Neill 




7099 








George Wilson 




13291 








William Harley 




12194 








Edward Tatton 




2106 








William Hardie 




9723 








John Dawson 




16186 








George Martin 





2nd Battalion 
At Neuve Chapelle, March 1915, and at many other subsequent engage- 
ments, the pipers lost heavily. At Mauquissart on 25th September, 191 5, 
when the companies were played to the attack, one piper, Robert Johnstone, 
played on until he fell gassed ; and another, Armit, on reaching the enemy 
trenches, started bombing. On the same occasion, Pipers David Simpson 
and A. Macdonald stood on the parapet under very heavy fire playing their 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



company over ; Simpson was killed and Macdonald, who lost his leg, received 
the D.C.M. The pipers were also employed as bombers, and in this capacity 
Lance-Corpl. Peter MacNee obtained the D.C.M. at Neuve Chapelle. 

On another occasion Pipers Gordon and Crichton played from one end 
of the line to the other out in the open, and similar feats were subsequently 
performed by other pipers. 

While the battalion was in France, out of 22 pipers 4 were killed and 
13 were wounded, during the first year of the war. 

The battalion subsequently went to Mesopotamia. Here again the 
pipers were employed, sometimes in miscellaneous duties in the ranks, 
sometimes as pipers. The pipe major, John Keith, was awarded the D.C.M. 
Piper Pratt was promoted and given the D.C.M. for " high capacity in 
leadership " when acting as sergeant. 



REG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


683O 


Sergt. 




John Keith, D.C.M. 


7184 


Corpl. 




Donald MacMaster 


8358 


.. (Sgt.) 


Angus Macleod 


9908 


Lance- 


Cpl. 


James Wann 


365 


Piper 




Robert Johnstone 


9476 






Joseph Gordon 


1 165 


Lance- 


■Cpl. 


Peter Crichton 


65 


Piper 




John Duthie 


699 


,, 




David Armit 


I449 


•' 




James Davis 


1871 


.. 




James Galloway 


1838 


.. 




James Bradley 


I350 






Thomas Logan 


736 


|( 




David Simpson 


1539 


" 




Alexander M'Donald, 
D.C.M. 


I478 


,, 




Thomas Phinn 


1919 


Lance 


-Sgt. 


Alexander Pratt, D.C.M. 



record. 
Rue de 



Bacquerat, 



Wounded, 

I5/7A5- 
Wounded, Rue des Bois, 5/3/15. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 

IO/3/I5- 
Died of wounds, Neuve Chapelle, 

10/3/15- 

Wounded Neuve Chapelle, 9/5/15 ; 

and again at Mauquissart, 

25/9/15 ; finally gassed. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 9/5/15. 

Invalided. 

Wounded, Givenchy, 8/10/15. 

Missing, Mauquissart, 25/9/15 ; 
believed killed. 

Wounded, 3/11/14 ; killed, Given- 
chy, 8/10 /i 5. 

Wounded, November 191 4, and 
invalided. 

Invalided. 

Killed, Mauquissart, 25/9/15. 

Wounded, Givenchy ; awarded 
D.C.M. ; died. 

Wounded, La Gorgue, 2/8/15 ; 
Mesopotamia, 22/4/16. 



THE BLACK WATCH 



99 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


94T 


Lance-Cpl. 


Peter M'Nee, D.C.M. 


779 


Piper 


Alexander Hadden 


467 


,, 


John Kidd 



1358 

1314 

1998 

288 

S /1 7486 Corpl 



3/34 22 

3/8973 

3/8570 

487 

S/17639 

S/19965 

S/17691 

336 

S/4372 

S/18525 
1171 
8875 



Piper 



William Mackay 

A. Smith 
John Jordan 
William Thomson 
Neil Young 
Wm. Mathieson 
John Benzie 
John Brown 
David Storrar 
James Angus 
David Drummond 
James Dunn 
James Greig 
David Kidd 
William Robertson 

David Stark 
Thomas Tallon 
Alexander Thomson 



Gassed, Mauquissart, 25/9/15 ; 

Mesopotamia, 13/1/16 ; D.C.M. ; 

subsequently died of wounds. 
Wounded, 1 8/5/1 5, and again, 

4/7/15- 
Wounded, 1/11/14, and again 

Mauquissart, 25/9/15, and again 

Mesopotamia, 7/1 /16. 
Died of wounds, Neuve Chapelle, 

10/3/15. 



Wounded, Ypres. 

Killed. 

Invalided. 

Invalided. 

Wounded, Aisne, 14/9/14. 



Wounded, Le Cateau, Aug. 1914. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15, and 
San-i-yat, April 1916. 



Wounded, Sheikh Saad, 7/1 /16; 
again, 20/4/16 ; again, 22/4/16. 



4.TH Battalion 

The pipers were employed principally as bearers, and were highly com- 
plimented for their gallantry at Neuve Chapelle in March 1915 ; at Loos 
they were similarly employed, and Piper M'Leod was awarded the Military 
Medal for gallantry in bringing in his colonel, who was mortally wounded, 
under very heavy fire. On 3rd September, 1916, the battalion was played 
in to the attack, but, as a rule, they were kept back behind the front line. 
Pipe Major Alex. Low got the D.C.M. for attending wounded, and Piper 
M'Leod got a bar to his Military Medal. 



100 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

210 Pipe Major Alexander Low, D.C.M. 



i 198 



D. M'Leod, MM. 



263 


Corpl. 


J. NlCOLL 


1914 


Piper 


J. Reid 


1403 




J. Lyall 


1301 




R. Sword 


832 


,, 


J. Donaldson 


663 


,, 


J. Souter 


714 


,, 


J. Dewar 


1039 


,, 


G. Scott 


1160 




J. Merchant 


1887 


,, 


T. Cameron 


1678 




F. Mitchell 


2204 




A. Findlay 


4029 


,, 


C. Gibson 


1717 


,, 


J. Myles 


2177 


,, 


A. Sangster 


769 


" 


H. Mitchell 
Thos. Paterson 



RECORD. 

Recommended for D.C.M., Neuve 

Chapelle. 
Awarded Military Medal, 25/3/15 ; 

and bar in 1918. 
Wounded, 10/3/15. 
Wounded, 9/5/15. 
Wounded, 6/9/15. 
Wounded, 9/5/15. 
Wounded, 10/3/15. 



Transferred to Wireless Service, 
R.N., as Sub-Lieut. 

5th Battalion 
Pipers were employed, during the trench fighting, as observers, messengers 
and stretcher-bearers, and in the ranks, and suffered heavy casualties. 
The battalion was subsequently merged into the 4th Black Watch. 



REG. NO. 

668 

1053 

1 163 

729 

826 

1 1 50 

1053 
1689 
1051 
1568 

406 

382 
719 

1719 
75i 

1017 



RANK. 

Pipe Major 

Sergt. 

Piper 

Lance-Cpl. 

Piper 



Lance-Cpl. 

Sergt. 

Piper 



NAME. 

A. M'Donald Lamond 

A. E. Crowe 

J. Carstairs 

J. Stewart 

J. Duncan 

A. Nicoll 

A. Lundie 

J. Whitton 

J. Begg 

A. Howie 

F. Reid 
P. M'Kay 
W. Webster 
J. Myles 
A. C. Scott 
A. Brand 



record. 
Wounded, 9/5/15, Fromelles. 

Invalided. 
Invalided. 

Wounded, 25/8/15, while sniping. 
Wounded, 9/5/15. 



Killed, 10/3/15, Neuve Chapelle 

mentioned in despatches. 
Killed, 13/3/15, Neuve Chapelle. 



THE BLACK WATCH 101 

6th Battalion 

Pipers were employed in many ways, but chiefly as stretcher-bearers. 
The band was regarded by the men as the best stretcher-bearers they came 
across. At High Wood in July 1916 the battalion was played over by Pipers 
Pirnie, Forbes, Mapleton and Tainsh. 

Since September 1916 they have been kept out of the front line as far 
as possible. 

In December 1917 four pipers were killed and one wounded by a bomb 
during an aeroplane raid at Fromicourt. 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


RECORD. 


Pipe Major 


W. Galloway 
J. Sinclair 
D. Anderson 




Lance-Cpl. 


D. Berry 




2126 Piper 


Alasdair M'Donald 


Despatches. 




P. Fallon 


Killed, May, 1915. 




R. Pirnie 






P. Davidson 






P. Irons 






W. M'Ewan 






J. Ferguson 


Killed, La Boiselle, August 1916. 




A. M'Donald 






P. M'Intosh 






R. Mapleton 


Commission in Gordons. 




MacCullen 


Wounded, March 1917. 




J. Harper 


Killed, 23/12/17. 




A. Tainsh 


Killed, 23/12/17. 




A. Forbes 


Killed, 23/12/17. 




J. Wyse 






J. Guthrie 






W. Peggie 






A. Paton 


Transferred to R.E. ; killed, June 
1917. 




W. Mason 






D. Stewart 






D. M'Beth 






T. Lyall 






A. Lees 






C. Mackenzie 






G. Gow 






J. Gow 





REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



Piper 



A. Myles 
J. M'Beth 
A. M'Coll 

D. L EGG AT 

J. Burleigh 
J. Nicol 
F. Christie 
R. Low 
J. Condie 

E. Deans 
J. Stewart 
N. Beaton 
R. Spence 
H. Rattray 

C. NlSBET 

J. Simpson 
L. Massie 



record. 
Killed, 23/121/7. 



Transferred to 7th Gordons as Pipe 
Major. 



Killed, Somme, Oct. 1916. 



7th Battalion 

The pipers were employed in the ranks, as despatch runners, etc. Piper 
G. Galloway was awarded the Military Medal for performing this most 
hazardous duty under heavy fire during the Somme fighting ; and Pipe Major 
Thomas Macdonald and Pipers Swan and Hands were rewarded with the 
same distinction. 

Latterly the pipers were trained as anti-aircraft Lewis gunners, and 
proved extremely successful. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 




record. 


290056 


Pipe Major 


Thomas M'Donald, 


M.M. 


Military Medal, Somme. 




Lance^ 


•Sgt. 


J. Chisholm 




Invalided. 


29244O 






N. M'Donald 








Lance 


■Cpl. 


G. Swan, M.M. 




Killed, Dec. 191 6, Somme ; Mili- 
tary Medal. 


292435 


Piper 




A. Chalmers 

A. WlLKIE 
H. FORKER 

A. "WlLKIE 

B. Morris 

J. Johnstone 




Killed, Dec. 191 6, Somme. 
Killed, Dec. 191 6, Somme. 




" 




George Galloway, 


M.M. 


Wounded, April 191 7 ; Military 
Medal. 



THE BLACK WATCH 



103 



REG. NO. 


*ANK. NAME. 


record. 


Piper J. Ross 


Invalided. 




, W. Bridy 


Killed, Dec. 1916, Somme 




, E. Linn 


Wounded, July 1916. 




D. Leggat 


Wounded, Dec. 1916. 




, J. Moodie 






, J. Condie 


Invalided. 




, R. Adamson 


Invalided. 




J. Robertson 


Invalided. 




, J. Guthrie 


Invalided. 




, W. Campbell 


Invalided. 


3/4470 


, James Johnston 


Killed, 7/1 /i 7, Somme. 




, E. Archibald 


Invalided. 




, A Mitchelson 


Invalided. 


41028 


, J. Russell 




292434 


, A. Chalmers 




293096 


D. Chalmers 




292406 


, W. Fitzpatrick 




200509 


A. Mands, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


1 12084 


, J. M'Kellar 




290127 


, T. Archibald 




201553 


F. M'Leod 




42124 , 


, D. Cameron 
, J. M'Gill 





8th Battalion 

The battalion was played into action at Loos and in many of the Somme 
engagements. After 1916, on account of losses among them, they were 
kept out of the front line as far as possible. 

The band headed the State Entry of King Albert into Brussels in 
November 1918. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


291 1 


Pipe Major 


R. Matchett 




8368 


,, 


E. Rennie 


Wounded, Ypres,i9i5 ; invalided 


943 




J. Brown 


Wounded, three times. 


4266 


Corpl. 


D. Sinclair 


Wounded, Festubert, 191 5. 


6245 


Piper 


D. Ainslie 


Wounded, Nieupoit. 


853 


,, 


J. Allan 


Wounded, Aisne. 


1738 


,, 


B. Bain 


Wounded, Aisne. 


721 1 


,, 


A. Barclay 




9220 


,, 


A. Campbell 


Wounded, Ypres, 1915. 


1 1780 


,, 


R. Edmonston 




6365 


,, 


D. Glen 





io4 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



RKG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


16987 


Piper 


W. Hosie 




3925 






W. LOCKHART 


Wounded, Somme, 1916. 


40577 






J. M' Arthur 




3020 






A. M'Courtie 




266912 






J. M'Kay 




265912 






R. Menzies 


Killed, Meteren, July 1918. 


3281 






J. M'Leod 


Wounded, Loos, 1915. 


8832 






VV. Nicholson 


Wounded twice, Vermelles, Loos 


3375 






W. Reilly 


Killed, Loos, 191 5. 


8659 






S. Reid 


Wounded, Ypres, 1915. 


299331 






G. Redpath 




265989 






J. Strang 




265715 






P. Stewart 




6366 






W. Strathie 




3019 






D. Simpson 


Killed, Somme, 191 6. 


266055 






D. WlNTON 




3014 






D. Wilson 


Killed, Loos, 1915. 


3/1861 






J. Woods 





9TH Battalion 
The pipers played the battalion into action at Hill 70, and the whole 
band, except one man, was killed or wounded. 

The battalion was ultimately absorbed into the 4/5th Black Watch. 



!EG. NO 




HAN 


K. 


NAME. 


9OO5 


Pipe Major 


T. Harley 


4924 


Lance 


Cpl. 


D. Cameron 


I I463 


Piper 




J. Armour 


4OOI6 








J. Burleigh 


43236 








G. Fairweather 
J. Johnstone 


4OOI8 








D. Lamond 


43448 








J. Scott 


7814 








R. Napier 


43155 








A. Robertson 


I6IO5 








J. Spence 


6563 








A. Stirling 


I I 195 








R. Thomson 
J. Wemyss 


1350 








T. Logan 



Invalided. 
Wounded. 18/5/18. 
Wounded, 28/7/18. 
Killed, March 1918. 



Wounded, 30/10/18. 
Wounded, 18/5/18. 
Invalided. 



THE HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY 



105 



THE HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY 

ist Battalion 
During the first six months of the war 7 pipers were killed, 8 were wounded 
and 2 were taken prisoner. These casualties mostly occurred at Festubert 
in December 1914, and later at Neuve Chapelle. They were then withdrawn 
from the front lines. Subsequently they were employed as beaiers, ammuni- 
tion carriers, etc. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

11281 Pipe Major R. Sutherland 

6894 Sergt. D. Buchan 

10774 Corpl. A. Godsman, D.C.M. 



7918 


Piper 


W. White 


9615 




C. Stewart 


10116 




J. M'Grory 


10258 




H. Cater 


10107 




F. Burns 


11356 




C Wilson 


9860 




T. James 


1 1 782 




D. Sutherland 


1 1 685 




A. Bain 


901 1 




J. Morrison 


10579 




T. Jackson 


11124 




J. M'Donald 


11718 




R. M'Leish 


1 1 470 




J. Smith 


"533 


» 


J. Johnstone 


1 1 499 




J. M'Naught 


10383 


Corpl. 


D. Chisholm 




Lance-Cpl. 


Mitchell 


IOOIO 


Piper 


Gault 


1 1 468 


Corpl. 


J. Smith 



12064 Lance-Cpl. A. Craig 
1 2061 Piper A. Mackay 

12106 ,, C. Bald 



Killed, Festubert, 19-21/12/14. 
Wounded , Neuve Chapelle, 1 2 /i / 1 5 ; 
D.C.M. and Order of St. George. 

Killed, Ypres, 1/5/15. 

Wounded, Festubert, 19-21 /1 2/14. 

Killed, Festubert, 19-21/12/14. 

Killed, Festubert, 19-21/12/14. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 

11-14/3/15. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 14/3/15 
Killed, Festubert, 19-21/12/14. 



Prisoner of war, 
21/12/14. 



Festubert, 19- 



Wounded, Festubert, 19-21/12/14 ; 

wounded, Richebourg, 6/10/15 ; 

died, 7/9/16. 
Prisoner of war, Festubert, 19- 

21/12/14. 
Killed, Festubert, 19-21/12/14. 
Wounded, Ypres, 23/10/14. 
Killed, Verneuil, 1 8/9/1 4. 
Wounded, Rue du Bois, 17/5/15. 
Wounded, Ypres, 22/10/14 ; died 

enteric. 



io6 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



2nd Battalion 
Of the original band of thirteen men ah but two were killed or wounded 
in the first few months of the war. While they lasted they acted as pipers 
as well as in the ranks. From May 1915 to May 1916 there was practically 
no band, and, when reconstituted, the men were kept out of the front line 
as far as possible. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

9728 Pipe Major W. Young 

10713 Lance-Cpl. L. M'Kinnon 

1 1448 ,, J. Smith 



11480 


Piper 


J. Brown 


10478 




J. Bruce 


9029 




, 


J. Campbell 


7721 




, 


W. Haines 


1 1945 




, 


R. Henderson 


10976 




, 


J. Irving 


11137 




, 


A. Morrow 


11614 




, 


A. Macdonald 


1 1627 






J. Smith 


9272 


Corpl. 


J. Mackenzie 


7885 


Piper 


J. Dale 


7943 


Corpl. 


J. Robertson 


7886 


Piper 


J. Gibson 


35*°° 


,, 


J. Morgan 


33H9 




, 


R. Morrison 


35123 






R. Macnaughton 


8515 




, 


W. Peil 


6978 






A. Williamson 


7472 


Sergt. 


C. W. Johnstone 


9387 


Piper 


A. Macneilage 


7270 


,, 


D. Macintyre 


9280 




, 


R. Stein 


331117 




, 


W. Gunn 


332186 




, 


H. Campbell 


331230 




, 


J. Menzies 


330068 




, 


A. Ogilvie 


330070 




, 


R. Wilder 


3271 19 






W. White 


3970 




, 


J. Macrae 


10264 


Sergt. 


T. Findlay 


220217 


Piper 


J. Reid 


12302 




. 


D. Bonnar 



RECORD. 

Wounded, 21/10/14. 
Wounded, 21/10/14 ; died of 
enteric. 



Wounded, 2/11/14. 

Wounded, 17/5/ 15, Vpres. 

Wounded, 1 8/5/15, Ypres. 

Killed, 3/11,14. 

Wounded, 24/8/14 ; taken prisoner. 

Wounded, 3/12/17. 
Killed, 21/10/14. 



Twice wounded. 



Wounded. 



Killed, Neuve Chapelle, 1 4/3/15. 



THE HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY 107 

5TH Battalion 

In Gallipoli, in 1915, practically all the pipers became casualties within 
a very short time, and, until the end of 1916, there was no band at all. It was 
then decided to keep the band out of the firing line as far as possible. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


306 


Pipe Major 


John Thomson 


Killed, 1 2/7/1 5, Dardanelles. 


360I 


,, 




A. Purdie 




2OI57I 






A. Arthur 




309 


Lance- 


Cpl. 


J. B. Day 


Invalided. 


280313 






D. J. Cameron 




33OO4I 






R. Agnew 




1596 


Piper 




J. Reid 




1233 


,, 




G. Cameron 


Invalided. 


1317 


„ 




J. Smith 


Invalided. 


201259 


,, 




J. Connelly 


Invalided. 


2OI33O 


,, 




T. Clelland 


Invalided. 


203064 


,, 




A. Thomson 




12226 


„ 




C Kennedy 




200170 


,, 




R. Reid 




20060I 


„ 




J. Pithie 




18263 


,, 




A. Davie 




240633 


,, 




M. Watson 





6th Battalion 
The pipers were employed in the ranks while the battalion was in Gallipoli, 
but, in attacks, the pipers played their companies. On 12th July, Piper 
M'Niven was killed while playing the charge, in an attack on the Turkish 
forts. Most of the original band were killed or wounded on the Peninsula, 
and, when reconstituted, it was decided to keep them out of action as far 
as possible. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


name. 


record. 


24OOI 


Pipe Major 


John Mackenzie 




55533 


Sergt. 


J. Braidwood 




240881 


Piper 


W. Mackenzie 


Wounded, 12/7/15. 


1237 


„ 


Peter M'Niven 


Killed, 12/7/15, Gallipoli, 


1 190 


,, 


A. M'Coll 


Wounded, 21/11/15. 


240066 


Lance-Cpl. 


W. Francey 


Wounded, 1 7/8/1 5. 


1286 


Piper 


W. Finlay 


Invalided. 


240171 


,, 


W. Christian 




240235 


,, 


A. Cameron 


Wounded, 12/7/15. 



io8 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


RECORD. 




Piper 


James Ross 


Machine Gun Corps 
Marne, March 191 8. 


240189 


„ 


James Nicoll 




24OI68 




, 


C. M'Phedran 




240538 




, 


P. Mulvey 




24I426 






H. Climie 




243457 




, 


J. M'Munn 


Wounded, 12/6/18. 


203070 




, 


D. Sutherland 




355753 




, 


F. Young 




291 1 1 




, 


J. M'CORMICK 




64901 




, 


W. Stringer 




201126 




, 


W. Campbell 





gassed, 



reg. no. rank. 

Pipe Major 
1914 Piper 
1001 



D.C.M., 12/7/15. 
Despatches, 12/7/15. 
Wounded. 



7th Battalion 
On several occasions in Gallipoli the battalion was played to the attack 
by pipers. Piper Maclennan was awarded the D.C.M. Piper Macfarlane 
had the drones blown off his pipes. The acting pipers served in the ranks 
or as bearers. Piper D. Cameron was mentioned in despatches for con- 
spicuous bravery in playing his company over the top, and right on to the 
enemy trenches. These men also did great work in bringing up water for 
the wounded under heavy fire, and ammunition. 

name. record. 

William Ferguson 
Kenneth Maclennan, D.C.M. 
D. J. Cameron 
Donald Macfarlane 
William Paterson 
Donald Lamont 
J. G. Mackenzie 
Ritchie Graham 
James Carruthers 
John Scott 

8th Battalion 

The battalion was disbanded early in the war, and the pipers were 

distributed to other units. 

9TH Battalion 

At first pipers were used as orderlies, ammunition carriers, and similar 

duties ; and, after active operations, as bearers. As far as possible they 

were, however, kept out of the front line, as being too valuable to lose. On 



THE HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY 



109 



one occasion, when the battalion had to make a demonstration to test the 
strength of the enemy, pipers were sent up to the front line to play. Pipe 
Major MacDiarmid was awarded the Military Medal. 



REG. NO 




RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 




Pipe Major 


T. Baillie 


Discharged after 31 years' service 


330075 


,, 




A. B. MacDiarmid, M.M.* Awarded MM. 


33OI67 


Lance 


-Sgt. 


T. J. Kelly 


Wounded, 25/1 /i 5. 


330II5 


Lance 


•Cpl. 


G. C. Blackadder 






Piper 




R. Agnew 


Invalided home. 


331499 






D. Barrie 




331044 








W. Baird 




56645 








J. D. Buchanan 




330304 








R. Blackadder 
C. Brown 


Wounded, May 191 5. 


333792 








T. Crawford 


Died of wounds. 


3303IO 








T. M. Fraser 


Wounded, 24/3/18. 


24II38 




' 




K. Fraser 
W. Gibson 
J. Hall 


Wounded, 22/3/18. 

Wounded, 24/3/18 ; discharged. 

Invalided home. 


1666 








J. Drummond 


Killed in action, June 1915. 


333II8 








W. Imlay 


Wounded, 1 3/4/1 8. 


331077 








R. Johnston 




330834 








W. Kennedy 




333269 








P. M'Arthur 


Invalided home, 17/4/15 ; dis- 










charged, 14/6/15 ; recalled, 










1/9/16. 


333138 








G. M'Creath 
J. M'Donald 


Died of wounds, Oct. 1918. 
Wounded, 25/9/15. 


333162 








J. B. M'Nee 




332318 








J. M'Gilvray 


Wounded, 24/3/18. 


330865 








G. M'Gregor 
A. Ogilvie 


Wounded, July 1915. 


331564 








W. Robertson 


Wounded, 22/3/18. 


333729 








R. Ross 




333137 








H. Stark 


Wounded, 27/9/17. 


33II98 








H. Simpson 


Wounded, 24/3/18 ; discharged. 


331579 








J. Stewart 
H. Wilder 


Invalided. 



ioth Battalion 
Pipers were occasionally employed as bearers, but were usually kept 
out of the front line. Nearly all the original pipe band were killed or 
wounded at Cambrai on 25th September, 1915. 



no 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

7682 Pipe Major E. Richardson 

2747 ,, C. Cameron 

9016 Piper Charles M'Gregor 



12562 


,, 




Alex. Whitefield 


17174 


,, 




J. Webster 


902 


Lance 


Cpl. 


David Donaldson 


1988 


Piper 




Andrew Thomson 


1 991 






W. Currie 


9628 


Lance 


Cpl. 


D. Sutherland 


19858 


„ 




J. Rose 


17805 


Piper 




P. MTntyre 


21233 






J. M'Lennan 


40166 






J. Duguid 


40091 






J. M'Kenzie 


240908 

355667 






J. Mack ay 

J. Cunningham 

D. M'Nicol 



RECORD. 

Transferred to 12th H.L.I. 

Gassed and wounded, Cambrai, 

25/9/15- 
Killed, Cambrai, 25/9/15. 
Invalided. 

Killed, Festubert, 9/7/15. 
Wounded, Cambrai, 25/9/15. 



Gassed, Cambrai, 25/9/15. 
died, 8/1 1 /i 8. 



12TH Battalion 

During trench warfare the pipers acted as orderlies, stretcher bearers 
and the like ; in engagements, however, they took part as company pipers. 
So many casualties occurred in the Loos action in Sept. 1915 that there 
was only one survivor. The band ceased to exist until the following spring, 
and it was then decided to allow only half of the pipers to go up into the line 
or into action. 

During the battles of the Somme, 1916, and Arras, 1917, the companies 
were played into action by one piper each ; casualties occurring among 
them, it was decided again to withdraw them from the front ; and they 
took no part in the fighting at Ypres, 1917. 

During the last phase of the war, the attack in Flanders on 28th Sept. 
1918, the pipers played their companies throughout their triumphant 
attacks on the Germans. 

The CO. of the battalion says : "I cannot speak too highly of the 
work done by the pipers of this unit. There is nothing I can think of which 
has added more to the esprit de corps of the men, which has enabled them 
to put up with misery and discomfort and which has given them the 



THE HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY in 

inspiration necessary to accomplish what had appeared at first sight an 
impossibility. 



Pipe Major E. Richardson 
Sergt. William Pierce 

Corpl. Allan M'Nicol, MM. 



Piper 



Lance-Sgt. 



Thomas Spendlove 
Jack Smith 
George M'Kay 
Peter Kennedy 
William Taylor 
Robert Comloquoy 
Robert Bell 
William Anderson 
Donald M'Pherson 
John M'Ghee 
David Robertson 
William Thompson 
George Tullis 
Malcolm M'Lean 
John Morrison 
William Barclay 
Robert Weir 
John M'Kean 
Alex. M'Kay 



Killed, Somme, August, 191 6. 
Despatches, Loos, and Hill -70, 

2 5 /9/!5 ) Military Medal. 
Wounded, Ypres, 8/10/14. 
Wounded, Cambrai, 5/12/17. 
Wounded, Somme, 1/7/16. 



Killed, Arras, April 191 7. 
Invalided. 

Wounded, Arras, April 191 7. 
Wounded, Albert, 1 7/9/1 6. 
Wounded, Albert, 17/9/16. 
Wounded, Albert, 1 7/9/1 6. 
Killed, Loos 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 



14TH Battalion 

Pipers played their companies into action on the Somme and at Bourlon 
Wood. 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAMI 


Pipe Major 


A. Hynd 


Sergt. 


G. Taylor 


Lance-Cpl. 


J. M'Cormack 


Piper 


J. CONNLY 




J. Mann 




T. Kennedy 




J. Wilson 




Sutherland 




T. Pirie 




A. Phinn 




J. Gordon 




P. Thomson 



Killed, 29/4/17. 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



15TH Battalion 
At Thiepval and Beaumont Hamel the pipers lost very heavily when 
leading their companies, and, as a consequence, it was found necessary after- 
wards to keep them in the reserve line. In April 1918, on account of heavy 
casualties in the battalion, they had to be employed in the ranks, and suffered 
very heavily ; of 20 pipers all but 3 became casualties, mostly through being 
gassed at Ayette. Within a month, however, the band was reconstituted. 



Gassed, 13/4/18 ; invalided. 

From 17th H.L.I. 

Wounded, 14/10/17 ; gassed, 

1 3/4/1 8 ; invalided. 
Wounded, 1/7/16. 
Gassed, 1 3/4/1 8 ; invalided. 
Wounded, 10/5/1 6 ; invalided. 

Gassed, 13/4/18. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, May 191 6. 

Wounded, 2/7/16 ; gassed, 13/4/if 
Gassed, 13/4/18. 
Gassed, 1 3/4/1 8. 

Wounded, Aug. 1918. 
Gassed, 13/4/18. 
Gassed, 13/4/18. 
Gassed, 13/4/18. 
Wounded, 13/4/18. 
Killed, Ayette, 13/4/18. 
Gassed, 13/4/18. 
Invalided. 
Gassed, 13/4/18. 



i6th Battalion 
The pipers were employed chiefly as bearers. 

On 1st July, 1916, at Thiepval the pipers played the battalion over with 
the loss of two killed and two wounded. The band was then withdrawn 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


973 Pipe Major 


N. M'Lellan 


16084 


T. Gilbert, M.M. 


13374 


J. Park 


14078 Piper 


J. KlLPATRICK 


1020 


C. Logan 


I359I 


D. Keenan 


13356 


R. Hough 


15497 


J. Burleigh 


36456 


T. Marr 


36455 


W. Marr 


13601 


J. Reid 


I37°6 


R. Gillies 


IOOIO ,, 


J. Gault 


28093 


A. J. Macdonald 


350254 


T. Graham 


280889 


A. Gray 


281053 


W. Brown 


280979 


J. Brvson 


157*9 


H. M' Arthur 


14304 


A. F. Watson 


353152 


D. M'Kenzie 


15296 


C. Galloway 


10108 ,, 


W. M'Lellan d 


200601 ,, 


J. Pithie 


54366 


W. M'Nair 


58009 


M. M'Lean 


50267 


T. Orr 


56597 


A. MlLLAN 



THE HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY 



"3 



as far as possible from the front, except occasionally as stretcher bearers. 
It was felt by all ranks that pipers were too valuable an institution to 
lose. 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


recob 


Pipe Major 


W. M'Combe, M.M. 
T. Richardson, M.M. 




Lance-Cpl. 


W. Orr 
P. Murray 


Killed, 1/7/16. 


Piper 


R. Alexander 




,, 


J. Watson 


Wounded, 1/7/16. 


)t 


R. Baird 




M 


B. Fraser 


Wounded, 1/7/16. 


Lance-Cpl. 


L. Armourer 




Piper 


A. Rankine 

R. M'Kay 

R. Watson 

R. Barclay 

J. Fogo 

R. Hunter 

J. Hoy 

J. M' Donald 

H. Barrie 

T. Porteous 

D. Bell 

D. Macintosh 

G. Bell 

W. Coutts 

J. Bruce 

A. MacPherson 

R. Hope 


Killed, 1/7/16. 


Lance-Cpl. 


W. Hendry 




Corpl. 


R. Brown 





17TH Battalion 

In the attack on the Leipzig Redoubt on 1st July, 1916, when the 
battalion had to hang on unsupported to a part of the captured Leipzig 
Redoubt, the pipers played and did an immense deal in keeping the men's 
spirits up. Pipe Major Gilbert on this occasion won the Military Medal. 
The casualties in this attack put the pipe band out of action, and the pipers 
were thereafter kept, as far as possible, out of the front line. The battalion 
was subsequently merged in the 15th H.L.I. 



ii 4 REGIMENTAL RECORDS 

REG. NO. RANK. NAME. RECORD. 

Pipe Major T. Gilbert, M.M. Military Medal, July 1916 ; de- 

spatches, July 1 91 7; transferred 
to 15th H.L.I. 

Corpl. John Burleigh Gassed, April 191 8; transferred to 

15th H.L.I. 
Charles Galloway Wounded, Nieuport, 10/7/17 ; pro- 

moted for gallantry, 1/7/16 ; 
gassed, Arras, April 191 8. 

Lance-Cpl. James M'Munn Wounded, 1/7/16, Somme ; again, 

in Egypt ; transferred to 7th H.L.I. 

Piper Archibald Forrest Received Commission ; died of 

disease, 191 8. 
,, Hugh M' Arthur Gassed, Arras, April 1918 ; trans- 

ferred to 15th H.L.I. 
Archibald Carmichael Wounded, Nieuport, 10/7/17. 

THE SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS 
ist Battalion 

The casualties among the pipers of this battalion have been very heavy. 
At Richebourg in November 1914, 2 pipers were killed and 6 wounded, 
and the pipe major, Matheson, was awarded the D.C.M. for great gallantry 
in carrying messages. In December 1914, and again at Neuve Chapelle in 
May 1915, 3 more were killed and 4 wounded. Some of them were employed 
as pipers, others as bearers and in the ranks. At Neuve Chapelle the com- 
panies were played into action in May 1915, and Piper Pratt was killed 
while playing. 

The battalion went to Mesopotamia, and in the action at Sheikh Saad 
on 7th January, 1916, Pipe Major M'Kechnie played the regimental charge 
at a most crucial moment and continued until he fell wounded. In this 
and other subsequent engagements pipers played their companies into 
action. Some of them did excellent work bringing up ammunition, and 
529 Piper Colin M'Kay was specially promoted for this. This duty was 
particularly dangerous as the Turkish barrage was generally late. 

The casualties continued to be heavy. Altogether 11 pipers have been 
killed. 

REG. NO. RANK. NAME. RECORD. 

8391 Pipe Major D. B. Mathieson, D.C.M. D.C.M. ; wounded " Port Arthur," 

7/11/14. 



THE SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS 



115 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


IOI69 


Lance 


C P 1. 


J. TULLOCH 


9158 


Sergt. 




J. MacLellax 


79OO 


Piper 




\V. F. Cowans 


92CJI 


•• 




J. Pratt 


479 






D. Black 


766 


Lance 


Cpl. 


Lance Sgt. J. Mackenzie 


216 


Piper, 




Actg. P.M. W. Paton 


io 457 


Lance 


Sgt. 


J. Stewart 


412 


Piper 




William Barry 


311 


Lance 


•Cpl. 


Donald Campbell 


9458 


•■ 




John Dunbar 


9628 






Alexander Hay 


444 


f$ 




Robert Hill 


262 






A. M'Donald 


264 


ff 




Alexander M'Gill 


433 


tf 




Andrew Mackay 


435 


•• 




John M'Vean 


564 






N. Morrison 


366 


•• 




T. Muir 


284 


•• 




D. Murray 


768 






Adam Ross 


9419 






D. Skinner 


10183 


Lance 


Cpl. 


J. Heron 


645 


Piper 




D. Smith 


661 


,, 




J. Stein 


788 






T. Urquhart 




Corpl. 




A. Vince 


9446 


Corpl. 




Actg. P.M. Neil M'Kech 


10056 


Piper 




John Shand 


7214 


Lance 


Cpl. 


James Hardy 


543 


Piper 




Neil Morrison 



Wounded in trenches, " Port 

Arthur," 6/11/14. 
Wounded," Port Arthur," 9/5/15 ; 

subsequently killed, 2 1 /4/1 7. 
Killed, 7/1 1 /14, " Port Arthur." 
Died of wounds, Neuve Chapelle, 

9/5/15- 
Killed, 3/11/14, " Port Arthur." 
Wounded, " Port Arthur," 9/5/15. 
Wounded, Givenchy, 6/4/15. 
Transferred to 2nd Batt. ; killed, 

1917. 
Despatches. 
Wounded, Givenchy, 4/11/14; 

killed, Mesopotamia, 191 7. 
Wounded, Mesopotamia, 7/1/16, 

while performingduties in attack. 
Transferred to R.E. 
Wounded, " Port Arthur," 9/5/15. 



Wounded, Mesopotamia, 21/4/17. 

Wounded, Mesopotamia, 7/1/16; 
invalided. 

Wounded, Givenchy, 4/1 2/1 4. 

Wounded, " Port Arthur," in- 
valided. 

Wounded, Givenchy, 6/4/15 ; in- 
valided. 

Wounded, Givenchy, 17/11/14. 

Wounded, Givenchy, 20/12/14 
invalided. 

Killed in France. 

Wounded in trenches ; invalided. 

Killed, Givenchy, 20/12/14. 

Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 9/5/15 ; 
transferred to R.S.F. 

Acting Pipe Major when battalion 
went to Mesopotamia ; wound- 
ed, 7/1 /i 5 ; mentioned in des- 
patches, 25/8/15. 

Wounded, Mesopotamia, 21/4/17; 
and again Palestine. 



n6 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. 
529 



Sergt. Piper Colin M'Kay 
Lance Cpl. Alex. Robertson 



7184 

200300 

16360 

9526 



709 

204786 

8338 

7208 

22602 

8337 



Piper 
Lance Sgt. 
Lance Cpl. 
Piper 



Died of wounds, Baghdad. 
Severely wounded, Sheikh Saad ; 
pipes smashed, 7/1 /i 6. 



Died at home. 



Killed, France. 
Killed, Mesopotamia. 



James Robertson 

James Duncan 

Hearne 

William M'Donald 

J. Cuthill 

George Paterson 

William M'Lellan 

Allan 

J. Wilkinson 

Cook 

A. Hart 

J. Wilson 

J. Knox 

Reid 

M. Johnstone 

2nd Battalion 

The pipers were largely employed as runners, orderlies, etc., and suffered 

very heavy casualties. On several occasions during the open fighting they 

were employed in the attack as pipers. Of 23 pipers who went to France 

with the battalion 6 were killed and 10 wounded in the first year of the war. 

The opinion of the officers is that only the difficulty of reinforcements limits 

the employment of pipers in action. 

RECORD. 

Invalided, Dec. 1914. 

Wounded, 25/1/17. 

Wounded, May 1915. 

Killed, June 1915. 

Killed, October 1914. 

Died of disease, Feb. 1915. 

Wounded, August 1914 ; killed, 

Loos, Oct. 1915. 
Gassed, May 1915. 
Wounded, March 1915. 
Killed, February 1915. 
Killed, July 191 6. 

Wounded, February 1915. 

Invalided, Dec. 1914. 



:g. no 


RANK. 


NAME. 


6731 


Pipe Major 


John Haywood 


577 


,, 


James Mackenzie 


6171 


Corpl. 


Angus MacLean 


9106 


Lance Cpl. 


William Ross 


9223 




John Grant 


283 




Dougal MacMillan 


9454 


•' 


James Rennie 


70 


Piper 


Hugh Keil 


625 




George Thomson 
David Macrae 


3 




Robert Hall 
Alexander Thornton 


570 




Alexander Mackenzie 
Ronald Mackenzie 


711 




James Urquhart 



THE SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS 



117 



REG. NO. RANK. 

Piper 



1096 



NAME. 

Frederick Cook 
Albert Hunter 
Alexander MacAngus 
Gregor Mackenzie 
Kenneth Mackenzie 
Alexander Angus 
Robert Rennie 
Alexander Clark, 



10670 


'< 




Alexander Mai 


10-157 


Lance 


Sgt. 


James Stewart 


7635 


Lance 


Cpl. 


A. Ross 


8666 


Corpl. 




VV. Lowlands 


7838 


Piper 




A. Calder 


9132 


„ 




N. Johnstone 


4 2 55 






J. Robertson 


10169 


,, 




J. Tulloch 


189 
24729 


" 




A. Stein 
J. Murdoch 
A. Milne 


21630 


ff 




D. MACLEOD 


7366 


•' 




D. MACLEOD 

N. Maclean 


7126 


tl 




W. Maclean 


7603 


,, 




J. Mackay 


7206 


Lance 


Cpl. 


M. Maclean 


2886 


Piper 




G. Bell 


8i34 


» 




J. Grant 


204612 






P. Lamont 


9607 


„ 




J. Macarthur 



RECORD. 

Wounded, 13/10/14. 



Gassed, 2/5/15. 

Killed, May 191 5. 

Wounded, April 1915. 

Killed, May 1915. 

Killed, May 191 5. 

Wounded, August 1914 ; prisoner 

of war. 
Transferred from 1st Batt. ; 

wounded, 1/7/16, Maillet 

(Somme) ; killed, 1917- 



Wounded, 25/4/15 ; killed, 26/1 /1 7. 
Wounded, Nov. 191 6. 
Wounded, 20/11/14. 



Gassed, April 1915. 
Wounded, April 191 5 and August 
1917. 

Wounded, April 191 7. 



4TH Battalion 
In the early part of the war pipers were employed as such, and in many 
other capacities. Casualties, however, were exceedingly heavy, and it 
was decided in the later stages to keep them out of action as much as possible. 
Five pipers were killed and sixteen wounded. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

Pipe Major Murdo Mackenzie 

John M'Kenzie 
Piper D. M'Kenzie 



Discharged, 191 8. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle. 
Died of wounds in Germany. 



Ii8 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

Piper J. Kemp 



RECORD. 

Died of wounds at Neuve Chapelle, 
1915- 



201307 



„ A. M'Aulay 


Died of wounds at Valenciennes, 




1918. 


,, J. M'Kenzie 


Died of wounds at Neuve Chapelle, 




1915- 


;; J. M'DONALD 


Wounded at Cambrai, 1917 ; dis- 




charged. 


A. J. M'Kenzie 


Wounded at NeuveChapelle, 1915 ; 




discharged. 


P. Stewart, M.M. 


Wounded at Cambrai, 1917 ; dis- 




charged. 


J. Stewart 


Wounded at Marne, 191 8. 


W. M'Kenzie 


Discharged, 1916. 


,, M. Sandison 


Wounded at Cambrai, 1917. 


H. Forbes 


Wounded and gassed at Arras, 




1918. 


,, J. Urquhart 


Wounded at Cambrai, 1918 ; dis- 




charged. 


,, W. Marshall 


Wounded and gassed at Cambrai, 


D. M'Rae 


1917. 
Discharged. 


Lance-Sgt. D. Thomson 


Invalided home. 


„ F. FlNDLAYSON 


Invalided home 


Piper J. M'Donald 


Wounded at Aubers Ridge, 1915. 


„ A. M'Lennan 


Killed at Neuve Chapelle, 1915. 


W. Ross 


Transferred to Home Service. 


H. Ross 


Transferred to Home Service. 


„ H. M'Lennan 


Wounded at Aubers Ridge, 1915. 


D. Williamson 


Wounded and gassed. Arras and 




Cambrai. 


,, W. M'Donald 




„ W. Corbet 


Wounded at Aubers Ridge, 1915. 


W. M'Leod 


Wounded at Neuve Chapelle, 1915, 




and discharged. 


„ H. R. M'Kenzie 


Wounded. 


,, R. Higgins 


Invalided, 191 8. 


„ J. M'Donald 


Discharged. 


„ J. M'Lennan 




,, N. Ross 


Discharged. 


J. Ross 


Wounded at Cambrai. 


,, E. Leaman 


Wounded at Cambrai. 


L/C. Piper W. Gray 




Piper J. M'Kenzie 




,, J. Gumm 




,, M. Sandison 





THE SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS 



119 



REG. NO. RANK. 



Piper 



NAME. 

W. Marshall 
J. A. Aird 
H. Forbes 
A. M'Leod 
J. Baird 
D. M'Millan 
W. Richardson 



5th Battalion 



Pipers in action were employed as orderlies, despatch runners, etc 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


2026 Pipe Major 


J. Sutherland 


,, 


A. Harley 


97 


W. Grant 


422 


G. Ross 


41186 Corporal 


H. Gammack 


450 Piper 


A. M'Leod 


214 


W. Trussler 


240082 „ 


R. M'Kay 


240578 


G. Stewart 


379 


R. M'Kenzie, M.l\ 


599 


Donald Mackay 


242179 


D. Macinnes 


144 


H. Grant 


240137 


D. A. Matheson 


426 


C. Rae 


8971 


A. Mackay 


560 


R. Mackay 


242212 ,, 


G. Urquhart 


2266 


W. S. Coghill 


3023 


A. Keith 


2392 


R. Stephen 


24227 ,, 


J. MacDonald 


2729 


A. Taylor 


251 


R. Ross 


242094 ,, 


D. Mackenzie 


669 


M. Murray 


26 


R. Trussler 


25209 


J. Munro 


267336 


Jas. Sutherland 


42195 


D. Morrison 


24284 ,, 


J. Cullen 



Invalided. 

Killed, 21/7/15, Fauquissart. 



Wounded ; Military Medal. 
Killed, i3/n/i6,BeaumontHamel. 



Wounded. 



Killed, 21/7/15, Fauquissart. 
Wounded. 



Transferred to 6th Seaforths 
killed, 19/4/17 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



Oth Battalion 



At Festubcrt, June 1915, the pipers did magnificent service as bearers, 
working day and night, and bringing in 170 wounded men. They were 
largely employed in the ranks as machine gunners. The casualties among 
them were heavy — 8 killed and 6 wounded. 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


Pipe Major 


G. Milton 


Sergt. 


W. MacLeod 




C. D. Macdonald 




H. Mackie 




J. Brown, M.M. 


» 


G. Gilbert, D.C.M. 


Corpl. 


W. Urquhart 


Piper 


J. Alexander 


tt 


J. Bowie 




L. Cumming 


lt 


G. Fraser 


tl 


J. GlBB 


tt 


J. Grant 


lt 


G. M. Grant 


H 


D. Grant 




D. Geddie 


l( 


J. Logie 


265172 


W. Logie 


,, 


J. Lumsden, M.M 


tt 


A. Jenkins 


M 


A. Mitchell 


it 


W. D. Mill 




A. Mackay 


tl 


W. Mackay 


9t 


H. Mackenzie 


tl 


W. Macdonald 


M 


J. Macdonald 


>t 


VV. Mackay 


it 


A. Paterson 


M 


J. Robertson 


•■ 


G. Rose 




\V. Shervan 


,, 


W. Sutherland 


-: 


A. Thomson 



Killed, May 1916, Labyrinth. 
Killed, Beaumont Hamel, 13/11/16. 
Killed, Beaumont Hamcl, 13/11/16. 
Killed, Arras, May 191 7. 
Wounded, Beaumont llamel, 
13/11/16. 

Ivilled, La Bassee, April 1918. 



Invalided. 

Wounded, 9/4/17, Roclincourt. 
Wounded, High Wood, July 1916. 
Invalided. 



Killed, 9/4/17, Roclincourt. 
Wounded, Cambrai, Nov. 191 7. 



Wounded, 9/4/17, Roclincourt. 
Invalided. 
Invalided. 
Killed, July 1915. 
Wounded, Beaumont Hamel, 
13/11/16. 

Killed, 9/4/17, Roclincourt. 




PIPE-MAJOR HOWARTH, D.C.M., 6th GORDON HIGHLANDERS 

At Neuve Chapelle 

From the Painting by J. Prinscp Beadle 



THE SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS 



121 



7th Battalion 
At Loos the battalion was played to the attack, and had 5 pipers killed 
and 3 wounded. At one time, when the position was very serious, a piper 
rallied the men with " Cabar Feidh," and produced a tremendous effect. 
On the Somme, in 1916, a piper was always on duty with the battalion. At 
Arras, in 191 7, the pipers acted as bearers, but in later operations they were 
kept out of the front line as far as possible. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

5111 Pipe Major W.Taylor 



1536 




,, 


A. Harley 


1689 


Sergt. 


W. Fraser, M.M. 


7765 




W. Gordon 


8822 


Corpl. 


T. Johnston 


711 


Lance CpL 


A. Urquhart 


40417 


,, 


O'Kain Maclennan 


6876 


„ 


M. M'Lean 


8134 


,, 


J. Grant 


13385 


Piper 


P. Calder 


6892 


,, 


W. Cooper 


8535 




• 


D. Davidson, D.C.M., M.M 


21629 






T. Eaton 


1456 




, 


D. Fraser 


40177 




, 


R. Fraser 


4272 




• 


W. Galbraith 


4181 






R. Galbraith 


9070 




, 


G. Grant 


2177 




„ 


B. Halliday 


4661 




, 


B. Hamilton 


9859 




, 


J. HlNTON 


10859 






A. J. Mackay 


9488 




, 


J. Mackay 


570 




- 


A. Mackenzie 


1487 






R. Mackenzie, M.M. 


7366 




, 


D. MACLEOD 


201819 




, 


M. Montgomery 


12597 




, 


M. Murray 


201991 




, 


R. Murray 


825 




, 


G. Thomson 


3843 




, 


K. Thyne 



record. 
Awarded Croix de Guerre and 

Meritorious Service Medal. 
Invalided. 
Military Medal. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Received Commission in Camerons. 

Killed, 11/4/17. 

Wounded, 12/10/17. 



D.C.M. and Military Medal ; pro- 
moted Sergt. in his Coy. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Wounded, Loos, and again Arras, 

9/4/17- 
Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Died in hospital. 

Died of wounds received at Loos. 
Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 



Wounded, 10/4/15, Messines ; 

gassed, 23/6/18. 
Wounded, 12/3/18; Military Medal. 
Invalided. 



Wounded, Messines, 10/4/15. 
Killed, Somme, 1 4/7/1 6. 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



8th Battalion 



There were heavy casualties at Loos, September 1915, when 5 pipers 
were killed and 5 were wounded ; on this occasion the gallantry of these 
men won the wholehearted admiration of all ranks. The companies were 
played into action by the pipers. 



8112 


Pipe Major 


Alex. Mackenzie, D.C.M. 




„ 




John Haywood 


8119 


Sergt. 




George Gordon 


8172 


Lance 


Cpl. 


John Munro 


3161 


Piper 




Andrew Hamilton 


57 21 


,, 




Charles Anderson 


6368 


" 




Robert Clark 
Andrew Clark 


7519 


„ 




John Matheson 


6567 


,, 




George Spence 


3503 


,, 




James Cairns 


2897 


,, 




Robert Robertson 



2583 

6400 „ 

6546 Lance Cpl. 
3307 Piper 

Corpl. 
Piper 

25812 

25825 



James Morton 
Alexander Mackay 
William Mackay 
Robert Beaton 
Duncan MacGregor 
Donald Valantine 
Hugh Sutherland 
R. Currant 
James Harvey 
Alexander MacAulay 
Alexander MacDonald 
Alexander MacDonald 
Malcolm Mackenzie 
Robert Mackenzie 
Donald MacLeod 
George Macmillan 
James Matheson 
James Morton 
Robert Robertson 
Alexander Simpson 
George Spence 



D.C.M. 

Transferred 9th Seaforths as Pipe 
Major ; Belgian Croix de 
Guerre. 



Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15, 

taken prisoner. 
Killed, Loos, 28/9/18. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15, 
taken prisoner. 

Wounded, Ypres, 31/7/17. 
Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Died of disease, 191 7. 

Wounded, Arras, 21/2/18. 



and 



and 



THE SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS 



123 



REG. NO. RANK. 

Piper 



Lieut. 



NAME. 

P. Stewart 
Henry Sutherland 
J. Tait 
Hector Ross 



Formerly Piper 6th S.H. ; killed, 
23/4/17- 



9TH Battalion 

Pipers were frequently employed as despatch runners. In the advance 
of the 26th Brigade at Longueval on 14th July, 1916, the battalion was 
played into action under very heavy fire. When attacking the village they 
met with a stout resistance and came under heavy machine gun fire from 
a flank as well as from the front. The pipers rallied the men who were 
thrown momentarily into confusion, and, at their head, charged down the 
street and over the wires into the German trenches. 

The casualties were heavy throughout, 4 killed and 15 wounded. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


8lI9 


Pipe Major 


G. Gordon 


Belgian Croix de Guerre. 


4422 


Lance 


Sgt. 


D. M'Niven 




5745 


Lance 


Cpl. 


C. M'Lellan, M.M. 


Military Medal, Loos, 1915. 


261949 


Piper 




James Lumsden, M.M. 


Wounded, Somme, 1916; Military 
Medal. 


240018 








Robert Ross 


Killed, 11/4/18. 


267336 








James Sutherland 


Killed, 19/4/17. 


4394 








M. Ross 


Wounded. 


8264 








D. Mackenzie 


Wounded. 


4858 








J. Macdonald 


Wounded. 


501 1 








A. Cheyne 




3949 








H. Arnott 


Wounded. 


9394 








W. M'Mahon 


Killed. 


4057 








W. Gray 


Wounded. 


5693 








D. Hunter 


Wounded. 


40497 








A. Mackenzie 




40502 








R. Watt 


Wounded. 


40547 








G. Davidson 




267049 








J. MacLeod 




13286 








J. Aitken 


Wounded. 


23879 








W. Duncan 


Killed 


23889 








J. M'Lellan 


Wounded. 


26416 








P. Macdonald 




26426 








D. M'KlNNON 


Wounded. 



124 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



KEG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


5943 Piper 


R. Lawson 


24518 


A. Buchanan 


261313 ,; 


A. Mackenzie 


557° 


J. Barclay 



RECORD. 

Wounded and gassed. 
Wounded three times. 



THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 

ist Battalion 

The battalion took out 18 pipers, and at the roll call at Cambrai on 
26th August, 1914, only two remained. For a long time pipers had to 
be employed in the ranks. On several occasions in the Somme fighting 
they took their place at the head of their companies and played them into 
action. 



REG. 


NO. 


*ANK. 


NAME. 




Pipe Major 


J. Henderson 




Sergt. 


J. Johnston 




Piper 


Geo. Cruickshank 
David Copland 
A. Thompson 

F. Paterson 
J. Watt 




Corpl. 


F. Robertson 




Lance Cpl. 


W. M'Fall 




Piper 


W. Fraser 








Geo. Mitchell 








Geo. Anderson 








N. Watt 








D. Weir 








P. Cran 








F. Grant 








P. Hair 








W. Cromarty 








W. Harvie 




Corpl. 


A. Garden 




Piper 


A. M'Kay 
W. Allan 
J. Coutts 
W. Paton 




, 


, 


Eadie 



Wounded, 25/9/15. 
Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 
Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 
Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14, but 

escaped and returned to duty ; 

again captured, 24/10/14. 
Killed, Mons, 26/8/14. 
Gone to 2nd Batt. 
Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 
Killed, October 191 4. 
Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 
Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 
Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 

Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 

Invalided. 

Invalided. 

Prisoner, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 

Wounded, 26/9/15. 

Killed, 24/10/141. 

Died of wounds, Jan. 1 91 5. 
Killed, 1 4/1 2/1 4. 



THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 



125 



. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 






RECORD. 




Piper 


Hay 

M'Kay 
Gillies 




Wounded. 
Wounded. 






» 


Hector Ross 




Wounded, 
March, 


Loos, 25/9/15 ; 
1916. 


killed 




2ND 


B 


\TTALION 







This battalion took 32 pipers out to France ; by the end of the first 
year of the campaign 10 had been killed and 20 wounded. At Loos and 
in the Somme fighting the pipers of the 2nd Gordons repeatedly played 
the battalion into action and suffered heavily. The pipers were also 
employed as runners, bearers, etc., and in the ranks. 

In March 1915, the battalion was played to the attack on the Aubers 
Ridge under heavy fire, and again at Mametz and Guichy. 

In the Italian field of operations they did most excellent work in getting 
the wounded back across a swift river, work which their CO. consideied it 
would have been impossible to accomplish without their enthusiastic 
assistance. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

6349 Pipe Major C. Anderson 



IO &55 


Piper 




R. Grant 


10639 






J. Grant 


no 






R. Wilson 


219 






W. Bruce 


10653 


Corpl. 




J. M'Kenzie 


205 


Piper 




J. Ledingham 
J. Ramage 
A. Cassie 
J. Bissett 


10296 






W. Sinclair 


311 


Lance 


Cpl. 


A. M'Donald 


10113 


Piper 




J. Gillies 


175 


Lance 


Cpl. 


J. Livingstone 


10243 


Piper 




J. Murray 


8699 


» 




C. Munro 


349 






J. Cruickshanks 


10219 


„ 




J. Topp 



RECORD. 

Wounded ; Military Medal, Loos, 

I9I5- 

Killed, Loos, 1915. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Died of wounds, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Wounded, Ypres, 1/11/14 ; in- 
valided. 

Wounded, Ypres, 30/10/14. 

Wounded ; prisoner of war, 
30/10/14. 

Wounded, Ypres, 30/10/14. 

Despatches ; wounded, Loos, 
1915. 

Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 1915. 

Wounded, Ypres, 30/10/14. 



126 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO, 


RANK. 


NAME. 


297 


Piper 


J. Grant 


I20 




H. Adams 


IOO72 




G. Tennent 


233 


,, 


J. Watt 


7509 


Sergt. 


W. Smith 


606 


Piper 


A. Bruce 


IQ2 


,, 


W. Hinnie 


429 


" 


T. Macintosh 
Fraser 


543 


,, 


A. Holmes 


10256 


,, 


B. M'Kay 


43° 


,, 


J. Robertson 


206 


Lance Cpl. 


J. Duguid 


6853 


Sergt. 


R. Stewart, D.C.M. 


7641 


Piper 


J. M'Donald 


10486 


,, 


C. Taylor 


5614 


,, 


James Ritchie, M.M. 


7375 


Corpl. 


A. Smith 


8390 


Piper 


J. Scott 


335 


" 


J. M'Crimmon 


10139 




D. White 


747 


,, 


J. Lorimer 


6994 


Sergt. 


A. Horne 


7288 


Piper 


C. Orchard 


5495 


,, 


J. White 


10264 


,, 


D. Bowie 


7383 


,, 


P. Brown 


235745 


,, 


R. Innes 


240455 


„ 


J. Gow 


43479 


,, 


J. Graham 


2595 


,, 


D. Williams 



record. 
Wounded and invalided. 
Wounded, Ypres, i/n/14. 
Wounded, Ypres, 30/10/14. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Ypres, 1/11/14; in- 
valided. 
Wounded ; invalided. 
Wounded, Ypres, 5/10/17. 
Wounded, Ypres, 30/10/14. 
Killed, Ypres, 30/10/14. 

Killed, Loos, 191 5; awarded D.C.M. 

Wounded, Somme, July 1916. 
Military Medal, Somme. 
Killed, Loos, 1915. 
Killed, Somme, 1916. 
Wounded, Ypres, 1914 ; killed, 

Loos, 1915. 
Killed, Loos, 1915. 
Wounded, Somme, 191 6. 
Invalided. 



Killed, Ypres, 5/10/17. 



4TH Battalion 
During the trench righting the pipers were mostly used behind the 
front line, and in marching the battalion to and from rest billets. Subse- 
quently, in open fighting, the company pipers took their place at the heads 
of their companies. At the Marne, Pipers P. Paterson, R. Prentice, P. Bowie 
and G. Davidson played their companies into action, and their action 
immensely stimulated the troops " and enabled them to gain a great victory 
on that day " ; at Ypres on 31st July, 1917, Piper P. Bowie " rallied the 
men at a time when fighting was very fierce," and was awarded the Military 



THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 



127 



Medal ; on 17th November, 1917, Piper G. Paterson also got the Military 
Medal for playing the battalion through three successive charges and into 
Cantaing under heavy fire. The pipers were also employed as ammunition 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 




Pipe Major 


A. Chisholm 




201290 


Piper 


John Webster, M.M. 


Military Medal. 




Lance-Cpl. 


W. Cruickshank 






Piper 


T. Watson 


Invalided. 


2OO347 


,, 


G. Paterson, M.M. 


Wounded ; Military Medal 






, 


N. Paterson 








, 


W. M'Kay 


Invalided. 






, 


E. Ewen 


Wounded. 






, 


P. Paterson 


Wounded. 






, 


D. Robbie 


Wounded (twice). 






, 


G. Davidson 


Gassed, Ypres, 31/10/17. 






, 


J. Wych 


Prisoner. 






, 


C. Lawson 


Prisoner. 






, 


J. Gray 








, 


J. Gray 


Wounded. 






, 


R. Sim 


Wounded. 






, 


P. Bowie, M.M. 


Military Medal. 






, 


E. Mather 








, 


R. Prentice 








, 


J. Oswald 








, 


F. Wright 








, 


J. Foote 








, 


A. Thomson 


Killed. 



5th Battalion 
The pipers were principally employed in the ranks and as observers, but 
in the attack on High Wood on the Somme front company pipers played 
at the head of their units. On this occasion Piper Willox was killed as he 
led his company, and several others became casualties. It was thereafter 
decided not to employ pipers in action again. 



302 Pipe Major 

1596 Cpl. -Piper 

760 Piper 
1985 
i5 86 



J. H. Clark 
J. Harvey 
A. Stewart 
G. Thomson 
A. Willox 



Killed, 31/7/16, High Wood. 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. RANK. 

1 1 56 Piper 



W. Graham 
W. Allan 
J. Birnie 

H. LUNAN 

J. M'Donald 

G. MlDDLETON 

A. Robinson 
J. A. Scott 
J. Stewart 
R. Wyness 

Andrew Brown, M.M. 

G. Lindsay 



record. 
Killed, 3/6/15, Festubert. 



Wounded, Bullecourt. 



Military Medal ; killed, 31/7/16, 

High Wood. 
Wounded, Sept. 1917, Ypres. 



6th Battalion 

At Neuve Chapelle the pipers headed the charge of the battalion on the 
Moulin du Pietre, losing one piper killed and four wounded. 

Pipers were mostly employed in action as stretcher bearers or in the 
ranks, and, while suffering heavily, won the highest reputation in their 
battalion. At Neuve Chapelle in March 1915 they lost one killed and six 
wounded ; on this occasion Pipe Major Howarth won the D.C.M. At Loos 
in the following September, the casualties were again heavy, and the pipe 
major won a bar to the D.C.M. In later operations pipers were kept, as 
much as possible, out of the front line. 

record. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 25/3/15. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 25/3/15. 
Killed, Neuve Chapelle, 25/3/15. 

Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 25/3/15. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle, 25/3/15. 



Wounded, Festubert. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


IOII5 


Pipe Major 


J. Howarth, D.C.M. and 








Bar 


161 


Corpl. 




G. Logie 


728 


Piper 




A. Smith 


62 


,, 




G. Milton 


1257 


Lance 


Cpl. 


G. M'Pherson 


104 


Piper 




A. Coutts 


II 7 


,, 




G. Grant 


I0604 


,, 




A. Milne 


967 


Lance 


Cpl. 


J. Birnie 


IO70O 


Piper 




W. Bannerman 


806 


,, 




R. Scott 


961 


,, 




J. Birnie 


I561 


" 




R. M'Cay 
H. Davidson 




Lance 


-Cpl. 


T. Knowles 



THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 



I2Q 



8th Battalion 



Pipe Major W. J. Grant 
Corpl. G. Flockhart 



Wounded. 



gTH Battalion 

The great value of the pipers in action is recognised by the whole 
battalion, but it is considered it sometimes happens that the men get so 
overkeen under the influence of the music that they are liable to exceed 
orders. The employment of pipers as bearers, etc., is deprecated as 
resulting in casualties which cannot be replaced. 



EG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


Pipe Major 


K. MacLeod 


S/7747 




G. Findlater, V.C 


S/4212 




D. MacLeod 


S/6827 


Piper 


A. M'Donald 


S/2772 


,, 


M. Murray 


S/9023 


,, 


C. Campbell 


S/3068 


,, 


T. Turner 


S/4057 


,, 


J. Miller 


S/4058 


,, 


H. Heeps 


S/4560 


,, 


J. Craig 


S/9364 


,, 


J. Aitken 


348 


•> 


J. M'Donald 


560 




W. Watt 


S/17640 




H. Maclachlan 


9283 


Lance-Cpl. 


H. Adams 


S/3052 


Pte. 


J. Sharkey 

ioth Bat 


EG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 



5614 



Pipe Major Horne 

Corpl. Orchard 

Piper James Ritchie, M.M. 



Invalided, Dec. 1914. 
Invalided, Dec. 1915. 



Killed in action, Somme, 10/7/16. 
Invalided. 



Wounded, Somme, 1916. 

Wounded Neuve Chapelle, 1915 ; 
Loos, 25/9/15 ; Somme, 1/7/16. 
Wounded, Ypres, 1914. 

Wounded, Ypres, 1914. 



Wounded. 

Transferred to 2nd Gordons ; Mili- 
tary Medal. 



130 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



THE QUEEN'S OWN CAMERON HIGHLANDERS 

" A chlanna nan con 
A chlanna nan con 
Thigibh an so 
S'ghaibh sibh feoil. ' 

ist Battalion 

Pipers were not employed as such, but, during the early part of the war, 
they were in the ranks. At the battle of the Aisne and Ypres the casualties 
were heavy. 

The value to the battalion of their pipe band is considered so great that 
the officers would like the establishment doubled. 



REG. NO 


. 


RANK. 


NAME. 




record. 


6720 


Piper Major 


G. Selby 




Killed, 22/10/14. 


6718 


,, 


W. Cruickshanks 




5210 


Corpl. 


W. Kinnear 




Wounded, 5/11/14, Ypres. 


5173 


Piper 


H. Barrie 




Killed, 5/11/14, Ypres. 


8445 


,, 


C. Maclachlan 






767I 


,, 


A. Henderson, 


D.C.M. 


Taken prisoner, 11/11/14 ; D.C.M 


8535 


Lance -Cpl. 


G. M'Calman 




Wounded, Langemarck, Oct. 1914 
died after discharge. 


8072 


Piper 


D. Ross 






8475 






M. Campbell 




Wounded, Aisne, 14/9/14. 


9575 






L. Johnstone 




Wounded, Aisne, 1 4/9/14. 


6726 






D. Cook 




Wounded, Aisne, 14/9/14. 


9345 






L. M'Bean 




Died of wounds, Arras, Aug. 1918. 


9444 






J. COYLE 




Wounded, Aisne, 25/8/14. 


I4°59 






J. Peders 






1 892 1 






N. Ross 






5859 






A. Macdonald 






30748 






N. Smith 







2nd Battalion 

There were heavy casualties among the pipers, who were employed in 
many ways throughout the war, — largely in the ranks. One, Lance-Corporal 
Johnstone, was awarded the D.C.M. and M.M. for his gallantry as a guide 
in 1915 and subsequently as scout sergeant. Throughout the war the 
pipers went into action with their companies. The opinion of the com- 



THE CAMERON HIGHLANDERS 



131 



manding officer is that they have been invaluable to the battalion. At the 
time of the advance into Bulgaria sickness had caused the disappearance 
of the band. 

Altogether 14 pipers were wounded and 7 died or were killed during 
the war. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 




Pipe Major 


dougall matheson 
John Steele 




Sergt. 




James Johnson, D.C.M 
M.M. 




Corpl. 




Alex. M'Leod 
Alex. Thomson 


8479 


Piper 

Lance 


Cpl. 


Donald Dyce 
Archibald Robertson 




Piper 




William Borthwick 
Peter Easson 
Joseph Elliot 
donnachie 
Archibald Fulton 




Lance 


Cpl. 


James Gillon 




Piper 




Keeble 
John Lumsden 
James M'Dougall 
John M'Cabe 
Donald M'Rae 
John M'Askill 
Thompson 

Alexander Thompson 
William Hope 
Hugh Conner 

Donald Campbell 
Archibald M'Kenzie 
Murdoch Scott 
Lachlan M'Bean 
Murdoch Scott 
Archibald Lindsay 
Robert Ferguson 
William Stewart 
John Smart 
James Carswell 
Archibald Smith 



Wounded, 1915, and in 1916. 
Wounded, 1 5/2/1 5. 
Wounded, 1918. 



Wounded, Salonika, 30/9/16. 



Wounded, 1915, Ypres. 

Wounded, 191 6. 

Killed, 1915. 

Prisoner of war, 1915 ; invalided. 

Wounded, 10/5/15, St. Eloi. 

Wounded. 

Wounded, Struma, 1/10/16. 

Wounded, Hill 60 ; invalided. 

Died, 1917. 

Killed, Hill 60, April 1916. 
Died. 
Invalided. 

Wounded, Ypres, 1918. 
Wounded, 30/9/16, St. Eloi ; in- 
valided. 
Wounded, 10/5/15, St. Eloi. 
Killed, Hill 60, April 191 6. 
Wounded, Aug. 1915. 
Died of wounds, St. Eloi, 10/5/15. 
Wounded, Aug. 1915. 

Invalided. 

Died, Salonika, 18/10/17. 



132 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



4TH Battalion 

At Festubert on 17th May, 1915, the companies were played to the 
attack by their pipers, and these men came through unscathed but with 
their pipes rendered useless by mud and water. Of those who were serving 
in the ranks several were killed and wounded at Festubert. 

Again at Loos the pipers were employed in action as such. 

They were often employed as bearers. The battalion was disbanded 
as a separate unit. 



REG. NO. RANK. 

56 Pipe Major 
275 Lance Cpl. 
1090 Piper 

44 
519 
988 
528 Lance Cpl. 

53 Piper 

1395 

1120 ,, 
1100 

645 Lance Cpl. 
2670 
200120 Piper 



J. S. Ross 
J. Shirran 

A. FULLARTON 

W. Fraser 
R. Munro 

C. Milne 
G. Forsyth 
K. Logan 

W. F. Macdonald 
J. Cheyne 

J. MUNRO 

D. Paterson 
T. D. Mackay 
W. Macdonald 
W. Maclean 



RECORD. 

Wounded, Fanquinart, 9/5/15. 
Wounded. 



Wounded. 

Wounded, Richebourg, 1 7/7/1 5. 

Killed, Festubert, 17/5/15. 

Killed, Festubert, 1 7/5/1 5. 
Wounded, Neuve Chapelle,i2/3/i5. 
Died of wounds, 14/10/17. 
Transferred as Pipe Major to 
5th Camerons. 



5th Battalion 
At Loos the battalion was played into action, and practically all the 
pipers became casualties. Subsequently they were employed as bearers. 



REG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


4424 


Pipe Major 


A. Beattie 
John Macmillan 
William Maclean 


3/5497 


Piper 


Alex. MacEachen 


3/5"3 


Lance Cpl. 


A. J. M'Donald 


3/5096 


,, 


Donald M'Lean 


3/5059 


Piper 


Alexander Boyd 


S/14504 




Donald M'Intyre 


3/3931 


,, 


Neil Wilson 



record. 
(Now Quartermaster.) 



Died of wounds received 25/9/15. 
Killed at Fosse 8, 27/9/15. 
Wounded, Festubert, 191 5. 



Killed, 27/9/15- 



THE CAMERON HIGHLANDERS 



*33 



REG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


S/"755 


Piper 


James Butler 


Wounded, 27/9/15 ; Loos, 
again subsequently. 


3/5636 


,, 


J. A. Macaskill 




3/3541 


,, 


Angus M'Donald 


Wounded, 27/9/15, Loos. 


3/5621 


,, 


Alex. M'Lennan 


Wounded, 27/9/15, Loos. 


S/105IO 




John M'Lachlan 


Wounded, 27/9/15, Loos ; J 
Sorel, 21/3/18. 


S/IO3II 




J. M'Gregor 


Invalided. 


S/I2582 




Angus M'Pherson 


Gassed, 25/9/15, Loos. 


S/H605 




John Ross 


Wounded, 25/9/15, Loos. 


S/I0026 


" 


Joseph Scott 
Donald MacPhee 


Wounded, 25/9/15, Loos. 




Corpl. 


Donald Campbell 






Piper 


William Strachan 


Invalided. 



and 



killed, 



Angus Robertson 
Malcolm MacGregor 
Alex. Clunie 
James Henderson 
Lachlan Maclean 
James Macdonald 
Duncan MacLennan 
Archibald Crawford 
John MacLennan 
Donald MacLennan 
D. Bowes 
T. Fyffe 
C. Grant 
Allan Cameron 
Charles Milne 
John Stavert 
Norman M'Killop 
James Porteous 
James Innes 
Finlay Martin 
James Ferguson 
James Richard 



Killed, 3/5/17, Arras. 

Invalided. 

Killed, Sorel, 21/3/18. 



Invalided. 
Invalided. 
Invalided. 



Killed, Oct. 1918. 



6th Battalion 
During trench fighting the pipers were employed behind the line. In the 
Loos attack, when they played the battalion into action, there were many 
casualties. On this occasion, when the 44th Brigade had to fall back, the 
men rallied on an extemporised flag of Cameron tartan at the foot of which 
stood the pipers of several battalions. 



134 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



EG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


5l6l 


Pipe Major 


A. Mathieson Macdonald 


I2643 


Lance 


Cpl. 


William Fraser 


"347 


Piper 




William Whitehead 


12629 






Thomas MacCulloch 


IOIOI 






Dugald Dow 


I02IO 






James Pitcairn 


10297 






Wilfred Morris 


12070 






J. Leckie MacLean 


14831 






David Roy Robertson 


27434 


Sergt. 




Campbell 


43268 


Lance 


Cpl. 


M'Neill 


10256 


,, 




M' Ready 


40971 


Piper 




MacLennan 


43267 


» 




MacNeil 


43318 






Johnstone 


40715 


,, 




MacCormick 


433" 


,, 




M. M'Lennan 


22461 


,, 




James Walker 



Gassed, 25/9/15. 
Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 



Gassed, Loos, 25/9/15. 



From 1st Lo vat's Scouts. 
From 2 /4th Cameron Highlanders. 
Wounded, Somme, Oct. 1916. 
From 2/4th Cameron Highlanders. 
From 2/4th Cameron Highlanders ; 

wounded, Oct. 1916. 
From 2 /4th Cameron Highlanders. 

From 2/4th Cameron Highlanders. 
Killed, 26/4/17. 



7th Battalion 

In the historic attack at Loos the pipers took a prominent part, and 
helped to rally the men subsequently. They lost heavily, and in subsequent 
actions pipers were only employed singly in the attack. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


13845 


Pipe Major 


R. Macdougall 






Piper 


J. Maclean 


Wounded, Loos. 


14356 


,, 


J. Raeburn 


Wounded, Loos, 25-27/9/15 


I329I 


,, 


Dugald Scoular 




14059 


,, 


Peden 






Corpl. 


Ross 






,, 


R. M. Dewar 


Gassed. 




Lance Cpl. 


J. Levack 




2O0IO4 


,, 


H. R. Munro 






Piper 


G. Alves 


Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 


21487 


,, 


G. Cowie 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 


9444 


•• 


J. Coyle 
A. Duncan 

J. FiNDLAY 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 




,, 


T. Fraser 


Gassed 


14055 


,, 


W. Henderson 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 


200252 


>, 


J. Hunter 





THE CAMERON HIGHLANDERS 



i35 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


201253 


Piper 


A. M'Donald 




5545 


,, 


J. M'Donald 








J. M'Intosh 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 


13294 


If 


R. M'Kenzie 






,, 


M. M'Killop 


Invalided. 




M 


M. MACKINNON 




43209 


,, 


J. MUNRO 




13442 


,, 


A. Shand 






,, 


A. Smart 


Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 




M 


F. Stewart 


Wounded, Loos 25/9/15, 


14369 


,, 


W. Williamson 





THE ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS 

ist Battalion 

Early in the war pipers were used in action, but, on account of casualties 
being very heavy among them, the practice was given up. 



REG. 


NO. RANK. 


name. 




Pipe Major 


R. Macfarlane 




Piper 


M'Kay 
Kenealy 
Campbell 
Woodside 




Corpl. 


F. Ross 




Piper 


W. M'Intosh 
C. Hay 
J. Beattie, 
W. Waddel 
Stevenson 
Lynch 




Lance-Cpl. 


Struthers 

Wilson 

Birrell 




Piper 


M'Fadyen 

Hanlison 

Bell 

Hardie 

M'Donald 



Wounded. 
Wounded. 
Wounded. 
Killed, St. Eloi, 16/2/15. 



136 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. RANK. 

Piper 

57° 



NAME. 

Campbell 

Fraser 

Robert Kennedy 



Killed, 30/7/16, Somme. 



2nd Battalion 
During the first year of the war 3 pipers were killed, 3 were wounded 
and 3 were taken prisoner, and the band was broken up, the survivors being 
returned to the ranks. Throughout the war pipers have been employed as 
orderlies, ammunition and ration carriers 



EG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 




Pipe Major 


William Gray 




,, 




John Mackintosh 


I07I9 


,, 




Lawrie 


672 


,, 




John Gray 


8157 


Piper 




L. A. Planner 

Alexander Steven 


188 


„ 




Alexander Sinclair 


IO313 






J. Black 


IO295 


Corpl. 




J. P. M'Donald 


522 


Piper 




Henry Jones 




Lance 


Cpl. 


Milne 


507 


Piper 




Peter M'Lintock 


90 


" 




M'Kay 

J. Gardner 


974 


Lance 


Cpl. 


A. Paterson 




Piper 




Peter Murray 


1153 


Sergt. 




P. Dean, D.C.M. 


9901 


Lance 


-Cpl. 


A. Miller 


660 


Piper 




R. Scott 


58 


• • 




S. Duff 


9279 






Robert Ormiston 






t 




William Black 






, 




John Watt 






, 




David Blair 






, 




Richard Ansell 






p 




Donald Anderson 






, 




Alexander M'Donald 






, 




John MacCulloch 



Killed, Oct. 1918. 



Invalided. 

Invalided. 

Missing. 

Killed, Armentieres, 27/11/15. 

Killed, Armentieres, 27/11/15. 

Wounded, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 

Wounded, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 

Wounded, Le Cateau, 26/8/14. 

D.C.M. 

Prisoner of war ; wounded, Le 
Cateau, 26/8/14. 

Prisoner of war ; wounded, Ar- 
mentieres, 27/11/15. 

Prisoner of war ; wounded, Le 
Cateau, 26/8/14. 

Wounded, Somme, 13/7/16. 



Wounded, 19/11/15 and 21/6/15. 













ceosce Houston 




BEN BUIDHE, ARGYLLSHIRE 

brum the Water-colour Drawing by George Houston, A.R.S.A. 



THE ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS 137 



,. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


Piper 


Alexander Gray 


,, 


Gordon Innes 


,, 


Duncan Mackellar 



5th Battalion 
When in Gallipoli the full pipers were chiefly employed as messengers 
and ammunition carriers. In the latter capacity they did excellent work 
in the fighting on 12th July, 1915. The acting pipers were employed as 
stretcher bearers. On the occasion of the 12th July attack a piper mounted 
the parapet and played the battalion over. The pipers have been kept out 
of action as far as possible. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 




RECORD 


2OI47I 


Pipe Major 


C. Hay 


Wounded, 


^4/n/i7 




,, 




Jas. Smith 








Piper 




Robert Smith 
Thomas Macdonald 
Robert Maclachlan 






200129 


,, 




James Blair 






200043 


Lance 


Cpl. 


Fred Branwhite 








Piper 




Robert Macleod 


Wounded, 


25/12/15 


20O3OO 


Lance 


Cpl. 


Angus Macarthur 






300620 


Piper 




John Macleod 






200359 


,, 




James Murray 










, 




Malcolm Stewart 










, 




George Stirrat 






325764 




, 




W. Hendry 


Wounded, 


29/7/18. 


2OO325 




, 




William Lepick 






201062 








J. M'Callum 






200357 




, 




Donald Matheson 






202708 




, 




William Matheson 






4304O 




, 




John Myles 






2OO780 




, 




A. Neilson 






200855 




, 




J. Oliver 






201925 




, 




W. Ponton 







6th Battalion 
While in the trenches were employed as orderlies, messengers, etc. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

362 Pipe Major John M'Connacher 

275321 ,, D. Finlayson 

35 Corpl. Andrew Ferguson 



record. 
Transferred as C.Q.M.S. 



138 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


538 


Lance 


Cpl. 


Thomas Dournie 


Wounded, Richebourg, May 1915. 


I704 


Piper 




William Henderson 




1365 






Robert M'Aulay 


Gassed, 25/4/18. 


I560 






David Gault 




1507 






Henry Murray 




I506 






William Park 


Wounded, Festubert, 1 8/6/1 5. 


1890 






John Craig 


Killed, Longueval, 27/7/16. 


3037 






James Pringle 


Killed while trying to bring in 
wounded man, 18/6/15. 


3042 






John M'Allister 


Killed, Festubert, 18/6/15. 


1653 






James Gillan 


Invalided. 


3256 






John M'Farlane 




3162 






William Carlyle 


Killed, Festubert, 16/6/15 ; de- 
spatches. 


3166 






William Ganson 
Thomas Myron 




250989 






A. M'LlNTOCK 


Wounded, 23/1 1/1 8. 


250962 






•H. Armstrong 




8oi6 


Lance 


Cpl. 


J. Stewart 




251957 


Piper 




A. M'Askill 




202120 






N. Campbell 




252567 






F. M'Pherson 




25OOI8 






W. Corsan 




252028 






J. Lang 




3OOO99 






N. Crawford 




250919 






A. Gray 




325262 






M. Thomson 





7TH Battalion 
Pipers were employed as runners and orderlies. 



277167 



Piper 



name. 
John Walls, M.M. 
Hugh M'Donald 



Military Medal, 24/7/16. 
Killed, Aug. 191 7, Ypres. 



8th Battalion 

Until the Somme fighting the pipers went into the trenches but did not 
play. The battalion had a pipe band composed of officers, Capt. Alastair 
M'Laren, Lieuts. Graham Campbell, Yr. of Shirvan, and Leslie Smith. The 
drummers were the Adjutant, Major Lockie, the Quartermaster Lieut. 
Disselduff and Lieut. Clark. 

As far as possible pipers were kept out of the trenches. 



THE ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS 139 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

Pipe Major W. Lawrie 
„ J. Wilson 



Lance-Cpl. 
Piper 



C. Jeffrey 

J. M'Lellan, D.C.M. 



N. Crawford 
A. Currie 
R. Ferguson 
F. Fraser 
D. Ferguson 
D. Johnstone 
A. Lauder 
J. M'Callum 
J. M'Dougall 

J. M'DONALD 

J. M'Farlane 

J. M'Intyre 

R. M'Lellan, M.M. 

J. Orr 
J. Risk 
J. Shirlaw 
J. Woodrow 
N. Fletcher 
T. Strathearn 
R. Morrison 
J. MacLeod 
D. Robertson 
D. Woods 
T. Shearer 
D. MacInnes 
J. MacWilliams 
T. Moffat 
J. Hannon 



Invalided home, and died of illness 

contracted on service. 
Received Certificate from Div. 

Comdr. for gallant conduct, May 

1916. 
Wounded at Richebourg, May 1915. 
Awarded D.C. Medal for gallantry 

at Magersfontein, Dec. 1899; 

wounded at Laventie, 1915. 
Invalided, August 1916. 

Time expired. 
Wounded. 
Invalided, 191 7. 
Invalided, 191 5. 

Wounded, Somme, July 1916. 



Invalided, 1915. 

Wounded, Somme, July 1916 ; 

awarded Military Medal. 
Wounded, La Boiselle, August 191 5. 
Time expired. 
Gassed. 



Wounded Ypres. 

Invalided. 
Wounded twice. 
Wounded. 
Invalided. 



9TH Battalion 

Pipers were principally utilised, when in action, as stretcher-bearers, 
orderlies, etc. 

Great bravery was shown by pipers when acting as bearers, 



140 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 




Pipe Major 


J. R. Garsewell 




324 


Corpl. 


Alexander M'Allister 


Missing since 10/5/15 ; 2nd Battle 
Ypres. 


I70O 


Piper 


David Panton 


Wounded, 10/5/15, Ypres 


266 




George Shearer, D.C.M. 


Awarded D.C.M. 


I7II 


,, 


Alexander Russell 


Killed, 8/4/15. 



ioth Battalion 

During the trench lighting the pipers were kept in the reserve lines in 
order to avoid casualties. At Loos and on the Somrae, however, they were 
employed with their companies, and at the taking of Longueval they behaved 
with quite remarkable gallantry. On this occasion Pipe Major Aitken, a 
man of sixty years of age, was awarded the D.C.M., and Pipers Wilson and 
Dall were commended for playing through heavy machine gun fire. At the 
same time Piper Donnachie greatly distinguished himself carrying despatches. 

The commanding officer says the casualties on the Somrae have led 
him to keep them out of action as far as possible, as he regards them as 
invaluable to a regiment. It was, in the later stages, only under dire 
necessity, that pipers were occasionally used as bearers. 

record. 
Superannuated ; D.C.M. 



Killed, Longueval, Oct. 1916. 
Wounded, Dickebusch ; invalided. 

Military Medal. 
Invalided. 

Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Wounded, Longueval ; invalided. 



Wounded, Longueval. 
Wounded, Ypres, Nov. 1915. 

Despatches. 

Died of wounds, Longueval. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 




Pipe Major 


T. Aitken, D.C.M. 




,, 




J. Wright 


9263 


Lance-Sgt. 


J. Mackenzie 


1720 


Corpl. 




J. Donnachie 




Piper 




MacNeill 




Corpl. 




W. Laurie 


8860 


Lance 


Cpl. 


D. Campbell 


569 


,, 




J. Gamack, M.M. 


4512 


Piper 




W. Anderson 


3205 






J. Cullen 


9835 






J. Heatherington 


30I4 






J. Kennedy 


1375 






J. M'Donald 


201 1 






W. M'Gillivray 


8656 






D. M'Rae 


6153 


Lance 


Sgt. 


D. D. M' Sporran 


IO39O 


Piper 




J. Smith 


9339 


,, 




W. Pirrie 


2616 






D. Wilson 


57° 


,, 




R. Kennedy 



THE ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS 141 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


9256 


Piper 


A. M'Lean 


Invalided. 


619I 




J. Dall 


Wounded, Longueval. 


5091 


,, 


J. Paterson 


Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 




Sergt. 


J. F. Sword 




805I 




Alex. MacLeay 


Killed, 12/10/17, Ypres. 


3OO583 


,, 


John Sinclair 


Severely wounded, Oct. 1917 


302955 


Piper 


Walter Napier 
William Sinclair 
John Clark 
Andrew Thomson 


Killed, 12/10/17, Ypres. 



iith Battalion 

When the battalion was in support of the 44th Brigade at Loos the pipers 
took a very prominent share in the glory and the losses of the day. One, 
Charles Cameron, stood out in the open and played as a rallying point, and 
the battalion called him " The Piper of Loos." Other pipers were employed 
as runners, or in the ranks. 

The casualties during this part of the campaign were so heavy that the 
pipe band was kept, as far as possible, out of the front line. 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 




RECORD. 


Pipe Major 


Donald Macfarlane 


Wounded, Loos, 25-27/9/15. 


Sergt. 


James Ritchie 




Killed, Loos, 26/9/15. 




John M'Millan, 


D.C.M. 


D CM., 25/9/15, Loos. 


Piper 


Chas. Cameron 
Chas. Hoey 








J. Barnett 




Killed on Hill 70. 




T. Wallace 








A. Gillespie 








F. M'Diarmid 




Wounded, July 1915 ; killed, July 
1916. 


Corpl. 


M. W. M'Callum 






Piper 


D. Wood 




Wounded, May 1916. 




D. Macpherson 




Wounded. 




F. Harper 




Wounded, Somme. 




J. Bennet 








A. M'Diarmid 








Hamilton 








Campbell 








Ferguson 




Died Dec. 1916. 




M'Kellar 






Corpl. 


J. Gray 







142 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



12TH Battalion 

Were often employed as runners. When the battalion was due to go 
into support the pipers were sent on to meet the companies and bring them 
in. The officers value the band so highly that they consider they should not 
be sent into the front line if it can possibly be avoided. 

During actual offensive operations pipers were also employed as runners 
or on forward trench dumps, etc., and sometimes in the ranks. 

Marches in Macedonia were often very arduous " and the pipers made 
an amazing difference on the men's spirits." 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


4492 


Pipe Major 


J. Douglas 


275286 


„ 


J. M'Ewan 


598 


Sergt. 


R. Stevenson, M.M. 


6829 


Piper 


John M'Coll 


284 


Corpl. 


J. Beattie 
W. Stirling 


5660 


,, 


D. Robertson 


409 


,, 


W. M'Kay 


IOI38 


Piper 


D. Wilson, D.C.M. 


20022 


,, 


W. Norrie 


203267 


,, 


W. PlRRIE 


4564 


,, 


M. Connelly 


5808 


„ 


A. Donnelly 


4738 


,, 


F. Hinton 


6468 


,, 


J. Traill 


5388 


,, 


A. Davidson 


5896 


,, 


J. Linton 


14389 


,, 


D. Kelly 


5705 


,, 


M. Harper 


279048 


" 


T. Philliban 
T. Hill 


4927 


„ 


L. M'Con 


5813 


,, 


A. Strathearn 


5706 


,, 


J. M'Kerrow 



Wounded. 

Twice wounded ; Military Medal . 

Died of disease, Salonika, 16/2/17. 

Wounded. 

Killed, Oct. 1916. 

Killed, 8/5/17. 

D.C.M. 



Killed in action, 8/5/17. 



14TH Battalion 

Owing to their value to the battalion the pipers were not employed in 
the front line. 



THE ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS 143 



REG. NO. RANK. 

Pipe Major 
Piper 



NAME. 

Henry Forsyth 
Donald Cameron 
Philip Melville 
William Adams 
David Dean 
William M' Donald 
John M'Donald 
David Gibson 
Joseph Thomson 
John Kennedy 
James MTsaac 
Charles Burness 
Alex. M'Kenzie 
James M'Arthur 
David Blyth 
Alexander Yule 
William Corson 
William Campbell 
William Maxwell 
Duncan Grant 



THE LONDON SCOTTISH 

ist Battalion 

During the earlier part of the war the pipers served in the ranks and 
suffered heavy casualties. In the fighting at Messines on 31st October, 1914, 
and the subsequent operations at Zillebeke, 4 were killed and 2 were wounded, 
and of the original pipe band only one remained after six months. All 
these casualties occurred while the men were acting as observers. Several 
pipers were subsequently given commissions in other regiments. 

Owing to the great difficulty of replacement every effort has been made, 
during the last two years of the war, to keep pipers out of the front line. 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

Pipe Major K. Greig 

142 Corpl. J. Carey 

139 Lance-Cpl. M. G. Latham 

Piper Nicol 



Lt. Army Ordnance Dept. 

Killed at Messines, 1/11/14, when 

acting as observer. 
Despatches ; killed at Zillebeke, 
while sniping, 16/11/14. 



144 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. RANK. 


NAME. 


Piper 


R. PORTEOUS 


"45 


W. PORTEOUS 


I34 1 


D. Parkyn 




C. W. D. Mackay 


1870 


J. F. Bennie 




R. F. Gordon Forbes 




G. Oram 




A. Joss 


4167 


D. S. Pinnington 




J. Henderson 




A. Sutherland-Graeme 




W. Gordon 


3599 


A. A. Cornell 


•• 


Robert Morrison 


.. 


A. Cairns Wilson 




Simon Campbell 


5i°53i 


A. B. Paton 


511874 


M. W. Davidson 




R. S. D. Grant Crawford 



record. 

Wounded at Messines, 31/10/14- 

1/11/14. 
Wounded at Messines, 31/10/14- 

1/11/14. 
Missing since Messines, 31/10/14- 

1/11/14. 
Lieut. 5th Camerons ; wounded 

and missing, 1 7/8/1 6. 
Killed at Zillebeke, 9/11/14. 
Lieut. Army Ordnance Dept. 



Wounded, Loos, 25/9/15. 



Died of wounds, Somme, 2/10/16. 
Transferred to RE. ; got D.C.M. 

and Military Medal. 
Formerly piper ; 2nd Lieut. ; 

killed ; Military Cross. 
Killed, 1 3/5/ 1 7, Arras. 
Killed, 13/5/17, Arras. 
Wounded. 
Transferred to A.O.D., Lieut. 



2nd Battalion 

The pipers of this battalion have served in three theatres of war. They 
have played through Flanders and France, across the desert and in Palestine. 
They led the battalion into Jerusalem on 9th Dec, 1917, and thereafter 
on across the Jordan, through the hills of Gilead, and in Jericho, and 
Bethlehem. Again in Salonika and among the Macedonian hills they 
carried the music of the Highlands. In the desert difficulties were experienced 
with the reeds and with the drought ; and the men often had to keep the 
bags going out of their own scanty ration of water. 

From the nature of the operations against the Turks, in which surprise 
played so important a part, pipers had no opportunity of playing their 
companies into action. So invaluable were they in keeping the men up in 
the long desert marches that they were, as far as possible, reserved for that 
duty. 



THE LONDON SCOTTISH 



i45 



REG. NO. 




UNK. 


NAME. 


record 




Pipe Major 


D. C. Wills 


Invalided. 


5I002I 


,, 


J. A. M'GlLVRAY 




5IOOI3 


Corpl. 


C. Oram 






Piper 


C. W. Cummins 


Invalided. 


513953 






D. K. Pullar 




510759 






E. J. Horniblow 
M. Mills 




5III7O 






D. A. Matheson 




5"45° 






C. A. Stewart 




5IO264 






O. Machell-Varise 




5I386 5 






J. W. Macmillan 




5I3650 






D. Hay 


Invalided. 


S/1894I 






F. A. W. Gillies 




S/4III4 






A. MacFadyen 




290381 






A. Ewen 





THE TYNESIDE SCOTTISH 

ist Battalion 

In the Somme fighting on ist July, 1916, the battalion was played 

into action by its pipers and had 5 killed and 2 wounded ; the survivors, 

Pipe Major John Wilson and Piper George Taylor, were awarded the 

Military Medal. 



SG. NO 


RANK. 


name. 


RECOR 


290 


Pipe Major 


John Wilson, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


237 


Lance-Cpl. 


Garnet W. Fyfe 


Killed, 1/7/16. 




Piper 


Alex. Boyd 


Wounded, 1/7/16. 


223 




E. Boyce 


Killed, ? 1/7 /i 6. 






E. Scott 


Wounded, 1/7/16. 






Stephens 


Wounded, 1/7/16. 


1585 




William Fellows 


Missing. 


154 




James Downie 


Missing. 


84O 




Charles M'Lean 


Wounded, 1/7/16. 


1594 




Robert Davidson . 


Missing. 


1485 




William Inglis 


Wounded, 1/7/16. 


1525 




George Taylor, M.M. 


Military Medal. 



2nd Battalion 
On the same occasion this battalion was played into action by its pipers. 
1525 Piper James Phillips was mentioned in despatches. 



146 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


II47 


Pipe Major 


Munro Strachan 


1 149 


Piper 


John Strachan 


II50 


,, 


Alex. Scott 


I230 


„ 


Willie Scott 


Il88 


Lance-Cpl. 


VV. Clark 


558 


Piper 


G. C. Griffiths 


II5I 


,, 


James Phillips 


1225 




J. M. Phillips, M.M 


1228 


,, 


James Carnegie 



Wounded, 1/7/16. 
Killed, 1/7/16. 



Killed, 1/7/16. 
Military Medal. 
Wounded, 28/6/16. 



3RD Battalion 

On the same occasion this battalion was played into action, but the whole 
of the pipers were killed or wounded. 



Piper 



A. Boyd 
J. Stephens 

D. Steele 

E. Finley 
F>. Greaves 
T. Wilson 



Wounded, 1/7 /16. 

Wounded, 1/7/16. 

Missing, 1/7/16. 

Killed, 1/7/16. 

Died of wounds, 1/7/16. 

Wounded and missing, 1/7/16. 



THE MIDDLESEX REGIMENT 



i6th Battalion 
This was the first English regiment to have a pipe band, the men 
being recruited for the purpose from Glasgow. 



REG. NO 




RANK. 


1152 


Pipe Major 


II49 


Corpl. 


1 144 


Piper 


2530 


,. 


"45 




, 


1148 




, 


1350 






"54 






"51 




, 


1930 




, 


"53 




, 



Charles Stewart 
Thomas Gibson 
John Grant 
William Sloan 
Fred Carruthers 
Norman M'Donald 
Dugald M'Farlane 
Henry Mitchelson 
Thomas Latham 
James Gilchrist 
John Kerr 



Wounded, Oct. 191 6, Somme. 



Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 



THE LIVERPOOL SCOTTISH 



i47 



THE LIVERPOOL SCOTTISH 



At Bois Grenier, Piper Thomas Wilson played his company over the top. 
Mostly employed as stretcher-bearers, but in 1914 the pipers of 1st Batt. 
also served in ranks. Piper Sydney Wilson was three times awarded certifi- 
cate of gallantry. 

ist Battalion 

REG. NO. RANK. NAME. RECORD. 

Pipe Major John Stoddart Killed, Poperinghe, July 1917. 

,, John Stoddart (Junior) 

Lance-Cpl. John White Invalided. 

Sergt. E. J. Ogilvie 

Piper James Rogers 

John Graham 



Thomas Wilson 
Sydney Wilson 
William Barclay 
Charles Copland 



Twice wounded. 



2nd Battalion 



358269 Piper 



Thomas Wilson 
James Gilfillan 
Henry Forrester 
Robert Johnson 
Thomas Carlyle 
Stanley Rae 
Archibald Service 
Don. Fowler 
James Martin 
Sydney Rogers 



Wounded (gas). 
Twice wounded. 

Twice gassed. 
Wounded. 



Twice wounded. 
Wounded. 



THE ROYAL FUSILIERS 



23RD Battalion 
(ist Sportsman's Batt.) 
The pipers, during the period of trench warfare, were employed behind 
the lines. The CO. considers they were of the greatest value in keeping 



148 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



up the men's morale, on marches and in bringing companies out of the 
trenches. 

REG. NO. RANK. NAME. RECORD. 

1339 Pipe Major D.F.Robertson 

Lance-Cpl. T. M'Clunie Wounded. 

Piper W. Johnstone 

W. Foreman 

W. F. Suttie Killed, 16/3/16. 

Alex. M'Lennan 

David Seath 

John Adamson 

William Mackenzie Killed, 16/3/16. 

D. Leath 



THE ARGYLLSHIRE MOUNTAIN BATTERY 
The pipers in this Battery all served as gunners. 



Pipe Major William MacNeill 
Corpl. Neil Smith 

James MacPhee 



Died, pneumonia, 18/8/15. 
Accidentally killed, 1/3/16. 



THE ROSS AND CROMARTY BATTERY 



REG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 






4403 


Piper 


John Macdonald 


Wounded, 14/5/15 ; 
wounds. 


died 


of 


5035 


,, 


Jas. Mackay 


Wounded, 14/5/15. 






4323 


,, 


Angus Macdonald 


Wounded, 23/6/15. 







MISCELLANEOUS 



REG. NO. RANK. 

318411 Pte. 
931 10 Piper 



name. 
William Scott 

Andrew M'Intosh 



nth F.A., R.A.M.C. ; Military 

Medal. 
2 /2nd Lothian Field Ambulance ; 

severely wounded. 



BAND OF 52nd LOWLAND DIVISION 149 

THE PIPE BAND OF THE 52ND (LOWLAND) 
DIVISION 

This band was formed in Gallipoli in October, 1915. 

It was understood then that a dull and dreary winter campaign was in 
front of the troops. A committee of officers was formed to find some sort 
of entertainment to keep the men as cheery as possible. It was decided 
that both a Military and a Pipe Band should be raised. This job was left 
entirely in the hands of Colonel C. A. H. Maclean of Pennycross, a critical 
and enthusiastic lover of music, who, being a Highlander and an accomplished 
piper, naturally insisted on the Pipe Band being a good one. 

Practically all that was left of the pipers in the different regiments of 
the Division were used to form the band, which consisted of twelve pipers 
and six drummers, all having taken part in the severe fighting prior to this 
duty. Good players and members of some of the finest bands in Scotland, 
under the leadership of Pipe-Major Wm. Fergusson, i/7th Battn. Highland 
Light Infantry, a well-known piper and exponent of " Ceol Mhor," the 
band made steady progress, and soon was in grand fettle. The way both 
bands were appreciated testifies to the sound judgment of the committee 
and the able management of the Colonel. 

The Division, being entirely composed of Scots, hailed with delight the 
skirl of the pipes, which had been heard but too seldom since the Division 
landed. 

The band had exceptional luck while on Gallipoli, never having had a 
casualty after it was raised, although often playing under heavy shell fire. 
They played and warmed the hearts of all true Scots, and must have given 
the wily Turk quite a shock with " Hey Johnnie Cope," which could be 
heard quite distinctly on a quiet morning in the firing-line, right up till 
within a few days of the final evacuation of the peninsula. 

After sojourning for a month on the Island of Mudros, they sailed with 
the rest of the Division for Egypt. From Abbassia (Cairo) they moved 
to the desert front, and have been with the Division in the trek across Sinai. 



150 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



From El Arish the band accompanied the Division right into Palestine, 
and is believed to be the first pipe band to play in the " Holy Land." 

PRISONERS OF WAR BAND 

One of the most remarkable of military pipe bands was one organised 
in the British prisoners' internment camps in Holland. At one time this 
band consisted of 13 pipers of different units, including two pipe majors, 
under Pipe Major Duff, 2nd Royal Scots. 



OVERSEAS BATTALIONS 



PRINCESS PATRICIA'S CANADIAN LIGHT 
INFANTRY 

The pipers were mainly employed as bearers. 

In the attack on the Vimy Ridge on 9th April, 1917, the battalion was 
played over by the nine pipers. 

Pipers were also employed as runners. 



EG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


667 


Pipe Major 


John Colville 


Invalided ; despatches. 


I2942 


„ 


W. Campbell 






Sergt. 


John Macdonald, D.C.M. 


Died of wounds, 1 7/9/1 6 ; D.C.M 


262 


,, 


H. Laing 


Wounded, 8/5/15 ; despatches. 


672 


Corpl. 


D. M'Intosh 


Invalided. 


1770 


Lance-Cpl. 


J. Hunter 


Wounded, Oct. 1918. 


264 


Piper 


J. Ritchie 


Wounded, 22/3/15. 


676 




J. M'Loy 


Wounded, 28/2/15. 


265 




W. Robertson 


Died of wounds, 25/3/15. 


I296 




J. M. Robertson, D.C.M. 


Wounded, 8/5/15, D.C.M. 


679 




J. Wood 


Wounded, 17/5/15- 


1772 




G. Miller 


Invalided. 


266 




C. M'Lean 




1771 




G. Harvey 





THE CANADIAN LIGHT INFANTRY 



151 



REG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


1174 


Piper 


H. Logan 


21499 






A. G. M'Donald 


432938 






J. Laing 


432013 






R. Ritchie 


432966 






W. Adamson 


432862 






L. Smith 


432137 






J. Wood 


432812 






G. Dunbar 


433130 






G. Thomson 


432312 






G. Murray 



RECORD. 

Wounded, 1 5/3/1 5. 



Wounded, March, 1916. 



THE ROYAL HIGHLANDERS OF CANADA 

13TH Battalion 

In the Ypres fighting in April 1915 the pipers suffered heavily, 3 of 
them being killed and 5 wounded. Some of them were employed as 
runners, others in the ranks. 

At the recapture of Hill 70 in August 1917 the companies were led to 
the attack by their pipers. 



[EG. NO 


l 


iANK. 


NAME. 


24OO2 


Pipe Major 


D. Manson 


24962 


Piper 


D. A. M' Arthur 


24OIO 


,, 


J. Burns 


24OII 


Lance-Cpl. 


J. Dyce 


24012 


Piper 


W. Lawson 


24OI3 






A. J. Macdonald 


24OI4 






N. Sinclair 


24OI5 






A. Singer 


24392 






H. Robertson 


24155 






N. Macdonald 


24704 






D. Campbell 


25045 






J. W. Macdonald 


8004 






C. S. Macdonald 


I IO95 






A. Eden 


12942 






W. Campbell 


46636 






J. Connacher 


14536 






G. B. Macpherson 



Wounded, Ypres, 23/4/15. 
Wounded, Ypres, 23/4/15. 
Died of wounds, Fleurbaix, 

I6/3/I5- 
Killed, 24/4/15. 

Wounded, 3/5/15, Ypres. 
Killed, Ypres, 2/5/15. 
Killed, Ypres, 24/4/15. 
Wounded, 22/4/15. 



152 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



THE 4 8th HIGHLANDERS OF CANADA 

15TH Battalion 

The battalion took out 19 pipers. At the battle of Amiens, 5th-8th 
August, 1918, their pipers played in the front line. They were fortunate 
as regards casualties during the war, having lost only one man killed. 



27221 

27386 

27548 

27925 

27659 

27058 

27883 

27023 

2709 

13611 

30207 

152 

43212 

3745i 

41587 

58456 

I355M 

192071 

193489 

799915 
1045162 
1045069 
1045923 
1045177 

192170 

1045779 
192270 
799627 
799248 
799041 

799255 
799704 
799258 
799256 
239338i 
2393526 



Pipe Major 

Lance-Sgt. 

Corpl. 

Lance-Cpl. 

Piper 



NAME. 

A. R. Keith, M.M. 
A. A. Newlands 
J. Thompson 
A. M'Donald 
K. Crosbie 

F. A. Cowen 
A. Donaldson 
K. Miller 

W. H. Wick 

D. Braidwood 

A. Gordon 

J. A. MACKINNON, M.C. 

A. Sturrock 

W. Macdonald 

N. A. Ross 

G. C. Henderson 
A. M. MacDonald 
D. MacDonald 

J. HlNSHELWOOD 

A. MacDonald 

T. Hamilton 

J. M'Neill 

H. E. Mathews 

R. B. MacWilliam 

T. Martin 

W. Hynd 

W. Mair 

R. Smith 

R. Anderson 

W. G. Watson 

W. Lawrie 

A. Maclachlan 

D. MacPherson 

P. T. Lamb 

F. M'Dowall 

J. Cant 



Died of disease. 

Obtained commission in R.A. 
Gassed, Ypres, 22/4/15; invalided. 



Obtained commission. 



Obtained commission 



THE CANADIAN SCOTTISH 



i53 



THE CANADIAN SCOTTISH 
i6th Battalion 

At Ypres (April 1915) two pipers, Jas. Thomson and W. MTvor, were 
killed while playing the charge ; and at Festubert in May, G. Birnie and 
A. Morrison were killed in the same way. Some of the pipers were employed 
as bearers, runners, etc., but, the casualties continuing, it was found necessary 
for a time to withdraw them from the firing line. During the Somme 
fighting, however, they were again used as pipers. In the attack of 8th 
October, 1916, Pipers Richardson, Park, Paul and M'Kellar played through 
very heavy fire for over half a mile, and Richardson and Park were killed. 
Piper Richardson was awarded the V.C. posthumously. On another 
occasion, in the attack on the Quirique Rue position, Pipers Birnie and 
Morrison stood on a ruined farmhouse and played until they were both killed. 

In the attack on the Vimy Ridge on 9th April, 1917, the battalion was 
again led to their objective by the Pipe Major, Groat and five pipers for a 
distance of over a mile ; Pipe Major Groat got the Military Medal. 

For bravery at Paschendaele, Aug. 1917, Lance-Cpl. M'Gillivray — who 
was killed — got the Military Medal, and Piper Paul received the same 
distinction. 

The CO. regards the pipes as invaluable in action. Of the pipers one 
got the V.C, one the D.C.M. and nine the Military Medal. No man was 
recommended for a distinction unless he had twice played his company to 
an attack. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. , 


28556 


Pipe Major 


Donald M'Leod 


Invalided, 1915. 


28558 


,, 


Ronald M'Donald 




29327 


,, 


James Groat, D.C.M., 


Pipe Major, Nov. 1915 ; D.C.M. 






M.M. 


Military Medal and Bar. 


28812 


Piper 


C. Wilson 


Wounded, Ypres, 22-28/4/15 ; in- 
valided. 


28694 


,, 


James Thomson 


Died of wounds, Ypres, 23/4/15. 


28779 


„ 


William M'Ivor 


Died of wounds, 1 0/5/1 5. 


29236 


" 


James Lowe 


Wounded, Ypres, 22-28/4/15 ; in- 
valided. 



154 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 


record. 


28595 


George Birnie 


Killed, Festubert, 20/5/15. 


29468 ,, 


Angus Morrison 


Killed, Festubert, 20/5/15. 


28557 


Alec M'Gillivray (?), 
M.M. 


Killed, 15/8/17; Military Medal, 


29048 


Alan M'Nab, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


28559 


Hugh M'Donald 




29336 


George Inglis 




29149 


Gordon Ross 




28930 


James Richardson, V.C. 


Killed, 8/10/16; V.C, 


28561 


John Parks 


Killed, 8/10/16. 


28560 


Hugh M'Kellar 


Invalided, 1917. 


859495 


J. Lightheart 




429603 


G. Paul, M.M. 


Killed, Amiens, 8/8/18 ; Militai 
Medal. 


467573 


Alex. Robertson, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


466703 


John M'Allister, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


183188 


William Buchanan 




183192 


Hugh M'Beth 




736522 


David Horn 




737176 


John J. M'Lean 


Wounded, Amiens, 8/8/18. 


736406 


William Goldie 




160387 


Norman M'Iver 




859059 


Arthur Duncan 




603174 


Gordon Cruickshank, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


633237 


Duncan M'Kinnon 


Wounded, Oct. 1918. 


633179 


Archibald M'Donell, M.M 


. Military Medal. 


633524 


Lawrence M'Gillivray 




189348 


Harry M'Lean 




603269 


Willie Darlow 




859498 


John Lightheart 




860095 


John Reid 




85959 


John M'Donald 


Wounded, Sept. 1918. 


959196 


David Hunter 




85994I 


William M'Gregor 




693164 


Arthur Robertson 


Wounded, Oct. 1918. 


859IOO 


Robert M'Donald 




779259 


George M'Leod 




859454 


Donald M'Kenzie 





THE CAMERON HIGHLANDERS OF CANADA 



REG. NO. RANK. NAME. 

Pipe Major John Duke 
Piper James G. Munro 



Taken prisoner, Somme, ? Sept. 
1916. 



THE 21st CANADIANS 



i55 



THE 2ist CANADIANS 
(Eastern Ontario Regiment) 

It is considered in this battalion that pipers are quite indispensable, 
and should be spared as far as possible. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


RECORD. 




Pipe Major 


Ian Mackenzie 


Killed, Cambrai, 11/10/18. 


59224 


Corpl. 


William Currie, M.M., 


Wounded, 23/4/16 ; Military 






M.C. 


Medal ; promoted Lieut. ; got 
Military Cross. 


59937 


Sergt. 


William Sutherland 


Wounded, 27/11/15. 


60115 


Piper 


Hugh Mackenzie, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


59320 




C. Fyfe 


Wounded, 28/10/15. 


5931 1 




J. Ewart 


Invalided . 


59620 




H. M'Keachen 


Invalided. 


633985 




W. Grant 


Invalided. 


401191 




Macdougall 


Wounded, 19/6/16. 


59618 


Pipe Major 


J. M'DOUGALL 




59181 


Corpl. 


J. R. Coghill, M.M. 


Military Medal. 


675268 


Piper 


W. H. Collins 




633879 


,, 


W. Alexander 


« 


675274 


,, 


J. Little 




633643 


,, 


D. M'Donald 





THE 25TH CANADIANS 

Piper Telfer played his company into action at Vimy Ridge until 
wounded. He was awarded the Military Medal ; Piper W. Brand also got 
the same distinction. Again, at Amiens, August 1918, the battalion was 
played over. There was great competition among the men to be allowed 
to perform this duty. Frequently they were employed as bearers. 

REG. NO. 



RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


Pipe Major 


Carson 


Meritorious Service Medal ; 
wounded, 13/8/18 ; Mons Medal 


Corpl. 


Cant 
Morrison 


Invalided. 


Piper 


W. Telfer 


Military Medal ; wounded, 9/4/18. 


„ 


W. Brand 


Military Medal. 



156 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



REG. NO. RANK. 

Piper 



NAME. 

D. Brand 

A. Campbell 
M. M'Dougall 
G. Hooper 
P. Kitchenham 
G. Thomas 
H. O'Connell 

E. Stewart 

T. H. M'Kinnon 
J. H. Shirley 

E. B. Thurlow 
W. Fyffe 

A. Ritchie 
H. M'Culloch 
N. M'Leod 
J. Macintosh 
A. Lavrey 
W. Buchanan 

F. MacBean 

Hector Maclean Angus 



Invalided. 
Invalided. 



Wounded, 9/4/18. 
Wounded, 9/4/18. 

Killed, 9/4/18. 



Wounded. 
Wounded. 



Invalided. 



THE 2 9 th CANADIANS 
(Vancouver Regiment) 
Pipers were employed as bearers. 



REG. NO 




RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


75582 


Pipe Major 


W. Montgomery 


Invalided. 


75132 




D. M'Culloch 




75297 


Corpl. 


D. May 


Wounded, 13/11/17 ; invalided 


75599 


Piper 


W. S. Grant 


Killed, 6/1 1 /1 7. 


76216 


,, 


W. Burnside 


Killed, 6/1 1 /i 7. 


76484 




, 


J. R. Davidson 




76186 




, 


A. Robertson 


Invalided. 


73583 




, 


A. M. Bayne 


Wounded, 20/4/16. 


76482 




, 


J. Clark 




75848 






R. M'Donald 




75673 






A. M'Lachlan 




76180 






A. M'Rae 




75298 




, 


W. A. Robertson 




76481 




, 


A. Dunsmuir 




30173 




, 


A. Wilson 





THE 236th CANADIANS 



157 



THE 236TH CANADIANS 
(The Mac Lean Regiment) 



REG. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


IO303I9 


Piper 


E. Barton. 


IO3OO99 




W. H. Blair 


IO30239 




W. W. Bradford 


IO3OO98 




Cecil Brewer 


IO30225 




Douglas Burbridge 


IO3OI52 




John Campbell. 


IO3OO76 




George Clarke 


IO3OO20 




W. H. Collins. 


IO3O328 


Lance-Cpl. 


Charles Cromwell. 


IO30253 


Piper 


Andrew Dodds 


IO3OO08 


Corpl. 


Richard Ferrie 


IO303I2 


Piper 


Donald Grant 


IO30513 




Kenneth Gregory 


IO3OOIO 


Sergt. 


Fred Hayter 


IO3OO43 


Piper 


Fred Harris 


IO3OOI2 




John M'Fadgen 


IO3O5II 




William M'Ewan 


IO30326 




John M'Namee 


IO30581 




James Mack 


74263O 




Walter Morrell 


IO3OI96 




Harold Miles 


IO3OO45 




Edward Ralsten 


IO30O30 




A. Regan 


743°4° 




Charles Ross 


IO3OOI6 


Pipe Sgt. 


W. H. Ross 


IO3O323 


Piper 


J. Benson Robinson 


IO3OO52 


,, 


Gordon Scott 


IO3OI42 


,, 


E. J. Sloane 


IO3OO66 




James Smith 


IO3OOI4 


Corpl. 


Alex. Stewart 


IO3O184 


Piper 


Douglas Stewart 


291928 




J. Simpson 


1030545 




William Stewart 


1030217 




George Tandy 


IO3OO26 




A. E. Walker 


IO3OO93 




George White 


IO3OIIO 




E. Willis 


IO3OO6I 




James Wilson 


467264 




George Walker 


IO3OI43 




Robert Jamerison 



158 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



THE CANADIAN PIONEERS 
ist Battalion 
Owing to the nature of the employment of this battalion on railway 
construction the pipers were principally in the ranks as sappers. 



REG. NO 


RANK. 


NAME. 


recor 


154580 


Pipe Major 


H. M'Kenzie 




154492 


Piper (Sapper) 


William Henry 




154589 




F. Macdonald 


Wounded, 7/5/16. 


I54184 




J. Grant 


Killed, 1 3/6/1 6. 


I55°l6 




William Gray 


Wounded, 4/6/16. 


154*21 




R. Kell 




154027 




G. Mars 


Wounded, 1 7/8/1 8. 


491353 




W. G. Richardson 




I5423I 




P. Hyndman 


Wounded, 17/9/17. 



THE 2nd AUCKLAND REGIMENT 

The band was started in Egypt in 1915 with 4 pipers, and gradually 
a few more were added. The pipers were not allowed to go into action 
as such. Pipe Major J. F. Robertson was given the Military Medal for 
gallantry during the operations round Bapaume in 1918. 



Piper 



H. Cameron 
J. F. Robertson 
H. M. Kennedy 
J. Stevenson 
J. Brown 
D. M'Kinley 
A. Lambie 
F. Barry 
F. M'Lean 
J. Clothier 
B. Johns 



Awarded Military Medal, Bapaume, 191 8. 



THE 42nd AUSTRALIANS 



i59 



THE 4 2nd AUSTRALIANS 

This battalion raised a band of 8 pipers when they left Australia in 
1916. They were largely employed as scouts, runners, etc. 

The battalion was subsequently merged into the 41st. 

Pipers A. Aitken and R. Gillespie were awarded Military Medals for 
valuable scouting work carried out prior to the action at Messines in June 
1917. 



. NO. 


RANK. 


NAME. 


record. 


Pipe Major 


A. R. M'Coll 




Corpl. 


A. S. MacNaught 




Piper 


A. Aitken, M.M. 


Wounded ; Military Medal 






R. Gillespie, M.M. 


Military Medal. 






J. A. Murray 








A. M'Pherson 


Wounded. 






J. M'Coll 


Wounded. 






J. Robertson 


Wounded. 






A. Murray 


Wounded. 






M. H. Fraser 


Killed. 






D. Lathangie 








T. A. Fraser 


Wounded. 






A. S. Chaplin 








W. Reid 








W. Milne 








A. M'Pherson 








J. Clarke 








A. Howie 


Wounded. 



THE SOUTH AFRICAN SCOTTISH 

The pipers proved quite invaluable on the long marches in the 
operations against the Senussi, in keeping the men going, under the most 
trying climatic conditions. 

The pipers were sometimes employed as bearers, or as carriers of stores, 
ammunition, etc., and as runners. 

In the Cambrai advance by the Germans they had to serve in the ranks. 
At Houdincourt, having piled their pipes and taken up rifles, nearly all their 
instruments were destroyed by a shell. 



i6o 



REGIMENTAL RECORDS 



Pipe Major 

Lance-Cpl. 
Piper 



D. Cameron, D.C.M. 

Alexander Grieve 

R. Hay 

T. Scott 

A. Gray, M.M. 

J. Waterhouse, M.M. 

J. Matheson 

D. A. CUMMINGS 

F. Fraser 
C. Gordon 
R. Lindsay 
M. M'Neil 

J. M'Calman 
J. Munro 
M. Strang 

G. Collier 
W. Irons 
M'Gregor 
M'Coll 
W. Strang 



Became C. Sergt. -Major ; wounded. 
Gassed, March 191 8. 

Killed, Arras, 9/4/17. 
Military Medal. 
Military Medal. 



Invalided. 



Wounded, Oct. 191 6 ; invalided. 



IRoll of Donouu 



1914*1918 



Cba till, cba till, cba till /Ibac Criomafn, 
En cogaob no sitb cba till e tuille ; 
Xe airgioo no nt cba till flDac Cdomatn, 
Cba till e gu bratb gu la na cruinne. 



Son epee an TRoi, 
Son cceuv a sa Dame, 
Ses bonneurs a soi, 
—a oien son ante. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 1914-1918 



ist SCOTS GUARDS. 

3707 Sergt. Samuel Richardson Died of wounds, Aisne, 14/9/14. 

8543 Piper James Mackenzie Killed, Ypres, 31/10/14. 

991 ,, Alexander Martin, D.C.M. Killed, 19/2/16. 

Malcolm Mackenzie Killed, 1914. 

,, A. Carmichael Killed, 1915. 



2ND SCOTS GUARDS. 



Lance -Cpl. 
Piper 



Hector M'Kimm 
Charles M'Guire 



Killed, Zonnebeke, 26/10/14. 
Died of wounds, Ypres, 29/10/14. 



ist ROYAL SCOTS. 
48594 Piper D. M'Donald Died, Bulgaria, Oct. 1918. 



2ND ROYAL SCOTS. 



13459 
8516 
8450 

1 1484 

441 1 8 

3190 

10536 



Piper 



William Fisher 
J. Robertson 
James Drummond 

D. Lindsay 
A. M'Kinlay 

A. Cruickshanks 
J. Thompson 

E. Duguid 



Killed, 15/4/16. 

Killed, Croix Barbes, 13/10/14. 

Killed, The Bluff, 23/1/16. 

Killed, 4/5/17. 

Killed, 9/4/18. 

Killed, 27/9/18. 

Died, 30/9/15- 

Died of gas, 10/5/18. 



4 th ROYAL SCOTS. 

Pipe Major Andrew Buchan 
Piper Charles Rutherford 



Killed, Gallipoli, 28/6/15. 
Died, dysentery, Gallipoli. 



5 th ROYAL SCOTS. 

1303 Piper George Hardie 

766 „ Alexander Lawson 

1824 „ George W. Downie 



Killed, Gallipoli, 2/5/15. 
Killed, Gallipoli, 28/4/15. 
Killed, Gallipoli, 7/5/15. 



i6 4 THE PIPES OF WAR 

1235 Piper William Sinclair Diedof wounds, Gallipoli, 8/5/15. 

8109 ,, David Ross Killed, July 1916. 

Lieut. Tom Bartleman (formerly Piper), Seaforth Highlanders, killed, 
Sept. 1917. 

6th ROYAL SCOTS. 

Piper Murdoch Bethune Died of wounds, Somme, 2/7/16. 

„ Thomas Leake Died of disease. 

7TH ROYAL SCOTS. 

Pipe Major James Gear Killed in railway accident. 

Piper George Smeaton Killed in railway accident. 

Piper Alexander Nicol Killed in railway accident. 

Fred Turner Killed, 12/7/15, Gallipoli. 

251141 ,, Peter M'Neill Killed, 6/11/17, Palestine. 

9TH ROYAL SCOTS. 

Lance-Cpl. A. L. Forsyth, M.M. Killed, 23/4/17. 

Corpl. G. Lauder Killed, 23/5/17. 

iith ROYAL SCOTS. 
Piper John Kane Killed, 14/7/16. 

12TH ROYAL SCOTS. 



12991 Piper 


Thomas Hislop 


Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 


00737 Lance-Cpl, 


Peter West 


Died of wounds. 


13459 Piper 


William Fisher 


Killed, 15/4/16. 




i 3 th ROYAL SCOTS. 


Pipe Major 


Murdoch Macdonald 


Died of disease, 9/2/16. 


Piper 


Thomas Flood 


Killed, 26/8/18. 


" 


Robert Campbell 


Died as prisoner of war. Sept 
1915- 


,, 


Robert Mitchell 


Died of wounds, 26/8/18. 



1 6th ROYAL SCOTS. 

Piper M. Bethune Killed, Somme, July 1916. 

H. Grey Killed, Arras, April 1917. 

,, A. Noon Killed, Arras, April 191 7. 

17TH ROYAL SCOTS. 

Pipe Major Donald M'Lean Killed, 1 4/7/1 8 (Lieut. 1st 

Gordons). 



ROLL OF HONOUR 165 

2ND ROYAL SCOTS FUSILIERS. 



Corpl. 


A. W. Richardson 


KiUed. 


Piper 


W. BUTTERWORTH 


Killed. 


,, 


W. M'Lean 


Killed, Messines, 191 7. 


,, 


W. Moore 


Died after discharge. 



4TH ROYAL SCOTS FUSILIERS. 

Pipe Major N. Shaw Died of wounds, Palestine, 

21/4/17. 
Lance-Cpl. J. M'Allister Killed, Gallipoli, 1 2/7/15. 

Piper P. Greig Killed, Gallipoli, 12/7/15. 

,, J. Milner Killed, Gallipoli, 12/7/15. 

5TH ROYAL SCOTS FUSILIERS. 
7797 Lance-Cpl. John Murdoch Killed, 13/7/15. 

ist KING'S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS. 



9884 
1315 


Piper 


Higginson 
Maitland 


Died of wounds, 

26/4/15. 
Killed, Paschendaele, 


Gallipoli, 
27/4/17. 




4TH 


KING'S OWN SCOTTISH 


BORDERERS. 




778 

779 
306 
822 


Piper 


Thomas Lunham 
J. Kerr 
C. Street 
Alex. Hendry 


Died of wounds. 
Died of wounds. 






5TH 


KING'S OWN SCOTTISH 


BORDERERS. 




308 
1760 


Piper 


R. Brown 
Thomas Martin 
James Gorman 


Killed, 12/7/15. 
Killed, 12/7/15. 
KiUed. 





6th KING'S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS. 

14851 Pipe Major Robert Mackenzie Died of wounds, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Lance-Cpl. J. Lomas KiUed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Piper J. Simes KiUed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

P. Moffat KiUed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

„ J. Pringle KiUed, Somme, Oct. 1916. 

7TH KING'S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS. 
Piper J. Taylor KiUed, Arras. 



166 THE PIPES OF WAR 



8th KING'S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS. 



14277 Lance- 


Cpl 


A. M'VlTTIE 


Piper 




C. Reid 

G. SURRITON 

ist SCOTTI: 


9429 Piper 




T. Best 


9441 




R. Black 


10924 




P. Robertson 

2ND SCOTTI 


Pipe Maj 


or 


Alex. Cameron 


Corpl. 




A. HORNE 


Corpl. 




James Campbell 


Piper 




A. Macdonald 
Forsyth 
Clark 
Lauder 



Killed, Arras. 

Killed, Somme, July 191 6. 

Killed, Arras. 



Killed, 10/2/15, Laventie. 
Killed, 3I/7/I7- 
Killed, 1 6/5/1 5, La Bassee. 
Killed, 10/2/15, Laventie. 
Killed, July 15, Bois Grenier. 
Killed, 10/3/15, Neuve Chapelle. 
Died of wounds, March 191 8. 



5TH SCOTTISH RIFLES. 
Pipe Major Paterson Accidentally killed. 

5/6TH SCOTTISH RIFLES. 
201 1 24 Pipe Major J. C. Purdie Killed. 



7th SCOTTISH RIFLES. 



1 106 


Piper 


Archibald Ramage 


868 


,, 


Archibald Shearer 


1 1 78 


,, 


William Deans 


265958 


,, 


J. MTver 


1817 




J. Strachan 

8th SCOTTISH 




Pipe Major Neil Macleod 




Piper 


John MacIntyre 
James Ferguson 
James M'Indoe 
Robert Whitelaw 



Killed, 28/6/15, Dardanelles. 
Killed, 23/7/15, Dardanelles. 
Killed, June, 1615, Dardanelles. 
Killed, 12/11/17, Palestine. 
Killed, 4/1 1 /i 7, Palestine. 



Killed, 12/7/15, Dardanelles. 
Killed, 28/6/15, Dardanelles. 
Killed, 28/6/15, Dardanelles. 
Killed, 29/7/18, France. 
Killed, 28/6/15. 



9 th SCOTTISH RIFLES. 
30503 Piper Hugh Macara Killed, March 191 7. 



ROLL OF HONOUR 167 

ioth SCOTTISH RIFLES. 
Piper Robert Black Killed, 28/1 /16. 

„ Duncan Mackenzie Killed, 17/11/15. 

Alex. Harris Killed, 27/1 /16. 

lira SCOTTISH RIFLES. 
14631 Piper Alexander Stevenson Killed, 28/4/17. 

ist BLACK WATCH. 
9617 Pipe Major D. M'Leod Killed, 21 /8/1 6. 

1956 Piper T. MTntyre Missing, 14/8/14. 

2ND BLACK WATCH. 
1 871 Piper James Galloway Killed, 8/10/15, Givenchy. 

9908 Lance-Cpl. James Wann Died of wounds, 10/2/15, Neuve 

Chapelle. 
1449 Piper James Davis Killed, 25/9/15, Mauquissart. 

736 ,, David Simpson Killed, 25/9/15, Mauquissart. 

941 Lance-Cpl. Peter M'Nee Died of wounds, 25/9/15, Meso- 

potamia. 
Piper Mackay Died of wounds, 10/3/15, Neuve 

Chapelle. 
,, William Mathieson Killed, 25/9/15, Mauquissart. 

1539 „ Alex. Macdonald, Discharged ; subsequently died, 

D.C.M. 26/3/17. 

5TH BLACK WATCH. 
1568 Piper Alexander Howie Killed, 10/3/1 5, Neuve Chapelle. 

406 Lance-Cpl. Fred Reid Killed, 13/3/15, Neuve Chapelle. 

6th BLACK WATCH. 

Killed, Somme, Oct. 1916. 
Died, July 1915. 
Killed, Festubert, May 1915. 
Killed, La Boiselle, Aug. 191 6. 
Killed, Fremicourt, 23/12/17. 
Killed, Fremicourt, 23/12/17. 
Killed, Fremicourt, 23/12/17. 
Killed, Fremicourt, 23/12/17. 
Killed, June 1915. 



4470 Piper James Johnston Killed, 7/1 /i 7, Somme. 

Killed, Dec. 1916, Somme. 

Killed, Dec. 1916, Somme. 

Alexander Wilkie Killed, Dec. 1916, Somme. 



Piper 




L. Massie 
Donald Gillies 
P. Fallon 
J. Ferguson 
J. Harper 
A. Tainsh 
A. Forbes 
A. Myles 
A. Paton 

7th BLAC 


Piper 




James Johnst< 


Lance 
Piper 


■Cpl 


G. Swan 
James Ross 



1 68 



THE PIPES OF WAR 

8th BLACK WATCH. 



3014 


Piper 


Donald Wilson 


Killed, Loos, 1915. 


265912 


,, 


R. Menzies 


Killed, Meteren, July 191 


3019 


,, 


D. Simpson 


Killed, Somme, 1916. 


3375 


,, 


W. Reilly 


Killed, Loos, 191 5. 



9TH BLACK WATCH. 
Piper J. Johnstone Killed, March, 1918. 



ist HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



6894 


Sergt. 




D. BUCHAN 


9615 


Piper 




C. Stewart 


10107 






F. Burns 


9860 






Thomas James 


901 1 






J. Morrison 


1 1 499 






J. M'Naught 


1 1470 






J. Smith 




Lance 


■Cpl. 


Mitchell 



1 1468 Corpl. (acting Pipe Major) J. Smith 



Killed, 20/1 1 /14, Festubert. 
Killed, 1/5/15, Ypres. 
Killed, 20/11/14, Festubert. 
Killed, 20/1 1 /14, Festubert. 
Killed, 20/1 1 /14, Festubert. 
Killed, 20/1 1 /14, Festubert. 
Killed, 7/9/16, Somme. 
Killed, 18/9/14, Vermeuil. 
Died enteric, Mesopotamia. 



2ND HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



10264 Sergt. 

10976 Piper 

9272 Corpl. 



T. Findlay 
J. Irving 
J. Mackenzie 



Killed, 14/3/15, Neuve Chapelle. 
Killed, 3/1 1 /14. 
Killed, 21/10/14. 



4TH HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 
Piper Charles Stewart Killed. 

5TH HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 
Pipe Major John Thomson Killed, 12/7/15, Dardanelles. 

6th HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 
1237 Piper Peter M'Niven Killed, 12/7/15. 

9TH HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



1666 Piper John Drummond 

33379 2 >> T. Crawford 

333138 „ J. M'Creath 



Killed, 3/6/15, Vermelles. 

Died of wounds. 

Died of wounds, Oct. 1918. 



ROLL OF HONOUR 

ioth HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



169 



12562 Piper Alex. Whitefield 

902 Lance-Cpl. David Donaldson 
17505 Piper Peter MTntyre. 



Killed, 25/9/15, Cambrin. 
Killed, 9/7/15, Festubert. 
Gassed, Cambrai ; died, 8/ii/i{ 



12TH HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



Piper William Thompson 

,, John M'Kean 

Sergt. William Pierce 



Killed, Arras, 9/4/17. 
Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Killed, Somme, Sept. 1916. 



i 4 th HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 
Piper Peter Thomson Killed, 24/4/17. 

i 5 th HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 

353152 Piper D. M'Kenzie Killed, Ayette, 13/4/18. 



i6th HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



15032 Lance-Cpl. 
14699 Piper 



Walter Orr 
Archibald Rankin 



Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 
Killed, 1/7/16, Thiepval. 



Piper 



17TH HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 
Archibald Forrest Died. 



20TH HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY. 



26650 Lance-Cpl. 
30503 Piper 



Devlin 
Hugh Macara 



Killed, Ypres, 25/9/17. 
Killed, March 1917. 



ist SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS. 



Lance-Cpl. Hearne 

709 Piper J. Wilkinson 

7900 ,, William Cowans 

9291 ,, J. Pratt 



479 


,, 


D. Black 


788 


,, 


T. Urquhart 


9158 


Actg. Pipe Major J. MacLellan 


10457 


Lance-Sgt. 


Stewart 


3ii 


Lance-Cpl. 


D. Campbell 


529 


Sergt. 


C. M'Kay 
Cook 

Smith 



Died of disease. 

Killed, France. 

Killed, 7/11/14, " Port Arthur." 

Died of wounds, 9/5/15, Neuve 

Chapelle. 
Killed, 3/1 1 /14, " Port Arthur." 
Killed, 20/12/14, Givenchy. 
Killed, 2 1 /4/1 7, Mesopotamia. 
Killed, 1 91 7. 

Killed, Mesopotamia, Oct. 191 7. 
Died of wounds, Baghdad, 1916. 
Killed, Mesopotamia, 1916. 
Killed, France. 



170 



THE PIPES OF WAR 



2nd SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS. 



9106 


Lance 


-Cpl. 


William Ross 


Killed, 


/6/I5- 


9223 


Lance 


-Cpl. 


John Grant 


Killed, 


/10/14. 


283 


Lance 


-Cpl. 


Dougal MacMillan 


Died, 


/2/I5- 




Piper 




David Macrae 


Killed, 


/2/I5- 




,, 




Kenneth Mackenzie 


Killed, 


/5/I5- 




,, 




Robert Rennie 


Killed, 


/5/I5- 




,, 




Alex. Clark 


Killed, 


/5/I5- 


9494 


,, 




James Rennie 


Killed, 


Loos, 3/10/15. 


3 


,, 




Robert Hall 


Killed, 


1/7/16. 


9132 


,, 




N. Johnstone 


Wounded, 25/4/15 ; killed 










26/1/ 


i7- 


0456 


Lance 


-Sgt. 


James Stewart 


Killed, 


Somme, 191 7. 



4TH SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS. 



24316 Piper 



Donald M'Kenzie 
J. Kemp 
A. M'Aulay 
J. M'Kenzie 
A. M'Lennan 



Prisoner ; died of wounds, May 

1918. 
Died of wounds, Neuve Cha- 

pelle, 1915. 
Died of wounds, Valenciennes, 

1918. 
Died of wounds, Neuve Cha- 

pelle, 1915. 
Killed, Neuve Chapelle, 1915. 



5 th SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS. 



422 Lance-Cpl. G. Ross 


Killed, 21/7/15, Fauquissart. 


251 Piper R. Ross 


Killed, 21/7/15, Fauquissart. 


599 „ Donald M'Kay 


Killed, 13/11/16, Beaumont 




Hamel. 



6ih SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS. 
Lieut, (formerly Piper) J. Hector Ross Killed, 23/4/17. 



Piper 


W. Sutherland 


Roclincourt, 9/4/17. 


Sergt. 


William M'Leod 


Killed, May 1916. 


" 


C. D. Macdonald 


Killed, 13/11/16, Beaumont 
Hamel. 


" 


H. Mackie 


Killed, 1 3/1 1 /i 6, Beaumont 
Hamel. 


,, 


J. Brown 


Killed, May 191 7, Arras. 


Piper 


J. Alexander 


Killed, April 1918, La Bassee. 


,, 


A. Mackay 


Killed, 9/4/17, Roclincourt. 


., 


J. Robertson 


Killed, July 1915. 



ROLL OF HONOUR 



171 



7th SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS. 



40417 


Lance 


Cpl. 


O'Kain M'Lennan 


1456 


Piper 




D. Fraser 


4181 






R. Galbraith 


9070 






G. Grant 


2177 






B. Halliday 


3843 






K. Thyne 


4661 






B. Hamilton 
8th SEAFORTH HIGF 


5721 


Piper 




Charles Anderson 


6567 


,, 




George Spence 


6400 


,, 




William Mackay 


6546 


Lance 


-Cpl. 


Duncan MacGregor 




Piper 




Hugh Sutherland 
Andrew Clark 



Died of wounds, 11/4/17. 
Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 
Died of wounds, 30/6/16. 
Died of wounds, at Loos. 
Killed, Somme, 1 4/7/1 6. 
Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 



Killed, 25/9/15, Loos. 
Killed, 25/9/15, Loos. 
Killed, 25/9/15, Loos. 
Killed, 25/9/15, Loos. 
Died of disease, France. 
Killed, 25/9/15, Loos. 



267336 Piper 
240018 ,, 
3964 
23879 



9TH SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS. 



James Sutherland 
Robert Ross 
William M'Mahon 
William Duncan 



Killed, 1 9/4/1 7. 
Killed, 11/4/18. 
Killed. 
Killed. 



ist GORDON HIGHLANDERS. 



Piper Frederick Paterson 

Lance-Cpl. W. M'Fall 
Piper W. Howie 

A. M'Kay 
,, W. Allan 

Hector Ross 



Killed, 26/8/14, Mons. 
Killed, 24/10/14. 
Killed, 24/10/14. 
Died of wounds, 
Killed, 14/12/14. 
Killed, /3/16. 



/I/I5- 



430 


Piper 


J. Robertson 


10655 




R. Grant 


10639 


,, 


J. Grant 


no 


,, 


R. Wilson 


219 




W. Bruce 


10653 


Corpl. 


J. M'Kenzie 


205 


Piper 


J. Ledingham 


10139 


" 


J. Ram age 
D. White 


7383 


» 


A. Cassie 
P. Brown 



2nd GORDON HIGHLANDERS. 

Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 
Killed, 



Ypres, 30/10/14. 
Loos, 25/9/15. 
Loos, 25/9/15. 
Loos, 25/9/15. 
Loos, 25/9/15. 
Loos, 25/9/15. 
Loos, 25/9/15. 
Loos, 25/9/15. 
Loos, 1915. 
Loos, 25/9/15. 
Ypres, 5/10/17. 



i 72 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Piper J. Bissett Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

10296 ,, W. Sinclair Died of wounds, Loos, 25/9/15. 

7375 Corpl. A. Smith Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

6853 Sergt. R. Stewart, D.C.M. Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

8390 Piper J. Scott Killed, Somme, 1916. 

335 ,, J. M'Crimmon Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

4 th GORDON HIGHLANDERS. 
Piper A. Thomson Killed while serving with R.F.C. 

5TH GORDON HIGHLANDERS. 

1156 Piper William Graham Killed, 3/6/15, Festubert. 

11586 ,, Alexander Willox Killed, 31/7/16, High Wood. 

,, Andrew Brown, M.M. Killed, 31/7/16, High Wood. 

6th GORDON HIGHLANDERS. 
62 Piper George Milton Killed, 10/3/15, Neuve Chapelle. 

9 th GORDON HIGHLANDERS. 
9023 Piper C. Campbell Killed, Somme, 1916. 

ist CAMERON HIGHLANDERS. 

6720 Sergt. G. Selby Killed, 22/10/14. 

5173 Piper H. Barrie Killed, 5/11/14, Ypres. 

8535 ,, Gilbert M'Calman Died of wounds, Feb. 1918. 

L. M'Bean Died of wounds, Arras, Aug. 

1918. 

2ND CAMERON HIGHLANDERS. 

Piper John MacAskil Killed, Hill 60, April 191 6. 

Donnachie Killed, 1915. 

John M'Cabe Died. 

',, Thompson Died, 1918. 

,, Archibald M'Kenzie Killed, Hill 60, April 1916. 

Lachlan M'Bean Died of wounds, St. Eloi, 
10/5/15. 

,, William Stewart Died, Salonika, 18/10/17. 

4 th CAMERON HIGHLANDERS. 

1120 Piper J. Cheyne Killed, Festubert, 17/5/15. 

645 Lance-Cpl. D. Paterson Killed, Festubert, 1 7/5/15. 

200120 Piper William Macdonald Died of wounds, 14/10/17. 



9345 



ROLL OF HONOUR 173 

5TH CAMERON HIGHLANDERS. 

5497 Piper Alex. MacEachern Died of wounds. Loos, 25/9/15. 

5113 Lance-Cpl. A. J. M'Donald Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

3931 Piper Neil Wilson Killed, Loos, 27/9/15. 

John MacLellan Killed, Sorel, 21/3/18. 

Alexander Clunie Killed, Arras, 3/5/17. 

Archibald Crawford Killed, Sorel, 21/3/18. 

James Porteous Killed, Oct. igi8. 

6th CAMERON HIGHLANDERS. 
22461 Piper James Walker Killed, 26/4/17. 

7TH CAMERON HIGHLANDERS. 

Piper G. Alves Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

„ A. Smart Killed, Loos, 25/9/15. 

Pipe Major Kenneth Macleod Died. 

ist ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 

Piper Woodside Killed, 16/2/15, St. Eloi. 

570 ,, Robert Kennedy Killed, 30/7/16, Somme. 



2ND ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 

567 Piper Peter M'Lintock Killed, Armentieres, 27/11/15. 

Lance-Cpl. Milne Killed, Armentieres, 27/1 1/15. 

90 Piper M'Kay Rilled, Armentieres, 27/11/15. 

J157 „ L. Planner Killed, October 1918. 



6th ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 

3037 Piper James Pringle Killed, 18/6/15, Festubert. 

3042 ,, John M'Allister Killed, 18/6/15, Festubert. 

3162 ,, William Carlyle Killed, 16/6/15, Festubert. 

1890 „ John Craig Rilled, 27/7/16, Longueval. 



7TH ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 
277167 Piper Hugh M'Donald Killed, Aug. 1917, Ypres. 

8th ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 
Pipe Major William Lawrie Died, Nov. 1916. 



174 THE PIPES OF WAR 

9TH ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 
324 Corpl. Alex. M'Allister Killed, 10/5/15, Ypres. 

1 71 1 Piper Alex. Russell Killed, 8/4/15. 

ioth ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 

Piper MacNeill Killed, Oct. 191 6, Longueval. 

570 ,, R. Kennedy Died of wounds, Longueval. 

8051 ;, Alex. Kennedy Died of wounds, Ypres, 12/10/17. 

302955 .. Walter Napier Killed, 12/10/17, Ypres. 

iith ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 

Sergt. Jas. Ritchie Killed, 26/9/15, Loos. 

Piper Jas. Barnett Killed, 26/9/15, Hill 70. 

,, F. M'Diarmaid Killed, July 1916, Somme. 

,, Ferguson Died, Dec. 1916, Somme. 

12TH ARGYLL AND SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDERS. 

Corpl. W. Stirling Killed, Oct. 1916. 

6829 Piper John M'Coll Died of disease, Salonika, 

1 6/2 /i 7. 
5660 ,, D. Robertson Killed, 8/5/17. 

4927 .. L. M'Con Killed, 8/5/17. 

LONDON SCOTTISH. 

Corpl. T. Carey Killed, 1/11/14, Messines. 

139 Lance-Cpl. H. Leatham Killed, 16/11/14, Zillebeke. 

? 1341 Piper D. Parkyn Killed, 1/11/14, Messines. 

C. W. Mackay Killed, 1 7/8/16, Somme (Lieut. 
5th Camerons). 

1870 „ J. Binnie Killed, 9/11/14, Zillebeke. 

3509 ,, A. Cornell Died of wounds, 2/10/16, 

Somme. 

Lieut. A. Cairns Wilson Killed, 1917 ; Military Medal, 

(formerly Piper) 

513657 Piper Simon Campbell Killed, 13/5/17, Arras. 

510531 ,, A. B. Paton Killed, 13/5/17. 

Woodcock Killed. 

ist TYNESIDE SCOTTISH. 

237 Lance-Cpl. Garnet Fyfe Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 

223 Piper E. Boyce Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 

1585 ,, William Fellows Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 

154 .. James Downie Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 

1485 ,, William Inglis Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 



ROLL OF HONOUR 175 

2ND TYNESIDE SCOTTISH. 

1230 Piper William Scott Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 

1151 ,, James Phillips Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 

3RD TYNESIDE SCOTTISH. 

Piper J. Steele Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 

„ E. Finlay Killed, 1/7/16, Somme 

T. Wilson Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. 

R. Greaves Died of wounds, 1/7/16, Somme. 

i6th MIDDLESEX. 

1151 Piper Thomas Latham Killed, 1/7/16, Somme. .. 

Sergt. George Kirkland (formerly *^ 

Piper, nth Middlesex) Killed, Ypres, 17/2/17. 

ist LIVERPOOL SCOTTISH. 
Pipe Major John Stoddart Killed, Poperinghe, July 1916. 

23RD ROYAL FUSILIERS (ist SPORTSMAN'S BATT.). 

Piper W. Suttie Killed, 16/3/16. 

„ William Mackenzie Killed, 16/3/ 16. 

ARGYLL MOUNTAIN BATTERY. 

Pipe Major William MacNeill Died, 18/8/15. 

Corpl. Neil Smith Accidentally killed, 1/3/16. 

ROSS AND CROMARTY BATTERY. 
4403 Gunner John Macdonald Died of wounds, 14/5/15. 



OVERSEAS BATTALIONS 

PRINCESS PATRICIA'S CANADIAN LIGHT INFANTRY. 

265 Piper J. M. Robertson, D. CM. Died of wounds, 25/3/15. 

Sergt. John M'Donald, D.C.M. Died of wounds, 17/9/16. 

ROYAL HIGHLANDERS OF CANADA, 13TH BATTALION. 

24013 Piper A. J. Macdonald Died of wounds, 16/3/15, Fleurbaix. 

24012 ,, W. Lawson Died of wounds, 16/3/15, Fleurbaix. 

24392 ,, H. Robertson Killed, 2/5/15, Ypres. 

24704 ,, N. Macdonald Killed, 24/4/15, Ypres. 



i 7 6 THE PIPES OF WAR 

4 8th HIGHLANDERS OF CANADA, i 5 th BATTALION. 
27548 Corpl. J. Thompson Died. 

CANADIAN SCOTTISH, i6th BATTALION. 



28694 Piper James Thomson 


28779 


, William MTvor 


28595 


, George Birnie 


29468 


, Angus Morrison 


28930 


James Richardson, 


28561 


, John Parks 


28557 


Alec M'Gillivray 


429803 


, George Paul 



Died of wounds, 23/4/15, Ypres. 
Died of wounds, 10/5/15, Ypres. 
Killed, 20/5/15, Festubert. 
Killed, 20/5/15, Festubert. 
V.C. Killed, 8/10/16, Somme. 
Killed, 8/10/16, Somme. 
Killed, 1 5/8/1 7, Paschendaele. 
Killed, 8/8/18, Amiens. 



21ST CANADIANS (EASTERN ONTARIO REGIMENT). 
Pipe Major Ian Mackenzie Killed, Cambrai, 11/10/18. 

25TH CANADIANS. 
Piper E. Stewart Killed, 9/4/18. 

29TH CANADIANS (VANCOUVER REGIMENT). 
75599 Piper W. Grant Killed, 6/11/17. 



76126 


,, 


W. Burnside 


Killed, 


6/1 1/ 1 7. 


76484 




J. R. Davidson 
ist CANADIAN 


Killed, 
PIONEERS. 


6/11/17. 


54184 


Piper 


John Grant 


Killed, 


13/6/16. 



42ND AUSTRALIANS. 
Piper M. H. Fraser Killed. 

5 th VICTORIAN INFANTRY. 
32 Corpl. Gordon Inglis Died of wounds, 24/1/16, Gallipoli. 

SOUTH AFRICAN SCOTTISH. 

Lieut, (formerly Pipe Major) Robert Thorburn Killed, 20/7/16, Somme. 
Piper Thomas Scott Killed, Arras, 9/4/1 7. 

NEW ZEAL ANDERS (OTAGO REGIMENT). 
8/2519 Corpl. Piper Neil MacDonai.d Killed, 1 5/7/16, Somme. 



' So be passeo over. Hno all tbe trumpets sounoeo 
for btm on tbe otber stoe." 



. 



CANNTAIREACHD 

By Major J. P. Grant, M.C., Yr. of Rothiemurchus 

It is related l by Sir John Graham Dalyell how in 1818, one John Campbell 
from Nether Lorn, brought " a folio in MS., said to contain numerous 
compositions," for the inspection of the judges at the annual piping com- 
petition held in Edinburgh under the auspices of the Highland Society : 
the story goes on, " but the contents merely resembling a written narrative 
in an unknown language, nor bearing any resemblance to Gaelic, they 
proved utterly unintelligible. Amidst many conjectures relative both to 
the subject and the language, nobody adventured so far as to guess at either 
airs or pibrochs." It is believed that this is the earliest authentic reference 
to the pipers notation known as Canntaireachd, and it is of interest 
to note that even as early as 1818, 2 among the class of Highland gentlemen 
who acted as judges at the biggest competition in the country, the very 
existence of the notation was unknown. Sir John mentions also that 
he made later attempts to acquire this MS. volume and to trace two others 
in the possession of John Campbell's father : his attempts were unsuccessful. 
In 1828 Captain Macleod of Gesto published some pipe tunes in Cann- 
taireachd as taught by the MacCrimmons in Skye. The merits of this 
publication have been made the subject of controversy among pipers and 
others ; this controversy has no place in this paper. The late John Campbell 
(Iain Ileach) of Tales of the West Highlands, wrote a monograph on Cann- 
taireachd in 1880, in which he reviewed Gesto's book : the monograph, 
interesting as it is and written in Iain Ileach's easy flowing style 

1 Musical Memoirs of Scotland, 1 849, p. 9. 

9 Sir John was wrong in his date : this incident happened in 1S16. 
'79 



i8o THE PIPES OF WAR 

is extraordinarily disappointing. In spite of his comprehensive know- 
ledge of folk-lore — more particularly of Gaelic folk-lore — he fails to indicate 
any probable source of this notation— probably no one in Europe was, 
or is better fitted to make conjectures on the point. However, he made two 
statements of interest in the late history of the notation, (i) that he had 
" often seen my nurse John Piper reading and practising music from an old 
paper manuscript, and silently fingering tunes. I have tried to recover this 
writing, but hitherto in vain," and (2) that there were three local varieties 
of the notation (a) MacCrimmon (b) MacArthur, and (c) Campbell of Nether 
Lorn. Now " John Piper " was this same John Campbell of the family of 
Nether Lorn, which possessed three MS. volumes of Canntaireachd. 

Among the older-fashioned pipers in Scotland, even just before the war, 
one constantly heard syllables (hodroho, hiodro, etc., etc.) being used, gener- 
ally at haphazard, seldom in their correct place. The astounding thing is 
that even fragments of a notation, the system of which had been out of 
use for so long, should have survived to this day. 

About 1912 two of the Nether Lorn MS. books were rediscovered, and 
from them it has not been hard to reconstruct the system of notation. Those 
tunes with recognisably the same names as we know them by to-day, fur- 
nished the first step in the problem : after that it became easy to identify 
other tunes with different names, and finally to rediscover a number of 
tunes which have been lost for an undetermined period. 

One word of caution will be necessary to certain pipers before going 
further into this subject. This notation, invented for and suitable only to 
piobaireachd, is not going to teach pipers how to play piobaireachd. There 
is and always has been, one way and only one way to do that — to get in- 
struction from a master ; once that is accomplished, a pupil may be fit to 
learn more tunes by himself from books written in any intelligible notation. 
This I take to be true of any musicians and any music. 

The piobaireachd pupil might well get his instruction through the medium 
of canntaireachd, for it has been made solely for this music, and is in point 
of fact very suitable for the purpose. To begin with, if the few master- 
instructors of piobaireachd will take the trouble (and assuredly 



CANNTAIREACHD 181 

it will not be great to them) to become familiar with canntaireachd, and 
to use it as a medium of instruction, it is a matter of certainty that they 
will realise its use for this end — for instead of a perplexing maze of notes 
and grace-notes in staff notation to correspond to any movement which 
they are trying to teach their pupil, they will have pronounceable vocables 
which will act as memoria technica to the pupil : the pupil will, at first, 
learn these parrot style, until he gets to a certain length, when, unaided, 
he will begin to see that these vocables he has learnt convey a definite 
meaning — a definite combination of note and grace note, in a form which 
can be crooned to the air. I have found that for the purposes of learning 
new tunes, staff notation compared with canntaireachd is cumbrous and 
misleading : and even when written in an abbreviated form (as in General 
Thomason's great book, Ceol Mor) it appeals mainly to the eye, while cann- 
taireachd appeals to the ear. 

For some years now I have found it invaluable as a kind of musical 
shorthand, and with a certain amount of practice it becomes possible to 
write down a tune in canntaireachd while it is being played, and then to 
learn it at leisure. I had the triumph of converting a brother piper a few 
years ago. He was inclined to be sceptical about the whole system, so 
to test me and it he played me a tune which I had never heard and I wrote 
it down as he played it. After he had finished he said, " Now we shall 
see what is in it, for I made two mistakes : play what you have got and we 
shall see." I played on the practice chanter just what I had written, with 
the mistakes, of course, included. 

Again, when one is judging piobaireachd competitions, it is valuable as 
shorthand to jot down notes of mistakes, etc. 

Before coming to the notation itself, it should be explained that it is 
not maintained for a moment that this variety (the Nether Lorn) is superior 
in any way to the MacCrimmon or MacArthur varieties. It is merely given 
and suggested for use, because it is this variety which has become once more 
available to pipers at large. There are people who undoubtedly can do the 
same for the MacCrimmon variety also, and it is sincerely hoped that they 
will do so. That all three varieties are first cousins to each other is beyond 



i82 THE PIPES OF WAR 

doubt to any one who compares them ; perhaps at a later date, when more 
knowledge of canntaireachd becomes available, it may be possible to point 
to one as the original, or to find a common ancestor to all. 

Coming now to the actual notation, the following paragraphs should 
be read, subject to this note that the pronunciation of the vocables must 
be largely a matter of conjecture, but it is reasonable to suppose that, as 
they were written in the manuscript and used by Gaelic-speaking pipers, 1 
the pronunciation should have at least some reference to Gaelic pronunciation 
— thus the vowels, when occurring as the last letter of the syllable, would 
be pronounced 

a ' as in English hard 

e ' ,, hay 

i ' ,, heed 

o ' ,, home 

and probably the consonants should be given their Gaelic equivalents also 
(all which can best be obtained verbally from a Gaelic speaker). 

In addition to the simple vowels, combinations occur which require to 
be sounded as diphthongs : 

, -as in English yoke, e.g. hioeo 
' ea ' ,, yard, e.g. haea. 

1 The names of the tunes are largely written in rather badly spelt Gaelic, including in some cases 
the letter 'v,' ?.;., Vuirlin instead of A Bhirlinn, and h is the commonest consonant in the vocables — 
neither v ' nor ' h ' alone being used in correct Gaelic. 



CANNTAIREACHD 



183 



KEY TO NETHER LORN CANNTAIREACHD. 






a 



cd 

s> 



ft 

bo 

% 

JH 


00 


6 


a 
<u 
nj 
So 
Q 
x) 

1 

a 



O 
C 



O 

w 

XI 

'? 

"3 


CO 



a 

u 

SO 
O 
C 

Xj 

'% 

"5 
co 


X> 
_3 

lo 


_S 
'3 

a 
(a 

CO 

13 

Xi 
XI 
3 

i/5 


W 

XI 

13 
3 

1 

0> 


<! 

•s 
_o 



xl 

~a 

_3 
O 

H 


xi 

XI 

pq 

xl 

C3 
_3 
"u 



H 


so 

a 

Q< 
H 


3 
C 


low G 


him 


dam or 
bam 


em 


em 


himen 


himem 


himbare 


himdarid 


himbabem 


himbandrc 


low A 


hin 


dan 


en 


en 


hinen 


hinen 


hinbare 


hindarid 


hindaen 


hinbandre 


B 


hio 


to 


eo 





hioen 


hioeo 


hiobare 


hiodand 


hiotoeo 


hiobandre 


C 


ho 


do 


eo 





hoen 


hoeo 


hobare 


hodarid 


hodoeo 


hobandrc 


D 


ha 


- 


ea 


a or 
da 


haen 


haea 


habare 

or 

harodde 


hadarid 


- 


habandre 

or 

haroddre 


E 


che 


- 


- 


e or 
de 


che- 
hin 


cheche 


chebare 


chedarid 


- 


chebandre 


F 


he 


- 


- 


ve or 
dhe 


hehin 


hehe 


hebare 


hedarid 


- 


hebandre 


G 


hi or 

chi (high 
Ag-n.) 


- 


- 


di 


hihin 


hihi 


hibare 


hidarid 


- 


hibandre 


A 


- 


- 


- 


I 


Ien 


no 

example 


I bare 


I darid 


- 


Ibandre 



The nomenclature of most of the different movements has for convenience been taken from the 
Viobaireachd exercises in Logan's Tutor, price Is., and the examples here given refer to the staff notation 
examples given there and should be compared with them. 



i8 4 THE PIPES OF WAR 

PIOBAIREACHD EXERCISES 

(Cf. Logan's Tutor.) 

ist Scale of Instructions, pp. 34 and 35. On the Urlar. 

Chedari, hiriri, herere, cherede, hiharara, hihodro, hihorodo, 
hiharin. (See Cadences, p. 185.) 

2nd Scale of Instructions. 

Enbari (should be embari, i.e. from low G), endare, endre 
(note : if this shake on F or E is approached from a higher note 
the vocables become vedare and edre respectively ; thus one gets 
Ivedare, but hiodare, heedre but hiodre) tradarodo (tra being the 
usual throw on D, e.g. hiotra), p. 36, hihorodin, hodrodin, hiotrodin. 

3rd Scale of Instructions. On Crunluath. 

Hinban or hinbain, dre — together hinbandre, Ibandre. 

4th Scale, p. 37. On Crunluath Brcabach. 
Hinbandreendi. 

IbandreenI hibandreendi, hibandreendhe chebandreende, hab- 
andreenda hobandreendo, hiobandreemto hinbandreendan. 

5th Scale. On Crunluath Fosgailte. 
Hindodre. 

No examples of open : closed, himdandre hintodre, hindodre 
hindadre, twice over. 

6th Scale. On Crunluath Mach. 

Hiotradre hodrodre, hiotrodre himbamdre, twice over. 

7th Scale. The Exercise on Accidentals. 

Ibarl dibari (no example known), vebarhe edre, adeda odro, 
otro enban or enbain, twice over. 



CHA TILL MACCRUIMEIN 185 

CHA TILL MACCRUIMEIN 

1st. Dreve hiove, cheve cheento, dreve hiove, cheve cheemto, dreve 

hioe, trae haento, 
2nd. Dreve hiove, cheve cheemto, dreve hioe, trae haemto, dreve 

hioe, trae haento, 
3rd. Dreve hiove, cheve cheemto, dreve hioe, trae haento. 

Var. 1st. 
1st. Drel ove, chel deento, drel ove, chel deemto, drel oe, tral 
aento, etc. 

Var. 2nd. 
1st. Cheve hiove, cheve cheento, cheve hiove, cheve cheemto, cheve 
hioe, trae haento, etc. 

Doubling of Var. 2nd. 
1st. Chea cheo, cheve cheento, chea cheo, cheve cheemto, chea cheo, 
trae haento, etc. 

Various Vocables not previously included. 
Throw on high A dili. 

Taorluath to low G hiodarem, chedarem, etc. 

Low A with low G grace-note before -din (e.g. hiodin). 

D or C followed by B grace-note on 

low G grace-note followed by A 

with low G grace-note before harodin or horodin. 

Taorluath mach hiotroeo, hodroeo, hiotraea. 

Crunluath to low G. hiobamdre, or hiobaemdre 

or (on D) haromdre. 

Cadences 
By cadences I mean those notes often printed as grace-notes, GED, 
followed by C, B, low A, or low G melody notes, and GE followed by D, 
low A, or low G melody notes. The prefix ' hi ' is in general terms used 



186 THE PIPES OF WAR 

for this, e.g. hiharin, hihorodin. Taking them in above order, examples of 
the vocables used are, of the former, hihodin, hihioem, hihinbain, and hiham- 
bam, and of the latter hiaen, hienem, hiemto. It is one of the remarkable 
points in the MS. that these cadences are indicated to a far less extent 
than is played by traditional players of modern times, and I am as yet 
unable to make any deductions from the manner in which they appear 
as to the style in which the MS. intends them to be played. To avoid con- 
fusion between ' hi ' as cadence and high G with A grace-note, it would 
be better to use the alternative ' chi ' for the latter. 

General 

A study of the key will reveal various noticeable points, some of which 
I will touch on here. It will be seen that some of the composite vocables 
can be pulled to pieces into their component parts, e.g., hiotroeo, hinbandre, 
etc., while others can only be dissected to a lesser extent, e.g., hindaen in the 
Tripling or Taorluath Breabach ; in this latter case the vocable must be read 
in its context, for hindaento might be G low A, D, low A, D B, while standing by 
itself, but in conjunction with a string of others it is undoubtedly meant to 
be the Taorluath Breabach. Again there is liable to be confusion between 
" en ' low A without any and with an E grace-note, and in some few cases it 
is impossible to say definitely which is meant : on the other hand it is used 
in the siubhal variation, and there can be no doubt in such a context : 
hinen by itself is unambiguous, and in various combinations, e.g., hiaendre, 
it is highly probable that no E grace-note is intended. The question of the 
eo and o, B or C, is a little more difficult in theory, but in practice it will 
be found to narrow down to one or two instances ; the most common instance 
of this ambiguity is odro, which may be either B grip C, or C grip C. It 
seems likely that this confusion is the origin of this difference in existing 
settings of various tunes, e.g., An Daorach Mhor (The Big Spree) Var. 1st 
and doubling, The Battle of Auldearn, The Carles of Sligachin and many 
others. Campbell often writes ' ho ' for ' o,' obviously not intending a G 
grace-note, but to avoid this ambiguity. 

Time signature and rhythm are, I think, sufficiently shown to enable a 



CHA TILL MACCRUIMEIN 187 

trained player to find no difficulty in playing ; bar divisions are indicated 
by commas, and each part of each tune is divided into lines numbered 
1st, 2nd, etc. : and a repeat is written at the end of the line to be repeated, 
thus : Two times or twice over. ' 3 times,' etc., is often used in the MS. 
to refer back only to the last comma, not to the beginning of the line. The 
smaller details of time, which I will call " pointing," is a matter of greater 
doubt. I have said above why I think Gaelic standards should be applied 
to the pronunciation of the vocables, and my opinion is that the same applies 
to this question in general terms : it can be said that as a rule the vocables 
are separated into distinct words, the accent or stress (and in this case the 
longer note) being represented as the first syllable of the word (an almost 
invariable rule in Gaelic). Thus one gets hodarid hiodarid — not daridho 
daridhio darid. Many exceptions can be pointed out no doubt, but the 
above will serve as a broad rule. 

It should be made clear to any reader of this paper that it has been written 
in haste. Most of it is written from memory after four and three-quarter years 
separation from MSS., books and notes, and I have no doubt that mistakes 
will be discovered later. Further, it does not profess to be complete, for there 
are some vocables not included, the meaning of which is not yet clear to me. 

The two volumes of the MS. contain 169 tunes of which I can trace in 
no other collection, printed or MS., 65 tunes : moreover, many tunes which 
exist already in printed collections are written in entirely different settings, 
and under different names from those known by present day players. To 
illustrate this I have included at the end of this paper the MS. style of 
An Ceapadh Eucorach (translated as the "Unjust Incarceration"). This 
setting, apart from smaller differences, contains one line in each part which, 
so far as my knowledge goes, is unknown to-day, and which in my opinion 
is an essential part of the theme, leading the 3rd line up to the musical 
climax of the ordinarily accepted 4th line. 1 The names of the tunes as 
written in the Index or as headings in the MS. present a very difficult pro- 
blem. Some are in English ; some are in recognisable Gaelic ; some are 

1 Since this was written I have discovered this line in staff notation in an old MS. by Donald 
Macdonald, son of the man who published the Collection of Piobaireachd in the early nineteenth century. 



i88 THE PIPES OF WAR 

in unrecognisable Gaelic, some give the first few notes of the tune, and some 
are ludicrous mistranslations of Gaelic into English. Only approximately 
42 out of the total have anything like the names by which the tunes are 
known to-day. 

It is to be hoped that some day soon the whole MS. will be printed, 
so that enthusiasts who have the time may really get to work and unravel 
some of the conundrums which still remain so. I have a feeling that the 
vocables used in so many Gaelic songs are distantly related to canntaireachd, 
and research into this might conceivably throw light on the larger question 
of the origin of canntaireachd. It would also be interesting to know of any 
examples of similar notations in foreign countries. But the main thing 
to be done by all pipers at the present day is to make real attempts to 
discover other canntaireachd manuscripts : and the ideal should be that 
all MSS. now known to exist or discovered at a later date should be made 
available for comparison and information of other players ; this is best 
done by publication in as near the original form as possible, and failing that 
by loan or gift to some responsible piping society, such as the Scottish 
Pipers Society, The Piobaireachd Society, the Caledonian Pipers Society, 
London, The Inverness Pipers Society, The Highland Pipers Society, Edin- 
burgh, or any other well-known society. This would ensure that the informa- 
tion would get into the hands of those who can most easily disseminate it. 

AN CEAPADH EUCORACH 

(From the Campbell MS. vol. i. p. 1.) 

1st called Kcpper Eggarich. 

Hiharin hioen 1 , hodrooen, himen hoen, hiotroenem, hihodrooen, hio- 

troenem hihodroen hioem hiharinen 

2nd Hiharin hioen hodrooen, himotrao hoen, hiotroenem, hihodrooen 

hiotroenem, hihodroen, hioem hiharinen 
3rd Hihodrotra, cheredea hoen, hadrea hoen, hihorodoenem, hihodrotra, 
cherededea 2 hihodroen hioem, hiharinen 

1 The commas are thrown about haphazard in this tune. a Something is omitted here — probably ' a. ' 



AN CEAPADH EUCORACH 189 

4th Hihararache, hivedareve 1 cheho, haem, barivecheho, hiharara 2 hohic, 
hihodrotraem, barivedarevechea, 1 hihodroen, hioem, hiharinen 

5th Chedari Ie, hiririeha diliedrehia, cheredeaho himbarihia, cheho, hadre 
himbaria, chedaria, hioem hiharinen. 

The First Motion 
1st Hinen hinen hioen, hoen, hoen, hinen, himen, hinen, hoen, hioen, hioen, 

liimen, hoen hoen hinen hioen, hioen, himen hoen hoen hioem, hinen 

hinen hinen 
2nd Hinen hinen hioen hihoen 3 hoen hinen himen haen hoen, hioen hioen, 

himen hoen hoen hinen hioen hioen himen hoen hoen hioem, hinen 

three times. 
3rd Hoen hoen haem, chehin chehin, hoen haem, chehin hoen hioen hioen, 

himen hoen hoen haem, chehin chehin chehin hoen hoen hioem, 

hinen three times. 
4th Haen haem, chehin hien Men chehin haem hien chehin haen haen hioem, 

hoen hoen haem hien hien chehin hoen hoen hioem, hinen three times. 
5th Chehin hien, dilien hien Men, haen dilien, chehin hien, chehin chehin, 

hoen hien hien, chehin haem, chehin hien, chehin hien, hioem, hinen 

three times. 

The 2nd Motion, called Tolive 

1st Hindarid Mndarid hiodarid hodarid hodarid Mndarid himdarid hindarid 
hodarid hiodarid hiodarid Mmdarid hodarid hodarid hindarid hiodarid 
hiodarid himdarid hodarid hodarid Modarem, hindarid three times. 

2nd Hindarid hindarid hiodarid hodarid hodarid hindarid himdarid hadarid 
hodarid hiodarid hiodarid himdarid hodarid hodarid hindarid hiodarid 
Modarid Mmdarid hodarid hodarid Modarem hindarid three times. 

1 It is not easy to see what ' vedare ' means here : comparing it with same point in First, Second 

and Third Motions, it should probably be ' dari ' instead of vedare or ' vedari ' perhaps. As 
written in D. Macdonald, Jr's. MS. it would be 'dari.' 

2 ' h ' is probably inserted here to show that C and not B is meant. 

3 Perhaps this cadence is a clerical error. 



igo THE PIPES OF WAR 

3rd Hodarid hodarid hadarem, chedarid chedarid, hodarid hadarem, ched- 
arid hodarid, hiodarid hiodarid, himdarid hodarid hodarid, hadarem, 
chedarid three times, hodarid hodarid, hiodarem hindarid three times. 

4th Hadarid hadarem, chedarid hidarid hidarid chedarid hadarem hidarid, 
chedarid hadarid hadarid hiodarem, hodarid hodarid hadarem 
hidarid hidarid chedarid hodarid hodarid hiodarem, hindarid three 
times. 

5th Chedarid hidarid Idarid hidarid hidarid hadarid Idarid chedarid hidarid 
chedarid chedarid hodarid hidarid hidarid chedarid hadrem, 1 chedarid 
hidarid chedarid hidarid hiodarem, hindarid three times. 

Part yr&, Crolive 

1st Hinbandre hinbandre, hiobandre hobandre hobandre hinbandre him- 
bandre hinbandre hobandre hiobandre hiobandre himbandre hobandre 
hobandre hinbandre hiobandre hiobandre himbandre hobandre ho- 
bandre hiobaemdre hinbandre hinbandre hinbandre hinbandre. 

2nd Hinbandre hinbandre hiobandre hobandre hobandre hinbandre him- 
bandre habandre hobandre hiobandre hiobandre himbandre hobandre 
hobandre hinbandre hiobandre hiobandre himbandre hobandre 
hobandre hiobaemdre, hinbandre hinbandre hinbandre. 

3rd Hobandre hobandre habamdre chebandre chebandre hobandre habamdre 
chebandre hobandre hiobandre hiobandre himbandre hobandre 
hobandre habaemdre, chebandre three times, hobandre hobandre 
hiobamdre hinbandre hinbandre hinbandre. 

4th Habandre habaemdre chebandre hibandre hibandre chebandre ha- 
baemdre hibandre chebandre habandre habandre hiobaemdre hobandre 
hobandre habaemdre hibandre hibandre chebandre hobandre ho- 
bandre hiobaemdre, hinbandre three times. 

5th Chebandre hibandre Ibandre hibandre hibandre habandre Ibandre 
chebandre hibandre chebandre chebandre hobandre hibandre hi- 
bandre chebandre habaemdre chebandre liibandre chebandre hibandre 
hiobaemdre hinbandre three times. 

1 Probably a clerical error for hadarem. 



THE IRISH PIPES: 

THEIR HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT, AND DIVERGENCE FROM THE 
SIMPLE HIGHLAND TYPE 

By W. H. Grattan Flood, Mus.D., K.S.G. 
There is ample evidence that the bagpipe was used in pre-Christian Ireland, 
whence it was brought to Scotland. It is referred to in the Brehon Laws 
of the fifth century. Irish writers allude to it as Cuisle and as Piob mor — 
and this is the warlike instrument which was adopted by our Scottish 
brethren and became the national instrument of Scotland. 

During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Irish pipers accompanied 
the Irish troops that fought in Gascony and Flanders under King Edward I. 
Strange, too, that Irish pipers were heard, in opposition to the Scots, at the 
battle of Falkirk (July 22, 1298), and it is surmised that the strident tones 
of the Irish piob mor suggested to the Scotch the employment of this warlike 
instrument in battle. At Crecy (August 26, 1346) the Irish pipes were also 
in evidence, and again at Harfleur (1418) and at Rouen (1419). Incidentally, 
it may be stated that there is no sound historical evidence for the Scotch 
bagpipes in battle at Harlaw (1411), but it would appear that they were 
employed at the battle of Inverlochy (1431). Irish pipers were heard to 
advantage in Henry VIII. 's Toumay campaign (1513) and also at the 
siege of Boulogne (1544). This association of Irish pipers leading the charge 
is strikingly pourtrayed in the Mask of Irishmen played before Queen Mary 
at the English Court, on April 25, 1557, in which there were six Irish Kerne 
and two Bagpipers. 

Here is Stanihurst's description of the Irish piob mor, in 1575 : " The 
Irish, likewise, instead of the trumpet, make use of a wooden pipe of the 



i 9 2 THE PIPES OF WAR 

most ingenious structure, to which is joined a leather bag, very closely 
bound with bands. A pipe is inserted in the side of this skin.through which 
the piper, with his swollen neck and puffed-up cheeks, blows in the same man- 
ner as we do through a tube. The skin, being thus filled with air, begins to 
swell, and the player presses against it with his arm ; thus a loud and shrill 
sound is produced through two wooden pipes of different lengths. In 
addition to these, there is yet a fourth pipe (the chanter), perforated in 
different places (having five or six holes), which the player so regulates by 
the dexterity of his fingers in the shutting and opening of the holes, that 
he can cause the upper pipes to send forth either a loud or a low sound at 
pleasure." 

A few years after Stanihurst presented this description of the Irish 
piob mor, a new development of this instrument came into vogue, that is, 
about the year 1580, and almost immediately came into favour. This 
development was the Irish Uilleann (elbow) pipes, or domestic pipes, in 
which the wind was supplied by a bag blown by the elbow. Shakespearian 
commentators have been puzzled over the term "woollen " pipes in the 
Merchant of Venice (Act iv. Sc. 1) ; but the great bard of Avon, who derived 
much information regarding Ireland from Stanihurst and Dowland (if 
he did not actually visit Ireland at the close of the sixteenth century), used 
the Irish term Uilleann, equating it with " woollen " — a corruption which 
subsequently blossomed forth as "Union pipes." All during the seven- 
teenth century the Uilleann pipes became immensely popular, and were 
used as an accompaniment for dancing, especially the Rinnce Fada (The 
Long Dance), the qualifying word Fada becoming Anglicised as "the 
Fading," also alluded to by Shakespeare {Winter's Tale, Act iv. Sc. 3). 
Subsequently keys or regulators were added, a feature that we also find in 
the Surdelina, or Neapolitan bagpipe, in 1625, as described by Pere Mersenne. 
It is of interest to note that the great English composer, William Byrd, 
circd 1590, wrote a piece of programme music called " Mr. Byrd's Battle," 
in which there are three movements ; the Irish March, the Bagpipe, and 
the Drone. Thus the Irish bagpipe furnished the musical form known as 
" pedal point " or " drone bass." 



THE IRISH PIPES 193 

When the Regiment of Irish Guards was formed in 1662, provision 
was made for a drum major, twenty-four drummers, and a piper to the 
King's Company. At the siege of Derry in 1689, the Jacobite regiments 
had each fourteen pipers and eighty-six drums. 

Further improvements in the Uilleann pipes were effected between the 
years 1700 and 1720, and, inconsequence, they were taken up by musical 
amateurs or "gentlemen pipers," of whom Larry Grogan, Parson Sterling, 
and Walter Jackson were famous. 

The Irish piob mor was heard at the battle of Fontenoy (May n, 1745), 
on which occasion the pipers played " St. Patrick's Day in the Morning," 
and " The White Cockade " — two characteristic Irish airs. Irish pipers 
were also heard during the American War of Independence, and, in 1778, 
Barney Thompson, from Hillsborough, Co. Down, was pipe major of Lord 
Rawdon's " Volunteers of Ireland," which corps merged into the 100th 
Regiment in 1780. 

The revival of the Irish bagpipes in Irish regiments is due to Major 
Doyle, in September, 1793. A few months previously, on May 23, his brother, 
Colonel Doyle, in command of the 14th Regiment, found the fortunes of the 
day at the siege of Famara going against the British troops, when, by a 
happy inspiration, he ordered his band to play up the French revolutionary 
march of " £a Ira," and shouted to his troops: "Come on, boys, and 
we'll beat 'em to their own damned tune." As a result, Doyle's regiment 
successfully routed the French, to the strains of " £a Ira," which has ever 
since been the quick-step of the West Yorkshire Regiment (the old 14th). 
The Colonel wrote to his brother the Major, who was M.P. for Mullingar 
telling him of the advantage of a good band, and, as at that very time 
(August) Major Doyle had been commissioned by King George III. to form 
a new Irish regiment, originally called " Major Doyle's Legion," the Major 
recruited a gallant body of his countrymen, known as " The Prince of Wales' 
Royal Irish Regiment " — with a band of Irish pipers. 

Not long afterwards, in October 1793, Colonel de Burgh (brother of the 
Marquis of Clanrickarde) formed the " Royal Connaught Rangers," with 
a fine band of pipers and drummers. The Wexford Regiment (the 38th), 



i 9 4 THE PIPES OF WAR 

commanded by Lord Loftus, had also a pipe band ere the close of the year 
1794 or early in 1795. Several years later there were pipers attached to 
the Tyrones (4th Inniskilling Fusiliers). 

However, after the year 1815, the vogue of a pipe band in Irish regiments 
waned, and it was not till 1903 that the Queen's County Militia — the 4th 
Battalion of the P.O.W. Leinster Regiment — again took up the war pipes, 
thanks to the enthusiasm and generosity of their commander, Lieut .-Col. 
Lord Castletown, K.P. 

To the Tyrone Fusiliers, a link battalion of the 27th Royal Inniskilling 
Fusiliers, is due the revival of the Irish Piob mor in 1859. Some years 
later, Colonel Cox, commanding the 87th Royal Irish Fusiliers, supplied 
eight sets of war pipes, as well as two drums, to eight Irish pipers in his 
regiment. More recently, the 4th Battalion of the Leinster Regiment 
(late Queen's County Militia) formed a pipe band under the direction of 
their gallant Colonel, my dear friend, Lord Castletown of Upper Ossory, 
K.P., who presented the pipes, in 1903. Since then all five battalions of this 
regiment have pipe bands, mainly through the enthusiastic zeal of Captain 
Orpen Palmer who published an excellent little book for the war pipes in 
1913. Other Irish regiments having pipe bands are the 2nd Battalion of 
the Dublin Fusiliers and the 3rd Battalion of the 18th Royal Irish. 

In conclusion it may be briefly said that the Irish war pipe of to-day is 
the same as the Scottish or Highland war pipe. On the other hand, the 
Irish Uilleann pipes may be regarded as a miniature organ. The old war 
pipe is only capable of eight notes with certain limitations, whereas the 
Uilleann pipes are of two full octaves, including chromatic intervals, and are 
thus capable of performing most classes of music, added to which the four 
keys of the regulator on the chanter make for a wonderful effect. 



THE TUITION OF YOUNG REGIMENTAL PIPERS 

By John Grant, Pipe Major 

There is an establishment for the training of bandsmen at Kneller Hall, 
Twickenham, known as " The Royal Military School of Music," where 
regular soldiers are trained in a very efficient manner both in theory and 
practice, for brass bands. Each pupil remains for a considerable period, 
extending from one to three years, and not only do they become good per- 
formers on the various instruments, but they qualify for the rank of band- 
master in any regiment. A bandmaster holds the rank of a warrant officer, 
and, in some cases, a commissioned officer. 

Some months ago a colonial soldier asked the question in a Highland 
newspaper why the pipe major in a Highland regiment did not also hold the 
rank of a warrant officer. In fact pipe major is only an honorary rank. 
In reality he is only " sergeant piper." It would be very interesting to know 
the difference between the person in charge of the one band and the other. 
When the regiment is on the march the one band leads the men as well as 
the other. In fact many prefer a pipe band to a brass band on a long route 
march. In a pipe band the pipe major has to train his pipers efficiently 
in the performance of their music just the same as the bandmaster of a 
brass band, and why should a pipe major not be raised to the rank of a 
warrant officer along with his brother bandmaster ? True it is that in 
a brass band there are many instruments for the bandmaster to teach 
and bring in in their proper places, in order to have a perfect band. But 
then the pipe major has the same task in front of him in training a perfect 
pipe band. In fact — if I may be allowed the analogy — in the case of a brass 
band a bandmaster might have many glaring errors and flaws in instrumenta- 

195 



196 THE PIPES OF WAR 

tion and harmony in his band, and this is passed over by the average listener 
but detected by the expert conductor. The brass band, from its construc- 
tion, has more scope for covering errors than the pipe band. 

The regimental pipe band is so constructed that each performer must play 
in perfect unison, with pipes all timed in unison, and every finger should be 
lifted and laid down together, a thing which is much more difficult to do 
than is the case with a brass band. The errors in a badly trained pipe band 
are much more easily detected where every performer has to play in perfect 
unison, than the errors in a brass band, where different instruments take 
different parts. 

The next important point is the bandmaster has been properly trained 
in his profession at the " Royal Military School of Music," Kneller Hall, 
but the pipe major in a pipe band has not had this coveted opportunity. 
There is no school where pipe music is taught in theory and practice, and 
that may be one of the chief reasons why the pipe major falls short of the 
trained bandmaster. If a military school of piping were instituted by the 
War Office, such an institution would supply a long felt want. The piper 
could then be educated in piping, to understand music in theory, and be 
instructed in practice on a sound basis and fixed system. 

Few pipers in pipe bands, if any, are trained at the proper age, i.e., 
12-14-16 years, except in industrial schools, where they are in many cases 
improperly taught. When the boy is young his fingers will do anything 
because they are very supple, but at the age of twenty they become stiff 
and set against perfect manipulation. At this age theory is picked up in a 
masterly fashion, and the pupil is unconscious of difficulties in fingering, 
which simplifies everything in the process of his training. 

At no period in the history of our nation was there greater need for a 
military school of piping than at the present moment. There are hundreds 
of young pipers required to fill the places of those who have fallen in action. 
As can be seen from the record contained in this volume many pipe bands 
have suffered most heavily. In fact some have been entirely wiped out. 

From experience of class-work in piping it has been proved that the 
training of young pipers at the age of fourteen to sixteen years under a 



TUITION OF YOUNG PIPERS 197 

fixed system is an ideal method of creating good performers. Boys who have 
never had a finger on the chanter before, are started in classes of from 
eight to ten in number. This prevents them from making an improper use 
of the chanter or creating bad fingering which, if allowed to go too far, 
can never be got out of. Each pupil should be provided with a properly 
made chanter, and all the chanters in the class should be of the same make 
and correctly tuned, so that, while at practice in class-work, they are all in 
perfect unison. If one or two improperly made and badly tuned chanters 
are used in a class, this is the cause of two great evils. The performer's ear 
becomes less sensitive to the notes in proper pitch ; and it discourages the 
training of a pupil to detect improper sounds and slovenly fingering. If 
there are two or three chanters out of tune in a class of ten they prevent 
the instructor from detecting errors in fingering. 

The use of a properly tuned chanter tends to cultivate a good ear, whereas 
if the ear is used to improper sounds it loses its power of detecting the 
difference between what is real and that which is false. 

In class-work it is hardly possible to get ten pupils with equal powers 
of picking up tunes and correct fingering. The ear may be compared to 
a machine which records musical compositions and sounds. In this respect 
the perfect machine has already been found. The phonograph will record 
and reproduce a tune in perfect form, but then it is only a reproduction, 
whereas the musician has life and power to create new and original tunes. 

Take the human ear. Where it is perfect it will record a tune with the 
same accuracy as the machine ; but, where the ear is defective, it will only 
take in what it is capable of. In cases where there is only a slight defect 
in ear, and where a pupil is somewhat slow at fingering, care must be taken 
that the slow pupil is brought up in line with the smart pupil. This makes 
the results in class-work equal. Many instructors of piping fail 
because they overlook slovenly fingering. Each pupil must be made 
to finger exactly. The slovenly player spoils the class and every band 
into which he may go, so that, if a class is to be properly taught, each pupil 
must come to know his class mate as a musician as well as a companion. 
Each performer in a pipe band must form part of a machine, as it were, 



198 THE PIPES OF WAR 

which acts systematically as a clock, in order to give good results and render 
a tune like one man. A properly trained class with a sufficiently long peiiod 
of training will, in time, finger together in a manner which is most surprising 
as regards regularity. 

As an example of irregularity in fingering, take for instance — one pupil 
is playing in perfect time, one graces his note a little too soon and another 
a little too late. This gives three different renderings as regards time, and 
how could they become pleasing to the ear or ever attain regularity in time 
or fingering ? 

" Patience is a virtue," and an instructor of piping must be imbued 
with that qualification. Without patience there can be no climax, no per- 
fection, and no goal to aim at. One may compel a person to do work even 
by punishment, but to compel a pupil to play the pipes would be hopeless. 
If a pupil has to be forced to play an instrument against his will, the music 
will be anything but pleasing to the listener's ear. Then it will lack ex- 
pression, the most important and wonderful thing in all musical perform- 
ances. To be successful as an instructor of piping one must first win the 
hearts of his pupils, so that they will like and respect him ; speak firmly 
but kindly to them ; enforce strict discipline and good behaviour ; and con- 
duct his school just the same as all well-governed establishments of educa- 
tion. One hour's instruction should be given at a time, and this should 
be given by the instructor of the school himself. Although boys are boys, 
they are sensitive to insult and degradation, and they will not accept tuition 
from another boy, even although he is a good performer. It has been found 
to be the case that intelligent pupils must have instruction from the proper 
source, and, when one boy teaches another, their time is wasted and they 
drift into slovenly and careless fingering. This constitutes a reason for 
strict supervision on the part of an instructor himself in a school of piping, 
so that the best results may be attained and good order and obedience 
maintained. 

In bagpipe music, theory is entirely neglected. The average piper is 
able to read the names of the notes : GABCDEFG and A, and he 
plays from them and pays little attention to their value. They may be all 



TUITION OF YOUNG PIPERS 199 

crotchets, quavers or semi-quavers, for all he cares. In almost every case 
the piper has already heard the tune played on the chanter, and the relative 
value of the notes mean nothing to him. Then, one hears illegal syncopa- 
tion, e.g., the taking of the value from the lengthened note and giving it to 
the next one, which should be the shortest note in the beat, especially in 
six-eight time. Then, in writing down an original tune without a knowledge 
of the theory of music, the average piper is of no use. 

Boys should be started on the chanter at fourteen to sixteen years of 
age, and given a period of chanter practice of from six to nine months ; 
at the same time it is necessary to see that, from the very start, they are able 
to read music at sight. Then, towards the end of nine months tuition in 
practice, theory should be taught ; then they make more progress than 
they would at the very beginning of their training. Theory enables the 
piper to put expression into his playing, and, in his turn, he can in time 
take his place as a qualified instructor of piping. 

One thing of great importance in piping and the training of young pipers 
is the rate of speed at which they play. The regimental regulation pace 
is 120 paces to the minute. This may be all very well with a brass band, 
where the performer with his 120 paces to the minute has a curtailed, nipped, 
or broken step, but in pipe music it is far different. Any one who has a 
knowledge of the Highland bagpipe and its music knows that piping at the 
rate of 120 paces to the minute is not pipe music at all. The great majority 
of marches for the pipes are written in two-four and six-eight time. 
Two-four time has a crotchet beat and six-eight has a dotted crotchet beat. 
The beat in six-eight being a dotted crotchet is of longer duration than the 
two-four or crochet beat. When both are played at 120 paces to the minute 
they are more or less equalized and spoiled. Time must be given to the beat 
note in six-eight to distinguish it from the two-four beat ; hence, 100 to 105 
paces to the minute in two-four time is good marching, and 90 to 95 paces 
to the minute in six-eight time gives the proper swinging pace which the 
men in a Highland regiment like. To adopt such a suggestion would give 
time and expression to pipe music, differentiate the pace in one time signa- 
ture from another, and, above all, would tend to give more time for correct 



200 THE PIPES OF WAR 

fingering and clear, distinct playing. A young piper who has only been 
playing the bagpipes for about six months is very often spoiled for life as a 
performer when he begins, at that stage, to play at 120 paces to the minute. 
He is unable to get the fingering in in time. What he cannot find time 
to finger is left out altogether, and then, worst of all, he becomes a slovenly 
and incorrect performer. 

The teaching of piping has always been placed on an unequal footing as 
compared with brass bands in His Majesty's forces, and one wonders how long 
it is to be allowed to remain so. It is absolutely certain that a Military 
School of Piping would be a blessing to regimental pipe bands, and the 
standard of performance could be raised to the highest point of perfection. 
In times of peace many people single out the brass band as the apple of their 
eye in the garden of music, so to speak, but let us Higlanders mark time and 
see what the great Highland bagpipe has done in war. 

Many pipers have gone over the parapet playing the bagpipes and have 
won laurels which can never be forgotten. Hundreds of pipers have fallen 
in the great war to sleep their last sleep in the graves of heroes, after sounding 
the triumphant charge. The bagpipe has lived in war in its majestic power 
and splendour, and in peace it should not be allowed to die. 

In war there is, to our Highland regiments, no music like that of the 
great Highland bagpipe. Its notes inspire the men to victory, and the 
glory of the results of the music of the Piob Mhor with its fluttering pennons 
has left a landmark in the history of the world's war. 

The great Highland bagpipe is the hallmark of a race whose achievements 
are second to none in the world. It has been played in every great battlefield 
in the history of our nation, and the heroic deeds done by Highland regiments 
inspired by its music deserve to be perpetuated in a lasting memorial. 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 

By Fred T. Macleod, F.S.A. (Scot.) 

It was the year 1626, a memorable year in the history of the Western 
Isles of Scotland, and singularly eventful in the history of Skye and of the 
Dunvegan family. Sir Rory Mor MacLeod, warrior and statesman, patron of 
Art, of Music and of Letters, and dispenser of lavish hospitality to rich 
and poor alike, had died in the Chanonry of Ross an event " greatly deplored 
among the Gael at that time." The ancient sea-gate of Dunvegan Castle 
was opened, and into a waiting boat stepped Patrick Mor MacCrimmon, 
the dead chief's hereditary piper, the representative of a line of pipers 
almost as long as the line of MacLeod chiefs. Swiftly, yet silently, the 
piper was rowed across Loch Dunvegan to Boreraig. MacCrimmon stepped 
ashore and took from his servant the instrument which had on many occasions 
cheered his beloved master. His heart could no longer contain its pent-up 
emotion, and his frame shook with a violent outburst of grief. Then, with 
head erect and firm step, he walked the remaining distance to the renowned 
College of Pipers, the home of his family for many generations. The fingers 
of a master player lingered for a moment lovingly on the chanter. In 
swift succession there fell upon the ears of his pupils, themselves no mean 
players of ancient piobaireachd, the arresting, appealing, plaintive notes of 
" Cumha Ruaridh Mhoir," " Lament to Rory Mor." 

To-day, cattle browse upon the site of the MacCrimmon College, within 
whose walls instruction on the Piob mhor had been given by members of the 
MacCrimmon family to countless students from all parts. Thither too had 
come the best pipers of Scotland to receive the finishing touches to a piping 
education well-nigh perfect in itself, including representatives of the three 



202 THE PIPES OF WAR 

well-known piping families, MacArthur, Mackay and Campbell. The musi 
of the pipes is now seldom, if ever, heard on the plateau upon which in 
former days many pipers were wont to assemble. Sassenach inhibitory 
legislation followed by the unsympathetic action of the Highland clergy 
combined in an attempt to stifle for ever the majestic notes of ancient piob- 
aireachd, and the free, independent, social temperament of the Children of 
the Island. But, while the grass grows green on the spot where the college 
stood, the memory of these master musicians is enshrined in the ancient tra- 
ditions of the island, in the MacCrimmon compositions preserved and played 
to-day, and in the names of places in the vicinity of the MacCrimmon home- 
land. The ancient castle, dating from the ninth century, is occupied to-day 
by Norman Magnus MacLeod, the 23rd chief of his line, as it has been con- 
tinuously occupied by his forefathers, and among the relics carefully pre- 
served is an ancient set of MacCrimmon pipes. One can still enjoy the shelter 
of " Slochd nam Piobairean " 1 and he who desires to do so can honour the 
dust of several members of the MacCrimmon family in the little burying- 
ground at Kilmuir, overlooking Dunvegan Loch. Nay more, one may con- 
verse with living descendants of the family within a stone's throw of 
the home of their forefathers. The fame of the MacCrimmons will never 
die so long as these features or the memory of them remains, and, when these 
are no longer remembered, the honour due to these Kings of Pipers will be 
enshrined in the music they have left behind them. 

It is impossible in this article to do more than touch the fringe of an 
almost illimitable subject. There are many controversial points into which 
it is not desirable to enter, e.g., the origin of the family name, the exact 
period during which the MacCrimmons held their hereditary office, and the 
" Cainntaireachd " invented and used by them. The old papers in the 
castle are singularly silent in regard to the history of men so closely allied 
with the fortunes of the Dunvegan family. The only two documents among 
these papers, so far as I am aware, winch bear upon the subject, are a lease 
of the lands of Galtrigal in Skye to the MacCrimmons in virtue of their 
hereditary office, and a rent-roll of the latter years of the eighteenth century, 
1 " The pipers' hollow." 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 203 

which contains entries of payments made by MacLeod tenants, in the form 
of a tax to assist a member of the MacCrimmon family in his declining 
years. But while contemporary documentary evidence is practically un- 
available, tradition has preserved a great deal of interesting information. 
While it may not be advisable to accept as accurate many oral traditions 
of a country, we are entitled to rely to a considerable extent upon, and to 
accept as generally trustworthy, Highland oral tradition, which every 
student of Highland history knows was the common mode of preserving 
what otherwise would have been long ago irretrievably lost. The office 
of " Seanachaidh " 1 was recognized and honoured in leading Highland 
families and, subject to the legitimate criticism that a Seanachaidh was 
apt unduly to extol the virtues of those whose praises he sang and to decry 
the virtues of rival families, we are entitled to draw upon this source of 
information. 

The first published account of the family known to me is Angus Mac- 
Kay's collection of Ancient Piobaireachd, or Highland Pipe Music, published 
in 1838, which forms the basis of most, if not all, the subsequent published 
references to the family. Dr. Norman MacLeod's account (in Gaelic) of the 
MacCrimmons must also be mentioned, and of more modern date Dr. Fraser's 
interesting book on the Highland Bagpipe. The Rev. Archibald Clerk 
contributed an article worthy of notice in the New Statistical Account of 
Scotland, and Fionn's Martial Music of the Gael contains some interesting 
notes. 

I regard, however, as the most authoritative contribution a series of 
Gaelic articles contributed to the Celtic Monthly by the Rev. Neil Ross of 
Buccleuch Parish Church, Edinburgh. Mr. Ross is one of our ablest Gaelic 
scholars, and, having been born and brought up in the heart of the Mac- 
Crimmon country, he has had the peculiar advantage of obtaining the 
local traditions of the family at first hand, from old people practically aU 
of whom have passed away. 

I am inclined to place the commencement of the MacCrimmon era 
so far as their relationship with the Macleods of Dunvegan is concerned, 
1 Keeper of family records, genealogist. 



2o 4 THE PIPES OF WAR 

approximately as 1500, and the termination thereof as 1822. My reasons 
for doing so are first that we find that in 1651 one of the family was publicly 
acknowledged as the King of Pipers. In the old chronicle detailing this 
incident the name of the piper upon whom this honour was bestowed is 
given as John Macgurmen (MacCrimmon) which I believe to be a mistake 
for Patrick MacCrimmon, he who composed the well-known port, " I gave 
a kiss to the hand of the King." If the old adage is true that 
it took seven years of a man's life and seven generations of pipers before 
him to make a perfect piper, the date 1500 is by no means too remote. 
Further, the traditional list of MacCrimmon pipers who held their hereditary 
office is sufficiently long to bridge that period. Dr. MacLeod enumerates 
seven successive members of the family, whereas Mr. Ross furnishes us 
with twelve names inclusive of those mentioned by Dr. MacLeod. The 
following is Mr. Ross' list : 

Finlay of the Breacan. Patrick Og. 

Iain Odhar. Donald Ban. 

Patrick Caogach. Angus Og. 

Patrick Donn. Malcolm. 

Donald Mor. Iain Dubh. 

Patrick Mor. Patrick Mor. 

It is outwith the scope of this article to deal with the MacCrimmon 
genealogy, or to discuss in detail the different members of the family. In- 
teresting notes might be furnished concerning most of the men whose names 
are enumerated above, and it might not be difficult for a skilled player 
of pibroch, by a careful analysis of the MacCrimmon compositions, to assign 
many of the extant compositions to the appropriate composers. I prefer 
to gather together from the available sources known to me a few incidents 
in the lives of three outstanding members of the family, Donald M6r, Patrick 
Mor and Donald Ban. 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 205 

DONALD MOR MACCRIMMON 

We shall probably not be very far wrong if we regard the period during 
which this piper lived as that embracing the concluding years of the six- 
teenth century and the early years of the seventeenth. I realise that, in 
so placing him, I lay myself open to the criticism that I post-date the period 
of Patrick Mor's activities. Patrick Mor is regarded as the son of Donald 
Mor, and it is probable that both father and son were in the service of Sir 
Rory Mor. It is stated that, being a special favourite of his chief, Donald 
was sent to Ireland to complete his musical education. There can be little 
doubt that as Ireland was the early home of Celtic letters so she was the 
early home of musical culture, and that the high degree of efficiency at- 
tained by the MacCrimmons was, at least in part, due to the finishing touches 
obtained by them in the sister island. We learn that Donald Mor played 
before many of the nobility and gentry of the country and greatly distin- 
guished himself. Mr. Ross has an interesting note that Donald accompanied 
his chief to Ireland in the reign of James VI., on the occasions when Mac- 
Leod led his clan in battle, and that about that time Donald composed 
" The Lament to the Earl of Antrim." Among the compositions attributed 
to him are " The Macdonald Salute," " Welcome to Rory Mor," and " The 
Salute of the Earl of Ross." Mr. Ross, whose knowledge of pibroch entitles 
him to speak with authority, states that close analysis of Donald Mor's 
compositions reveals the fact that he frequently used the lower notes of 
the chanter, and that there is internal evidence that he possessed great 
skill in changing from the low to the high notes. 

PATRICK MOR MACCRIMMON 

It is generally agreed that Patrick succeeded Donald as hereditary piper 
to the MacLeods of Dunvegan. He is generally admitted to have been the 
most distinguished member of his race. His life was spent in the service 
of Sir Rory Mor MacLeod, who succeeded to the chiefship in 1596, and who 
died as stated in 1626. Under the protection of this powerful chief the 



206 THE PIPES OF WAR 

practice of Piobaireachd received an impetus which is bearing fruit to-day. 
The Scottish Privy Council, at a comparatively early date, struck a severe 
blow at what was regarded as the despotic power of the chiefs by limiting 
the number of the retinue each chief was entitled to gather round him. 
An important member of that retinue was the person who held the office of 
hereditary piper. In addition to the honour such an office carried, there 
were certain material advantages e.g., the freeholding of land and the right 
to certain dues and liberties which were not lightly esteemed. As indicating 
the dignified nature of the office, it may be mentioned that, included in the 
chief's retinue, was the piper's man, whose duty it was to act as servant 
to the piper and to carry his instrument for him when not in use. 

To Patrick Mor MacCrimmon is assigned the honour of having composed 
the largest number of pipe tunes. In the plaintive lament " Cumha na 
Cloinne " (Lament to the Children) he gives expression to his deep grief 
caused by the visitation of one of the most poignant afflictions known to 
man — the deaths of his children. According to Dr. MacLeod he was the 
father of eight stalwart sons. Proudly one Sabbath morning he and they 
marched to the church in their native glen. Before the close of that year 
he mourned the loss of all his sons who died in an epidemic of fever. Two 
other well-known laments, the composition of which is assigned to him, are, 
" The Lament to the only Son " and " The Lament to John Garbh MacGhille 
Chalum of Raasay," who was drowned in 1646 while crossing the Minch. 

In 1651 Patrick Mor MacCrimmon was in all probability an old man, 
but not too old to accompany the clan in support of Charles II. At this 
time MacLeod of MacLeod was a minor, and the command of the clan 
devolved upon his uncles, Norman MacLeod of Bernera and Roderick Mac- 
Leod of Talisker. According to Angus Mackay's account, both these men 
were knighted by Charles II. before the battle of Worcester in 1651 and 
on that occasion, Patrick Mor having had the honour of playing before the 
King, and his performance having greatly pleased His Majesty, Patrick 
received the further honour of being allowed to kiss the King's hand. Mac- 
kay states that the well-known port, " Fhuaireas pog o spog an Righ," was 
composed by MacCrimmon in honour of the distinction then conferred upon 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 207 

him. Various accounts of this outstanding MacCrimmon honour have been 
published, no two of which entirely agree. Dr. William Mackay of Inverness 
has frequently rendered signal service in the department of Highland 
history, and I am indebted to his labours and scholarly research for what I 
regard as a complete elucidation of the circumstances surrounding the com- 
position of this tune. Dr. Mackay edited The Chronicles of the Frasers, 
an old MS. of events embracing the period 1616-1674. There are many 
MS. histories bearing upon Highland matters, some of which have been 
fabricated, but no suggestion of falsification besmirches the reputation 
of this MS., which has been published under the auspices of The Scottish 
History Publication Society. Referring to the year 1651, the date of the 
battle of Worcester, the MS. states that at Stirling, in the month of May, 
" there was great competition betwixt the trumpets in the army ; one 
Axell, the Earle of Hoome's trumpeter, carried it by the King's own de- 
cision. The next was anent the pipers ; but the Earle of Sutherland's domes- 
tick carried it of all the camp, for non contended with him. All the pipers 
in the army gave John Macgurmen (MacCrimmon) the van, and acknowledged 
him for their patron in chief. It was pretty in a morning (the King) in 
parad viewing the regiments and bragads. He saw no less than eighty 
pipers in a crould, bare-headed, and John Macgurmen in the middle covered. 
He asked what society that was ? It was told his Majesty — ' Sir, yow 
are our King, and yonder old man in the middle is the Prince of Pipers.' 
He cald him by name and comeing to the king, kneeling, His Majesty 
reacht him his hand to kiss ; and instantly played an extemporanean port, 
' Fuoris Pooge i spoge i Rhi' — I got a kiss of the King's hand — of which 
he and they were all vain." The writer of the manuscript has made an 
attempt to render the Gaelic phonetically, and Mr. Mackay in a footnote 
gives the correct Gaelic spelling " Fhuaireas pog o spog an Righ." 



208 THE PIPES OF WAR 

DONALD BAN MACCRIMMON 

MacLeod of Dunvegan, when Prince Charles Edward made his romantic 
if impossible attempt to seize the crown of his forefathers, declined to lend 
his services to the Prince, and consequently incurred the deep displeasure 
of many of his clansmen. Had he remained simply neutral, the resentment 
which his refusal to follow the Prince aroused would have been less bitter, 
but he openly supported the reigning house. Opinions differ as to which 
of two men, Malcolm MacCrimmon and Donald Ban MacCrimmon, held 
the office of hereditary piper, but most authorities agree that Donald Ban 
performed the duties of the office when MacLeod led out his men against 
the Prince. Many of the MacLeod men refused to follow their chief, and 
preferred to follow the standard of the Prince, under the leadership of the 
heads of cadet families sprung from the Dunvegan line. MacLeod's position 
was a difficult one. Had the Prince landed in Moidart with sufficient money, 
equipment and arms, MacLeod would probably have given him all the 
support within his power. It is persistently stated that his was one of the 
signatures to the document inviting the Prince to raise his standard in 
Scotland. In these circumstances it was necessary for MacLeod, by some 
overt act, to give practical evidence to the Government of his non-adherence 
to the Stuart cause. He was in close correspondence with, and being actively 
advised by, President Forbes, who realised the importance of securing the 
services of MacLeod, thereby lessening the likelihood of the Macdonalds 
of Skye joining the Prince's forces. MacLeod gathered around him a sub- 
stantial body of men who held the lands in the vicinity of the castle, and 
led them from the castle to the shore, where boats waited to convey them 
to the mainland, and thence to the east of Scotland. 

We are constantly reminded of the romance of the Forty-Five. We too 
often forget the dark tragedies of those days. The spectre of looming 
disaster entered the home of the MacCrimmons. Donald Ban MacCrimmon 
had heard the note of the Banshee presaging a journey from which for him 
there would be no returning. He was told to inspirit the men by the rousing 
strains of " MacLeod's March," but true to his hereditary instincts he could 




THE PIBROCH 

From the Painting by Lockhart 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 209 

only play a port in harmony with the mood of the moment. In place of 
the " March " his pipes attuned themselves to that most touching of all 
laments, " Cumha Mhic Cruimein." The pages of the Brahan Seer do not 
contain any instance of second sight more circumstantially fulfilled than that 
concerning Donald Ban MacCrimmon. Contemporary history supplies us 
with the information. The scene is changed from Dunvegan Castle to 
Moy Hall, the residence of The Mackintosh, a few miles east of Inverness. 
In the absence of her husband, the wife of The Mackintosh, better known 
as " Lady Anne," kept a watchful eye, in the interests of the Prince, on the 
movements of his enemies. The Prince had accepted the hospitality of 
Moy Hall for the night. News reached " Lady Anne " that a body of men, 
under Lord Loudon, including MacLeod and his men, were to attempt to 
capture the Prince under the cover of night. " Donald Fraser, a blacksmith, 
and other four with loaded muskets in their hands were keeping watch 
upon a muir out some distance from Moy towards Inverness. As they were 
walking up and down they happened to spy a body of men marching towards 
them, upon which the blacksmith fired his piece and the other four followed 
his example. The laird of MacLeod's piper (reputed the best at his business 
in all Scotland) was shot dead on the spot. Then the blacksmith (Fraser) 
and his trusty companions raised a cry (calling some particular regiments 
by their names) to the Prince's army to advance, as if they had been at 
hand, which so far imposed upon Lord Loudon and his command (a pretty 
considerable one) and struck them with such a panic, that instantly they 
beat a retreat and made their way back to Inverness in great disorder, 
imagining the Prince's whole army to be at their heels." 

Tradition states that Donald Ban's body was buried not far from the 
spot where he received his fatal wound, and I am informed that a large stone 
on the moor marks the place of interment. 



2io THE PIPES OF WAR 

THE HOMELAND OF THE MACCRIMMONS 

Pipers throughout the world will probably welcome a short description 
of that part of Skye which will for all time be associated with the Mac- 
Crimmon family. We may safely assume that the lands of Galtrigal and 
Boreraig have undergone little physical change during the last 300 
years. Standing on a lofty plateau, the MacCrimmon practice ground, 
we find ourselves in the centre of a district possessing great natural charm 
and an unparalled sea view. Dunvegan's ancient towers are a prominent 
landmark reminiscent of bloody feuds, when Macdonald and MacLeod, 
though connected by marriage, were continually at one anothers throats. 
Johnson, Boswell, Pennant and Sir Walter Scott all testify to the hospitality 
they received within its walls. Dun Boreraig, to the east, one of many 
interesting brochson the island — silent witnesses to the strength and ingenuity 
of a past race — still keeps its sentinel watch. To the west stand out in strong 
relief the rocky cliffs of Dunvegan Head, and in the south are the marvellous 
Coolins with their ever-changing aspects. At the time when Angus Mackay's 
publication appeared in 1838, the ruins of the " college " remained in situ, 
disclosing thick walls, massive cabers or rafters, and other characteristics 
of old Highland habitations. Mackay says that the building was divided 
into two parts, one forming the class-room and the other the sleeping apart- 
ments. 

It was the practice of the MacCrimmons to enter into formal indentures 
of apprenticeship with their pupils, one of which has been published in the 
Inverness Gaelic Society's Transactions. So many years of study were pre- 
scribed, regular lessons were given out, and certain periods for receiving the 
instructions of the master were fixed. The Rev. Archibald Clerk, son-in-law 
of Dr. Norman MacLeod (Caraid nan Gaidheal), writing in 1845 states, that 
the whole tuition " was carried on systematically as in any of our modern 
academies ; and the names of some of the caves and knolls in the vicinity 
still point out the spots where the scholars used to practice respectively 
the Piob Mhor or large bagpipe, before exhibiting in presence of the master. 
MacLeod endowed this school by granting the farm of Borreraig to it, and 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 211 

it is no longer than seventy years since the endowment was withdrawn. 
The farm had originally been given only during the pleasure of the pro- 
prietor. For many ages the grant was undisturbed, but when the value of 
land had risen to six or seven times what it was when the school was founded, 
MacLeod very reasonably proposed to resume one half of the farm, offering 
at the same time to MacCrimmon a free lease of the other half in perpetuam : 
but MacCrimmon, indignant that his emoluments should be curtailed, 
resigned the whole farm and broke up his establishment, which has never 
been restored." 

Any description of the home of the MacCrimmons would be incomplete 
without referring to Clach MacCrimmon, a stone which is almost as well- 
known as the MacCrimmons themselves. Although the account of this 
matter savours of exaggeration, there can be little doubt that the incident 
is believed in firmly by the people of the district. The incident as narrated 
to me was as follows : One of the MacCrimmons was in the habit of tethering 
his horse, in accordance with the custom of the country, by a rope attached 
to a cipean driven into the ground. Some maliciously disposed persons 
removed the cipean from its place on more than one occasion, thus causing 
MacCrimmon's horse to roam and to do damage to the surrounding crops. 
In exasperation, MacCrimmon vowed that he would so fix the cipean that 
no mortal man would ever remove it again. He thereupon looked about 
for a stone sufficiently large to suit his purpose, and, observing one 
about 200 yards distant, he immediately proceeded, unaided, to lift it, 
carried it that distance and placed it upon the top of the cipean. The 
spot from which MacCrimmon removed the stone, and the spot upon which 
he placed it, were both pointed out to me. The stone is about 3 feet long 
by 2| feet broad, and 2 feet high. I endeavoured to lift the stone an inch 
or two from the ground and failed to do so. To satisfy certain south-country 
sceptics, not very long ago, several men, including Murdoch MacLeod 
(who accompanied me upon the occasion to which I have been referring), 
succeeded in removing the stone from the bed in which it had lain so long, 
and by using a wall as a lever, rolled it down a gradient of several yards 
to the spot where it at present lies. A most remarkable sequel followed. 



212 THE PIPES OF WAR 

It was stated to me, in all seriousness, that underneath the stone when 
it was removed, was found an ancient rusty cipean much worn away. Mur- 
doch Macleod stated to me that he not only saw it, but handled it. 



MACCRIMMON PUPILS 

If the genius of a master can be measured by the success of his pupils, 
then, apart from other considerations, the MacCrimmons of Boreraig must 
truly be regarded as kings among pipers. The fame of their college, long 
recognised throughout the Isles, spread to the mainland, and pupils from 
all parts of Scotland eagerly travelled long distances to avail themselves 
of the tuition the college afforded. No piper's education was regarded as 
complete until he had passed through the hands of the masters at Boreraig. 
Rival chiefs buried for a time their jealousies, and sent their pipers to the 
college on MacLeod's lands. The method usually adopted was to apprentice 
the young pipers to the MacCrimmons for a period of years, and, in the case 
of those men who had already otherwise been trained, to send them to 
Skye for a short period. In a series of articles upon the History of the Parish 
of Kiltarlity, written by the Rev. Archibald Macdonald, I find the following : 
" There is an indenture drawn up at Beaufort on 9th March, 1743, in which 
William Fraser, tacksman, Beauly, is described as his Lordship's (Simon 
Fraser, Lord Lovat) musician. The brother of this William — David Fraser 
— had been educated by David Macgregor, his Lordship's piper. His 
Lordship, however, was now to send David to the Isle of Skye to have him 
perfected as a Highland piper by the famous Malcolm MacCrimmon, whom 
his Lordship was to reward for educating the said David for a year." 

It in no sense belittles the importance of the MacArthurs, who, as a family 
of pipers, were second only in excellence to the MacCrimmons of Boreraig, 
to state that the musical education of a member of this family, Charles, was 
perfected by Patrick Og MacCrimmon. The MacArthurs were hereditary 
pipers to the MacDonalds of the Isles and, like the MacCrimmons, had a 
school for instruction in pipe music. Pennant, who visited the Hebrides 
in 1774, was hospitably entertained in this building and listened to the play- 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 213 

ing of many pibrochs. He describes the building as consisting of four 
apartments, one of which formed the hall set apart for students. Of Charles 
MacArthur the following interesting incident is told. Sir Alexander Mac- 
donald, being at Dunvegan on a visit to the laird of MacLeod, heard the 
performance of Patrick Og MacCrimmon with great delight, and desirous 
if possible to have a piper of equal merit, he said to MacCrimmon one day 
that there was a young man whom he was anxious to place under his tuition, 
on condition that he should not be allowed to return until such time as he 
could play equal to his master. " When this is the case," said MacDonald, 
" you will bring him home and I will give you ample satisfaction for your 
trouble." " Sir Alexander," said Patrick, " if you will be pleased to send 
him to me I will do all that I am able to do for him." Charles was 
accordingly sent to Boreraig where he remained for eleven years, when 
MacCrimmon, considering him as perfect as he could be made, proceeded to 
Mugstad to deliver his charge to Sir Alexander, who was then residing there, 
and, where Iain Dall Mackay, Gairloch's blind piper, happened also to be. 
Macdonald hearing of their arrival, thought it a good opportunity to 
determine the merit of his own piper by the judgment of the blind man, 
whose knowledge of pipe music was unexceptionable. He therefore enjoined 
Patrick Og and MacArthur not to speak a word to betray who they were, and, 
addressing Mackay, he told him he had a young man learning the pipes for 
some years and was glad that he was present to say whether he thought him 
worth the money which his instruction had cost. Mackay said if he heard 
him play he would give Iris opinion freely, and he requested to be informed 
previously with whom the piper had been studying. Sir Alexander told 
him he had been with Patrick Og MacCrimmon. Then Mackay 
exclaimed, " He could never have been with a better master ! " The young 
man was ordered to play, and when he was finished Sir Alexander asked 
the other for his opinion. " I think a great deal of him," replied Iain. 
" He is a good piper ; he gives the notes correctly, and if he takes care he 
will excel in his profession." Sir Alexander was pleased with so flattering 
an opinion, and observed that he had been at the trouble of sending two 
persons to the college that he might retain the best, and that now the second 



2i 4 THE PIPES OF WAR 

man would play, so that an opinion on his merits might also be given. 
Mackay observed that he must be a very excellent performer to surpass the 
first, or even to compare with him. When Patrick Og (who acted as the 
second pupil) had finished playing, Sir Alexander asked the umpire what he 
thought of his performance. " Indeed, Sir, no one need try me in that 
manner," returned the blind man. "Although I have lost the eyes of my 
human body, I have not lost the eyes of my understanding ; and if all the 
pipers in Scotland were present I would not find it a difficult task to dis- 
tinguish the last player from them all." " You surprise me, Mackay, 
who is he ? " " Who but Patrick Og MacCrimmon," promptly rejoined 
Mackay, and, turning to where Patrick was sitting, he observed, " It was 
quite needless, my good sir, to think you would deceive me in that way, 
for you could not but know that I should have recognised your performance 
among a thousand." Sir Alexander then asked Mackay himself to play, 
and afterwards he called for a bottle of whisky, drank to their healths, 
and remarked that he had that night under his roof the three best pipers 
in Britain. So much admired was Charles MacArthur for his musical taste, 
that a gentleman in MacLeod's country prevailed on Malcolm MacCrimmon 
to send his son Donald for six months to reside with MacArthur, not with 
the idea of adding to his musical knowledge, but in order that he might 
be improved by studying MacArthur's particular graces. 

About the same time one of the MacCrimmons, better known as Padruig 
Caogach (obviously not the Patrick Caogach No. 3 on Mr. Ross' list, if Mr. 
Ross' order is correct), because of his habit of frequently winking, was en- 
deavouring to compose a tune. Two years had passed since the first two meas- 
ures of it had become known, and still the tune remained half finished. Poor 
Patrick utterly failed in his frequent attempts to finish what he had begun 
so well. Mackay succeeded where Patrick failed, finished the tune and called 
it " Lasan Phadruig Chaogaich." 1 Annoyed because of Mackay's success, 
or perhaps because of the perpetuation of his physical weakness, Patrick 
bribed the other apprentices to hurl the blind Iain from a height of twenty- 
four feet. Iain, however, landed on his feet without injury. The place in 
1 " The anger of winking Patrick." 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 215 

question was thereafter known as " Leum an Doill." l It is said that the 
completion by Iain Dall of Patrick's unfinished tune resulted in great praise 
being bestowed upon the former, and gave rise to the saying, " Chaidh an 
fhoghluim osceann Mhic Cruimein," i.e., " the apprentice outstrips the 
master." 

MACCRIMMON LEGENDS 

The legends associated with the MacCrimmons are numerous and inter- 
esting, but I can only refer to one or two of them. The " Cave " legend 
is well-known, and I make no further reference to it except to say that 
variations of it are to be met with wherever piping has been practised. 

Neil Munro, whose stories of the Hebrides are redolent of peat reek 
and quaint Gaelic idioms, has used the following Breadalbane legend to 
excellent purpose in his story of the Red Hand : Ross, an old Breadalbane 
piper, in a fit of jealous rage, forced the right hand of his brother into the 
fire until it became a charred lump, to prevent him becoming a better 
piper than himself. Somewhat akin to this old tale is one concerning the 
MacCrimmons. Although proud of the state of perfection to which they 
had brought the art of piping, and while encouraging the dissemination of 
their art by returning young men to their homes from the college at 
Boreraig trained to a high degree of efficiency, they nevertheless retained 
among the members of their own family certain movements known only to 
themselves. They were rightly proud of the position they occupied, and were 
jealous lest they lost it, even though the honour were to descend upon a 
pupil of their own training. The story goes that a girl, friendly with the 
MacCrimmons, acquired the knowledge of how a certain hitherto secret 
combination of notes was accomplished and imparted the information 
to her sweetheart, who was not of the MacCrimmon family. Upon this 
fact reaching the ears of her family the drastic step was adopted of instantly 
cutting off her fingers so as to prevent possible leakage of information in 
the future. 

In the beautiful Gaelic song, said to have been composed by Donald 
1 " The blind man's leap." 



216 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Ban MacCrimmon's sweetheart at Uunvegan, one of the lines refers 
to the wailing of the fairies when they heard that their friend was 
leaving to return no more. These little people play no small part in 
Highland legends generally, and we are therefore not surprised to learn 
of the existence of the following MacCrimmon fairy legend. On one 
occasion, when Dunvegan's chief was entertaining within his hospitable 
walls a goodly company, including many representatives of the leading 
clans, accompanied by their pipers, it was agreed that the pipers 
should compete for the post of honour. MacLeod, as a good host, naturally 
left his piper to come last. The competition went on, piper succeeding 
piper, until there remained two, including MacLeod's piper, MacCrimmon, 
to compete. MacLeod glanced in the direction where he expected to see 
MacCrimmon preparing to acquit himself bravely, but to his annoyance 
there was no sign of him. Calling a boy, a young MacCrimmon, to him, 
he bade him search for and bring back MacCrimmon. In a short time the 
boy returned with the tidings that MacCrimmon was hopelessly drunk. 
The chief was plunged into the depths of despair with the certainty staring 
him in the face of being disgraced in front of his guests in his own castle. 
Seizing the boy by the hand, he whispered in his ear as the eleventh piper 
stepped forward, " You are the twelfth piper from your chief." Realizing 
the impossibility of the task imposed upon him the poor lad fled from the 
hall and threw himself down upon the hillside bitterly bewailing the help- 
lessness of his condition. Suddenly there arose out of an adjacent hillock 
a beautiful little fairy, who, doubtless realizing the importance of time, 
handed to the lad a silver chanter and bade him play upon it. He did so, 
and through the silent glen there floated music the like of which had never 
before been heard by human ears. With a radiant countenance the lad 
immediately returned to the hall and, as he entered, the last notes of the 
eleventh piper were dying away. Proudly the little fellow lifted Iris master's 
pipes, and to the surprise and merriment of the great gathering, took the 
place just vacated by the previous piper. The virtues of the silver chanter 
stood him in good stead and the looks of amusement quickly turned into 
admiration, as there came from the pipes the notes of a master player. 



THE SPIRIT OF THE MACCRIMMONS 217 

In my own youthful days I heard the following MacCrimmon story. 
On the occasion of a great competition among the pipers held at Dunvegan 
Castle, the leading MacCrimmon of the day and his nephew, to whom 
MacCrimmon had imparted his whole store of knowledge, save one parti- 
cular tune, resolved to compete. The old master had specially refrained 
from communicating this particular composition to his pupil in order that, 
while priding himself upon the accomplishments of his own pupil, he might 
yet retain one item, the knowledge and playing of which would secure for 
him the coveted honour at the coming competition. On the night before 
the great event master and pupil slept together at a certain inn. Believing 
his companion to be sleeping, the old man conned over to himself the air 
by which he hoped to distinguish himself on the morrow. The arm of the 
apparently sleeping lad was lying stretched across the bed, and the old 
piper's hands, mechanically searching for something upon which to " finger " 
the tune, seized upon his pupil's arm. Time and again the old man prac- 
tised the notes, at the same time quietly humming the notes, ignorant of the 
fact that his pupil, though feigning sleep, was very wide awake, and gradu- 
ally becoming the possessor of the coveted port. On the morrow the pupil 
entered the lists before his master, and to the mortification of the latter, 
carried off the leading honour by reason of his manner of playing the tune 
of which MacCrimmon believed himself at that time to be the sole possessor. 
******* 

Once again, I find myself in " Eilean a' cheo." Six weeks of almost con- 
stant rain, disappointing to others who are not accustomed to the vagaries 
of the weather, have not chilled the affectionate ardour which contact with 
the island and its people invariably inspires in me. The mists have ever 
hung heavy on the hills in times of deep, heart-breaking sorrow, and the 
present tempestuous weather is but in keeping with the sad aftermath of 
War. 

To-day, there came from a distant part of the Island one who served 
his country well in the late war and who was sorely wounded in that service. 
To the home of Pibroch he brought his pipes, and in the seclusion of the 
Pipers Cave in Galtrigal he played two well-known MacCrimmon ports ; 



2i8 THE PIPES OF WAR 

" Cumha Ruari Mhor," and " Tog orm mo phiob." An ardent student of 
MacCrimmon Pibroch, and a cultured exponent of their art, he came to do 
honour at their shrine. It was fitting that one of those who heard the 
haunting notes as they welled forth across the loch was Sir Rory's lineal 
descendant Macleod of Macleod. 

There are many pipers who look hopefully for the day when the 
memory of the MacCrimmons and of their immortal genius shall be enshrined 
in a College of Piping, where pupils from far and near may receive instruction 
in all that is noblest and best in the art of bag-pipe playing. 



A GOSSIP ABOUT THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 
By J. M. Bulloch 

If the Great War has reversed some preconceptions and ruthlessly rational- 
ised many traditions, it has confirmed, and actually enhanced, the fine 
fighting reputation of the ten Regiments of the Line — half of them kilted — 
which Scotland contributes to the British Army. We now know of a cer- 
tainty that this reputation is well founded as we did not know it before. 
True, there has long been a legend to that effect, but of recent years there 
has been a disposition to question its validity. Scotland, or rather the 
articulate part of it, has borrowed the deadly doctrine of self-depreciation, 
from which the dominant partner has suffered severely, and the suggestion 
has not been wanting that the praise of Scots troops, which received such 
an impetus from the enthusiastic pen of the author of The Romance of War, 
was somewhat overdone. We were reminded that our Army had not 
had to face troops on the Continent of Europe since the days of the Crimea ; 
one Scots Regiment had not done so since 1799, while the Gordons had 
nothing to show for it since Waterloo. 

If that was true of the old " Contemptibles " generally, it was still 
truer of the auxiliary forces, which had seen no fighting at all, except in 
South Africa ; but to-day all of them have stood the acid test of the greatest 
war in history. The old " Contemptibles " were never finer, and we have 
lived to see one of the best Divisions in the Army composed entirely of 
kilted Territorials. Indeed, a cloud of witnesses has arisen to prove that 
all the 126 Battalions, into which the 69 composing the Scots Regiments 
expanded themselves for the purposes of war, have rendered magnificent 
service. If we relied merely on the word of the Commander-in-Chief we 
might suspect bias, for Earl Haig and more than one of his Generals 



220 THE PIPES OF WAR 

are Scots by birth ; but we have the appreciation of the special news- 
paper war-correspondents, and not one of them hailed from north of the 
Border. 

We have, moreover, the testimony of the enemy, who very quickly 
recognised the valour and skill of all the Scots Regiments, particularly 
those of the 51st Division. Indeed, the Scots soldier, although he 
represented only eleven per cent, of the British Army against eighty-one 
per cent, of England itself, took hold of the imagination of the Germans 
to such an extent that their caricaturists turned John Bull into a 
Highlander, converting his traditional tall hat into a diced " cockit " bon- 
net, his white riding breeches into a kilt or tartan trews, and his top-boots 
into gaiters. The pages of Simplicissmus, Kladdcradatsch, and Jugend, 
to name only a few, have throughout the war pictured a long pro- 
cession of the " wife-men " as representing the British Army, at first in a 
spirit of incredulous burlesque, and latterly with something of the wholesome 
fear, which was popularly supposed to have overtaken George the Second 
when he started in his sleep in terror as he dreamed that the " Great Glen- 
bogged " (Glenbucket) was swooping down upon him. 

It was to the advent of the father of that monarch that we owe the 
raising of the kilted Scots — nearly all the trewsed Regiments arose in the 
previous century — though the connection was indirect, not to say inverted, 
and was touched with an irony (especially in the light of the greatest of 
wars), which has been largely lost on a certain type of popularly accepted 
English history. According to this reasoning, the Highlanders, on seeing 
the country in danger owing to the expansion adventures of the dominant 
partner at the expense of France, flocked to the colours at the call of the 
English Government, and thus not only helped to save the Empire, but 
gratified their own passion for arms, which had been severely suppressed 
after the Forty-Five. 

The facts, however, are very different from this facile theory. To begin 
with, if the country as a whole had little consciousness of expansion, as 
Seeley argued, the Highlander had infinitely less, for one of the main trou- 
bles of dealing with him, even in our own day, has been his homing instinct, 



THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 221 

his intense love of his native soil, no matter how poor it may be. In the 
second place, the ambitions of the House of Hanover touched no responsive 
chord in the Highlander's heart, for the Clans had felt the full scourge of 
Teutonism in the ruthless work of Cumberland at Culloden. 

Again, if France was the hereditary arch-enemy of the dominant partner, 
Scotland in general and the Highlands in particular, had no such quarrel 
with her. On the contrary, France and Scotland, linked together by racial, 
psychological, and historical similarities and identities of interest, had long 
been the best of friends, and it must have puzzled the average Highlander 
why he should be asked to fight against her. So strong is this community 
of spirit that it might very well be argued that the Highland Regiments 
have never fought better in their long history than they have done in the 
Great War, because they were fighting for France, as well as for their native 
country. 

No doubt the Union had placed Scotland in the same category as England 
so far as France was concerned, but the kilted regiments arose, not so much 
out of a political necessity as from a revival of the spirit which had made 
the Scot in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a soldier of fortune 
wherever he was wanted, fighting now for Rome, and now in the ranks of 
Gustavus Adolphus against her ; fighting to a large extent without passion, 
but as an artist in arms ; and it was this absence of bias as much as any- 
thing else that made these venturers clean fighters, and raised their reputa- 
tion as masters of their art wherever they took service. 

From first to last the spirit which animated the soldier of fortune — out 
to gratify his instinct for adventure, his desire to make a living, and his 
passion for individuality — has always inspired the Highland regiments 
to a remarkable extent. It is true that the war with France involved the 
most momentous issues for the State, but the methods adopted for warding 
off the danger were far more personal and local than national. It might 
be argued that the real cause of the war with France was due to the im- 
perialistic ambitions of individual adventurers, and therefore raised little 
national animus, but precisely the same methods of meeting a crisis coloured 
the early stages of Armageddon, when every one felt involved, the influence 



222 THE PIPES OF WAR 

of one man, Lord Kitchener, being far more potent in rousing resistance 
than any abstract doctrine of State necessity. 

The raising of troops to fight France was at no time the complete State 
undertaking that conscription has involved in our own day. At first the 
duty was taken up by individual landowners, who raised in turn Regiments 
of the Line and Fencible Corps ; and when their pockets were exhausted, 
the task was assigned to local authorities like the Lords Lieutenant, 
who were commissioned to raise in turn Militia, Volunteers (1794-1808), 
and the very curious force known as Local Militia (1808-1816). 

Scotland afforded a splendid ground for the exercise of personal influence 
because, although the Clan system with its chieftainship had broken down, 
the influence of the great landowners was still powerful enough to attract 
attention, although the devotion of the people had to be reinforced by 
bounties on a scale unknown in our day, and by all sorts of practical recog- 
nition, such as the adjustment of rents and the enlargement of holdings ; 
for, although the armies thus raised had strong affinities with the levies 
organised under the feudal system, the Clan system was infinitely more 
democratic, and gave scope for greater individuality. This is so true that 
it often happened that the men raised in one glen declined to march to the 
rendezvous with the men of another glen who happened to be their here- 
ditary enemies, and trouble arose over the demands of particular groups 
to be led by their local officers, some of them even believing that they should 
go forth to battle by Clans, as in the old days. 

Of all the personal potentates interested in recruiting in Scotland, none 
was more powerful than the fourth Duke of Gordon who, although long 
in possession of vast tracts of Higland territory, was in no sense a Highlander, 
his family having migrated from Berwickshire to the north, and the trouble 
which existed for centuries between him and his Highland tenants, like the 
Macphersons, was due to the inability of his ancestors, or their representa- 
tives, to understand the true nature of the Celt. More motives than one 
urged His Grace forward as recruiter. In the first place, his immediate 
ancestors had played a very dubious part in the Jacobite risings, and the 
fourth Duke was anxious to remove the last doubts as to the loyalty of his 



THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 223 

house. Later on he married an extremely clever and ambitious woman, 
the famous Jane Maxwell, who had a great desire to play a big part in the 
State, and do something for her sons. 

Whatever the motives, the recruiting achievements of His Grace were 
splendid, for from first to last he raised no fewer than four complete regi- 
ments, besides contributing two companies to corps raised by others, 
and he also played a very active part as Lord Lieutenant of his county, 
The forces organised by the Duke were as follows : 

1759-65 ... 89th Regiment. 

x 775"83 ... Company for the Fraser Highlanders. 

1778-83 ... Northern Fencibles. 

1790-1 ... Company for the Black Watch. 

1793-9 ... Northern Fencibles. 

1794 ... Gordon Highlanders. 

The sole remnant of this mighty effort, which must have cost the Duke 
a fortune, is the regiment of Gordon Highlanders, which we have seen blossom 
out into eleven battalions, to say nothing of certain reserves ; and although 
the regiment has not continued to be recruited on the ducal estates, its 
connection with the House of Gordon has all along been maintained, and 
has actually been strengthened in recent times. That connection of course 
has always been symbolised by the wearing of the clan tartan, but the links 
with the north were strengthened by the rearrangement of 1872, when 
infantry regiments were allotted to definite Territorial areas for the purpose 
of recruiting. About the same time the Gordon family motto, " Bydand," 
and the familiar crest were placed upon the bonnet in lieu of the hard-won 
Sphinx. 

What is of much more importance is the fact that the genius of the 
family, admirably described in the alliterative phrase the " Gay Gordons," 
which inspired the original regiment, has passed into all its subsequent 
accretions, so that the 75th Regiment added to it in 1881, although actually 
of earlier origin, has been completely absorbed. The same can be said of 
the old Aberdeenshire Militia, which became the 3rd Battalion, and also of 



224 THE PIPES OF WAR 

the various Volunteer Corps which were gradually absorbed, while the 
Service Battalions raised by Lord Kitchener displayed exactly the same 
spirit as the cradle corps. This continuity and identity of tradition are also 
emphasised, not only in the Gordons, but in all the Scots regiments, and 
especially in the kilted units, by the fact that they alone maintained 
during the War at least, part of their Peace equipment in the shape of the 
kilt — even if it was camouflaged with khaki aprons — -and the trewsed 
regiments had their glengarries replaced by Kilmarnock and other braid 
bonnets. 

Who can doubt that such a continuity of outward traditions is but the 
symbol of a spiritual identity which links up the Scots regiments of the pre- 
sent day with the Corps who did such splendid work of old from Fontenoy 
to Waterloo, from the Crimea to South Africa. True, when you come to 
define it, it is difficult to say what it precisely consists in. Nearly every 
Regiment of the Line has its own peculiarities, but the Scots regiments 
have them in even greater abundance, for with them they are reinforced 
by marked racial characteristics. It is perfectly true that the Highland 
regiments are no longer confined to Highlanders, or even to Scotsmen, 
although the idea industriously propagated some years ago that they were 
originally composed largely of Irishmen, is a fallacy, completely disproved 
by War Office Records. Even if it were otherwise, the fact remains that 
the esprit de corps which all these idiosyncracies help to form has a remark- 
ably proselytising influence, very subtle and difficult to define, but very 
potent in actual practice. 

The early history of the Gordons is full of curious little incidents which 
sometimes run counter to popular notions. For example, it used to be com- 
monly supposed, especially in support of the now exploded theory that 
we have become " degenerate," that the first recruits of the Highland 
regiments were gigantic men. This is far from being the case. From 
the Description Book of the Gordons, one of the very few regiments which 
possess such data in an early form, it is proved that the average height 
of 914 men composing the greater part (940) of the original regiment, was 
only 5' 5 J", only six of them being 6' or upwards— the tallest, a Morayshire 



THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 225 

man, scaling 6' 4". Similar facts can be cited about the heights of other 
groups of men at the same period. 

There were only 16 men actually named Gordon, against 39 Macdonalds, 
35 Macphersons, and 34 Camerons. As to the occupations of the men, 
it is interesting to note that 442 were described as " labourers," and as 
most of them came from the Highlands, they were presumably farm ser- 
vants. Of skilled artisans, 186 were weavers. Inverness-shire, where 
the Duke had vast estates, supplied 240 men, Aberdeenshire 124, Banffshire 
82, Lanark 62, Ireland 51, England 9, and Wales 2. 

There was a solitary German in the regiment, a musician named 
C. Augustus Sochling, hailing from Hesse Cassel. There was another German 
in the regiment later on, also a musician, named Friederich Zeigher (or 
Zugner) who fell at Quatre Bras. The appearance of these Germans was in 
its way a sort of return for the fact that the House of Gordon had given 
many good soldiers of its name to what we now call Germany, although 
most of them really took post in Poland. The descendants of at least four 
of these soldiers still exist in Germany, and have risen to the dignity of a 
von, including the founder of the von Gordon-Coldwells, of Laskowitz, in 
West Prussia, the von Gordons of Frankfort, and the family of Dr. Adolf 
von Gordon, the well-known Berlin lawyer, whose motto is " Byid Dand." 
Although at the beginning of 1914 he told a Berlin newspaper that he knew 
nothing more about it than that it was an " altschottischer Spruch," it is, 
of course, nothing more or less than the historic word " Bydand." 

With regard to the pipe history of the regiment not very much is known. 
I fancy this is due to the fact that so much that has to do with the art of 
piping generally rests on oral and not written tradition. In the second place 
it must be remembered that pipers were not originally recognised by the 
State. They were purely a regimental, and not an Army, institution, and 
had no separate rank as the drummers had. Indeed, it was not till about 
1853 that they got the same rank and pay as drummers. Thus, in May 
1805, a piper named Alexander Cameron was taken on the strength of the 
Grenadiers as drummer, probably to get him drummer's pay, to which, 
as a piper, he was not entitled. 



226 THE PIPES OF WAR 

The rivalry of the two is brought out in a story told in Carr's Caledonian 
Sketches, of a dispute as to precedence between a piper and a drummer of 
a Highland regiment. When the Captain decided in favour of the latter, 
the piper expostulated with the remark, " Oh, sir, shall a little rascal that 
beats a sheepskin take the right hand of me that am a musician ? " The 
differentiation of the two is still reflected in the fact that a piper is always 
a piper, whereas a " musician " returns to the ranks in time of war. 

The first direct mention of pipers in the Gordons occurs in a regimental 
order of October 27, 1796, when the regiment was at Gibraltar, and when 
it was ordained that pipers were to attend all fatigue parties. An interesting 
sidelight on the use of the pipes occurs in a regimental order of November 12, 
1812, when the regiment was at Alba de Tonnes in Spain : 

" The pibroch will never sound except when it is for the whole regiment 
to get under arms ; when any portion of the regiment is ordered for duty 
and a pipe to sound, the first pipe will be the warning, and the second pipe 
for them to fall in. The pibroch only will, and is to be considered, as in- 
variably when sounded, for every persons off duty to turn out without a 
moment's delay." 

A pathetic little story about this function of the pipers is told by James 
Hope in his forgotten little book, Letters from Portugal, Spain and France, 
printed in 1819 : 

"At ten o'clock (on the evening of the day of Quatre Bras) the piper of 
the 92nd took post under the garden hedge in front of the village, and, 
tuning his bagpipes, attempted to collect the sad remains of his regiment. 
Long and loud blew Cameron, and, although the hills and vallies (sic) re- 
echoed the hoarse murmurs of his favourite instrument, his utmost efforts 
could not produce more than half of those whom his music had cheered in 
the morning on their march to the field of battle." 

At the battle of St. Pierre in the Peninsular, December 13, 1813, two 
out of the three pipers of the Gordons were killed while playing the pibroch 
" Cogadh na sith " (with which they were to charm the ears of the Czar 
of Russia in the great Review at Paris in July, 1815). As one fell, another 
took up the tune, and it was suggested to Sir John Sinclair, as President of 



THE GORDON HIGHLANDERS 227 

the Highland Society, that this " should be made known all over the High- 
lands." It may be noted that the Colonel, the gallant, if martinet, Cameron 
of Fassiefern, who fell at Quatre Bras, gave great encouragement to his 
pipers, especially as regards the specially Highland airs and the high-class 
music (Ceol Mor). Colonel Greenhill Gardyne attributes to this the fact 
that " all pipers in the Gordons are still taught to play Piobaireachd, " 
and that the ancient and characteristically Highland class of pipe music 
is still played every day under the windows of the officers quarters before 
dinner. 

The Gordons have enjoyed the services of one particular family of 
hereditary ear-pipers, the Stewarts. They came from Perthshire, where 
one of them was a piper to the Duke of Atholl, while his brother, known as 
" Piper Jamie," crossed the hills into the Parish of Kirkmichael, Banffshire 
— the cradle of a remarkable military family, the Gordons of Croughly — 
where seven sons were born to him. All of these strapping fellows entered 
the Aberdeenshire Militia, now the 3rd Battalion of the Gordon Highlanders, 
six of them becoming pipers. The best known of these was the eldest, 
Donald (1849-1913), who migrated to New Deer, Aberdeenshire, and was 
known all over Scotland as a champion piper. The family has been supplying 
pipers to the Gordons for more than half a century. 

No doubt modern battles are not won by deeds of individual daring 
such as these pipers have achieved, but they are won in terms of the spirit 
which makes such conduct possible, for it is just the little things, the train 
of tradition, the idiosyncracies of uniform, and the rest of it, which go to 
form that esprit de corps which has made the kilted regiments famous the 
world over. 



TO THE LION RAMPANT 
By Alice C. Macdonell of Keppoch 

Did ye hear the light feet marching, 

Marching down the birchclad glen ? 
Did ye see the pipers' streamers, 

Floating free behind the men ? 
Did ye hear the brave tunes ringing, 

As they swung the drones on high ? 
Did ye watch the rythm of the kilt, 

Did ye hear the war march die ? 
Behind the sharp bend of the road, 

Beyond the wild Ben Nevis range : 
The strains of Donald Dubh again, 

Bore out the clans to battles strange. 
But, it's O ! our tears ran sorely, 

As they left the Scottish shore ; 
For who'd come back, and who would see 

Lochaber's wooded braes no more ? 
Only the Lord of Hosts could tell, 

And the wae heart's own prophetic knell. 

Did ye see the brave lads smiling, 
As they drew their bonnets' down, 

With the shortened breath indrawn and tight, 
The flashing eyes, the steadfast frown ? 

Did ye hear the whistling shot and shell, 
That swept the kilted foremost ranks 
228 



TO THE LION RAMPANT 229 

Like the snow wind's call before its fall, 

As clouds lie piled in fleecy banks ? 
Ah ! no, t'was not the keen gust bite, 

That reddens cheeks with healthful glow, 
Nor the hissing as the shapnel fell 

The sound of melting driving snow. 
Did ye hear the war pipes calling, 

Like the mavis, in the van, 
'Mid the thunder of the battle storm, 

To the valour of each Scottish man ? 
The blood call of the march they knew, 

With bayonet charge was answered true. 

O ! Piper lads ! ! Piper lads ! 

What magic woven spell 
Amergin breathed within your reeds, 

Is not for mortal voice to tell. 
The wizard winds thro' reed and drone, 

The soul draws on to follow after 
To splendid heights of hero fame, 

Or, spellbound, led to grim disaster. 
Great Fingal heard beyond the hills 

Your quivering grace notes heavenward soar ; 
Old Ossian followed in a dream 

The " Broom of Peril " 1 Oscar bore. 
Blow softly, then, ! Piobaireachd's wail, 

Or loud and bold, to stir the heart ; 
No music stirs as yours can stir, 

Wild glamour of the fairies Art. 

Did ye hear the war pipes shrilling, 
Out beyond the German lines, 

1 " The Broom of Peril," the banner borne by Oscar in battle. 



2 3 o THE PIPES OF WAR 

Where the gallant soldiers pressing on, 

Drove home their charge, despite the mines ? 
Did ye see yon brave lad casting 

His broken pipes aside, 
As he plunged among the German lines 

To do his part what'er betide ? 
Did ye watch the tartans pouring down 

From hill, and trench, and sweep 
The cruel Teuton from the field, 

Like herds of driven sheep ? 
Did ye hear the shot that echoed, 

Till it reached a woodland lone ? 
Did ye see the mother's auld grey plaid. 

Wrapped round her mourning head ? — Ochone ! 
Did ye see the tears that dropped like rain. 

For the lads we ne'er may see again ? 

! Piper lads ! ! Piper lads ! 

What magic woven spell 
Amergin breathed within your reeds, 

Is not for mortal voice to tell. 
The wizard winds thro' reed and drone, 

The soul draws on to follow after, 
To splendid heights of hero fame, 

Or, spellbound, led to grim disaster. 
Great Fingal heard beyond the hills, 

Your quivering grace notes heavenward soar ; 
Old Ossian followed in a dream 

The " Broom of Peril " Oscar bore. 
Blow softly, then, ! Piobaireachd's wail, 

Or loud and bold, to stir the heart ; 
No music stirs as yours can stir, 

Wild glamour of the fairies Art. 



TO THE LION RAMPANT 231 

True hearts, as ever ready, to guard their native land, 

O ! Scotland's sons are bonnie, and Scotland's sons are grand. 

True hearts that never failed her yet, to-day as yester year, 

O ! Scotia rouse thine echoes, with one resounding cheer. 

Let the Lion Rampant proudly raise his head on cloth of gold, 

For the deeds of valour done to-day, in pages yet untold. 

Gay Gordon lads, brave Seaforths, Black Watch and Camerons tell, 

What steeled your dauntless hearts to face that living screen of hell ! 

The pipes of Loos, of Mons, of far and distant Dardanelles, 

That spake in Gaelic tones to each who dared those deadly shells. 

The old time slogan of the race, the spell that cannot fail, 

" A chlanna nan gaidhcal ! A Manna nan, Gaidheal! 

Guillain ri Guillain a cheile ! " 1 

1 " Sons of the Gael shoulder to shoulder." 



THE MUSIC OF BATTLE 

By Philip Gibbs 

Through all the days and the years in which I served as a war-correspondent 
on the Western Front, it was seldom that I did not hear, from near by or 
from afar, the music of the pipes. It was a sound which belonged to the 
great orchestra of life in the war zone, rising above the deep rumble of 
distant guns, travelling ahead of marching columns up the long roads to 
Arras or Bapaume, wailing across the shell craters of that desert which 
stretched for miles over the battlefields of Flanders, and coming to one's 
ears like elfin music through the dead woods above the Somme. Before 
every big battle the skirl of the pipes went with the traffic of war and guns 
surging forward to the fighting-lines. For in every big battle there were 
Scottish troops and their pipers played them on to the fields of honour, 
and played them out again when their ranks had been thinned by heroic 
sacrifice. This music had an inspiring influence not only on the Scottish 
troops themselves, whose spirits rose to the sound of it when, after long 
marching, their feet were leaden on the hard roads and their shoulders 
ached to the burden of their packs, but also on English troops who were 
in their neighbourhood, and on their way to the same battlegrounds. For 
though an Englishman cannot, as a rule, distinguish one tune from another — 
does not indeed believe that the pipes play any tune — there is something in 
the rhythm, in the long drawn notes, in the soul singing out of those " wind- 
bags," so he calls them, which in some queer magic way, stirs the blood of 
a man, whoever he may be, and stiffens the slackening fibre of his heart, 
and takes him out of the rut of his earth to some higher plane of thought, 
and gives him courage. It is an Englishman who writes this, but I am sure 

232 



THE MUSIC OF BATTLE 233 

of it, for many times in dark days of war I have been taken up by the sad- 
ness and the gladness of the pipes, borne by the breeze across the fields of 
war. 

The 15th (Scottish) Division were special friends of mine, and I remember, 
years ago now, how I saw them marching through Bethune on their way 
to the battle of Loos, where they fought their first big fight in September 
of '15. Through the Grand-Place of Bethune, not yet wrecked by shell- 
fire, they came marching with their guns. Snow was falling on the steel 
helmets of the men and clinging to the long hair of their goat-skin coats. 
It was a grim scene, and away beyond the city of Bethune there was the 
ceaseless thunder of bombardment over the enemy lines. But above this 
noise, like a heavy sea breaking against rocks, rose the music of the Scottish 
pipers playing their men forward. One pipe band stood in the Square, and 
its waves of stirring sound clashed against the gabled houses, and I remember 
how all our English gunners, riding with their heads bent against the storm, 
turned in their saddles to look at the pipers as they passed and seemed 
warmed a little by the spirit of that Scottish march. 

The 15th Division went into battle with their pipers, while the Londoners 
of the 47th had to be content with mouth-organs and sing " Who's your lady 
friend ? " on the way to Loos through storms of shell-fire. The 10th Gordons 
were the first into the village of Loos, and some of them went away to the Cite 
St. Auguste — and never came back. It was an unlucky battle and cost us 
dearly, but it proved the immense valour of our men, who were wonderful. 
The pipers played under fire and some of them were badly wounded, but there 
were enough left to play again when the Scots were relieved and came out, 
all muddy and bloody, with bandaged heads and arms, to small villages 
like Mazingarbe and Heuchin, where I saw Sir John French, then Commander- 
in-Chief, riding about on a white horse, and bending over his saddle to 
speak to small groups of Jocks, thanking them for their gallant deeds. 

In the early battles of the Somme there were many Scottish battalions 
of the 3rd and 9th and 15th Divisions, fighting up by Longueval and Bazen- 
tin and Delville Wood, where they suffered heavy losses under the frightful 
fire of German guns. The South African Scottish were but a thin heroic 



234 THE PIPES OF WAR 

remnant when they staggered out of the infernal fire of " Devil's Wood," 
and the men of the 15th Division who captured Longueval left many of 
their comrades behind. That was one of the finest exploits of the war, 
and they were led forward by their pipers, who went with them into the 
thick of the battle. It was to the tune of " The Campbells are Coming " 
that the Argyll and Sutherlands went forward, and that music which I 
had once heard up the slopes of Stirling Castle when the King was there, 
was heard now with terror by the German soldiers. The pipers screamed 
out the Charge, the most awful music to be heard by men who have the 
Highlanders against them, and with fixed bayonets and hand grenades 
they stormed the German trenches, where there were many machine-gun 
emplacements, and dug-outs so strong that no shell could smash them. 
There was long and bloody fighting, and in Longueval village, across which 
the Highlanders dug a trench, the enemy put down a barrage, yard by 
yard, so that it was churned up by heavy shells. On that day of July 
20, 1916, I met the Scots marching out of that place. They came across 
broken fields where old wire lay tangled and old trenches cut up the ground, 
and there was the roar of gun-fire about us. Some of our batteries were firing 
with terrific shocks of sound which made mule teams plunge and tremble, 
and struck sharply across the thunder of masses of guns firing along the 
whole line of battle. At the time there was a thick summer haze 
about, and on the ridges were the black vapours of shell bursts, and all the 
air was heavy with smoke. It was out of this that the Highlanders came 
marching. They brought their music with them, and the pipes of war were 
playing a Scottish love-song : 

I lo'e nae laddie but ane, 

An' he lo'es nae lassie but me. 

Their kilts were caked with mud, and stained with mud and filth, but the 
men were splendid, marching briskly with a fine pride in their eyes. Officers 
and men of other regiments watched them pass, as men who had fought 
grandly, so that the dirtiest of them there and the humblest of these Jocks 
was a fine gentlemen and worthy of Knighthood. 



THE MUSIC OF BATTLE 235 

Many of them wore German helmets and grinned beneath them. One 
brawny young Scot had the cap of a German staff officer cocked over his ear. 
One machine-gun section brought down two German machine-guns besides 
their own. They were dog-tired, but they held their heads up, and the 
pipers who had been with them blew out their bags bravely, though hard- 
up for wind, and the Scottish love-song rang out across the fields — whatever 
its words, it was, I think, a love-song for the dear dead they had left behind 
them. 

During the battle of Arras in April of 1917 there was always a wonderful 
pageant of men in that old city which had been under fire since October 
in the first year of war and was badly wounded, with many of its ancient 
houses utterly destroyed, but still a city with streets through which men 
could march, and buildings in which they could find comfortable, but unsafe 
billets. It was the headquarters of the battle which lasted in the fields out- 
side by Monchy Hill and by Fampoux and Roeux, Wancourt and Havinel 
until the end of May. Arras is a city built above deep tunnels and vaults 
made in the Middle Ages when the stone was quarried out of them to build 
the houses, and lengthened and strengthened by our own engineers and 
tunnellers, so that our men could live in them under the heaviest shell-fire, 
and march through them to the German lines. Above, in the old squares 
and streets, in houses still standing between gulfs of ruin, several of our 
Divisional generals and some of our battalion commanders established 
their headquarters, and when the first fierce shelling eased off — though it 
never ceased until the last German retreat in the autumn of 1918 — the 
streets were always filled with a surging traffic of men and mules and guns 
and motor lorries. Many Scottish battalions of the 15th and 51st Divisions 
among others were quartered here, and on one historic day there were as- 
sembled no less than five pipe bands in full strength, who played up and 
down one of the Squares amidst crowds of fighting men of English and 
Scottish regiments. I remember one such day when the pipers of the 8/ioth 
Gordons, commanded then by Colonel Thorn, were playing in the square. 
The Colonel had a proud light in his eyes as the tune, " Highland Laddie," 
swelled up to the gables and filled the open frontages of the gutted houses. 



236 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Snowflakcs fell lightly on the steel hats of the Scots standing in a hollow 
square, and mud was splashed to the khaki aprons over their kilts as they 
smiled at the fine swagger of the pipe-major and the thump of the drum- 
sticks ; an old woman danced a jig to the pipes, holding her skirt above 
her skinny legs. She tripped up to a group of Scottish officers and spoke 
quick shrill words to them. "What does the old witch say? " asked a laugh- 
ing Gordon. She had something particular to say. In 1870 she had heard 
the pipes in Arras. They were played by prisoners from South Germany, 
and as a young girl she had danced to them. It seemed to me a link between 
two strange chapters of history in the city of Arras which had been crowded 
with the ghosts of history since those days when Julius Caesar had his camp 
outside its walls on the very ground — at Etrun — where our Scottish troops 
had their huts. 

The pipes of Scotland sounded in many villages of France and Flanders, 
where for all time the wail of them will come down the wind to the ears 
of men who hear with the spirit. They were played not only in the roads 
and fields, but often at night in farmhouses where Highland officers had 
their messes, or in cottages where some battalion headquarters were estab- 
lished or in old houses within city walls where there was a feast or a guest 
night. It was my privilege to spend some of those evenings, when down the 
long table in a narrow room the pipers marched, solemnly standing behind 
the guest's chair and playing old dances and marches of Bonnie Scotland. 
Then the colonel would offer the pipe-major a glass of whisky, which he 
would raise high, toasting the health of the officers in Gaelic. After that, 
on many a good evening in a bad war, the tables would be cleared, and the 
young officers would dance an eightsome reel, with laughter and simulated 
passion, and shrill cries of challenge and triumph which stirred a stranger's 
soul. Or the pipers themselves would be asked to give a dance, and in 
stocking feet on bare boards, dance as lightly as gossamer and as nimbly 
as Nifinsky the Russian, though big, brawny men. In small rooms the 
music of the pipes was loud — too loud for any but Scottish ears — and it 
was hard on a French " padre " who was trying to sleep upstairs in one 
small cottage, with thin walls and cracks between old timbers of the ceiling, 



THE MUSIC OF BATTLE 237 

while downstairs late into the night the pipers played merrily for those who 
would fight in the next battle, near at hand. The effect of such pipe-music 
within four walls was prodigious on a French officer whom I took one night 
to the mess of the 8/ioth Gordons. The full pipe-band marched in as usual, 
and I saw my friend open his eyes wide and stare with amazement at this 
apparition. When they stood behind his chair playing lustily, so that the 
very glasses quaked on the table, he became very pale, and after the second 
" strathspey " I saw him collapse in his chair in a dead swoon. The Gordons 
thought this a fine tribute to their pipers. They enjoyed the incident justly 
though full of consideration for the French officer. He explained to me 
after the symptoms that overcame him. " I felt," he said, " enormous 
waves rolling up to me and passing over me ; my heart beat wildly, and 
vivid colours rushed past my eyes. Then I knew no more ! " Nothing 
would induce him to suffer such musical agony again. 

I shall always remember one piper I saw in the ruins of the Chateau of 
Caulaincourt. How he came there, or why he stayed there, I do not know, 
because few of our troops were in the neighbourhood, and the place was 
a desert. The chateau had been a vast place, with high walls and terraces 
and out-houses, but the whole place had been hurled into ruin by the Ger- 
mans on their first retreat in the spring of 1917. They had opened the 
family vaults and pillaged the coffins, and I remember being struck by the 
pathos of a little marble tablet I saw on a refuse heap, to which it had been 
flung. On it were the words in French, " The heart of Madame la Marquise 
de Caulaincourt." Poor dead heart of Madame la Marquise ! In life it 
would have broken at the sight of all this ruin. But there, quite alone, on 
the central avalanche of stones, stood a Scottish piper playing a lament. 
... I heard from other officers that he was seen there later, still alone, 
and still playing his pipes, but why we could not tell. 

The last time I heard the pipes was at the end of the war. They were 
playing Scottish troops over a bridge across the Rhine, at Cologne, and at 
the journeys' end of all that long and tragic way through which our men 
had fought with heroism, through frightful fire, with dreadful losses, until 
victory was theirs, final and complete. Along those roads the pipes of war 



238 THE PIPES OF WAR 

went playing, month after month, year after year, from one battle to an- 
other, and in their music for ever, as long as remembrance of this war lasts, 
there will be the tears and the tragedy and the triumph, reminding the world 
of all that gallant youth of Scotland which fought in France. 



THE PIPES IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE OF THE WAR 

By Arthur Fetterless 

I do not think any one can write with greater pleasure than I for the Pipers' 
Record. My only regret is that, personally, I never chanced to see the 
pipes go into direct action. I know that, in the earlier stages of the war, 
and in a few celebrated cases later, the pipes went into the charge, 
but I had not the good fortune to be present on one of these occasions. 
Others, however, will have written of these things, and I do not think I 
can do better than speak of events actually known to myself relating to the 
pipes and the pipers in the general life of the war. 

The pipes ! Ah ! No memories of the great war will ever be complete 
to any member of a Highland regiment without the recollection of the pipes, 
for they are unquestionably the finest battle instrument ever created. 
They mourned with us in hours of sorrow. They cheered us in hours of 
weariness. They played gaily in hours of rest and merriment. 

Back in billets, in ruined villages, half the battalion would turn out to 
hear " Retreat " played by the pipe-band. It was one of the events of the 
day, in the summer in the sweltering heat of the dust-laden huts behind 
the front-line, in the winter in the dank cold mid the seas of mud, in the 
midst of which the pipers played upon an island that was sometimes almost 
a floating raft. 

At these times the rumble of the guns was overwhelmed, and the horrors 
of war and the atmosphere were for a little time forgotten. And the fact 
that the pipes were the pride of the battalion was evident from the remarks 
of the men, if several Highland battalions were billeted together. 

" Your pipes are no* a patch on ours ! " 

239 



2 4 o THE PIPES OF WAR 

" Aw, away wi' ye, look at yer big drum ; he canna twirl his sticks 
above Iris heid." 

" Umph ! We've got a pipe-major, onyhoo." 

" Aye." A grudging admission. 

Such remarks were of the everyday talk of the men who heard the pipes. 

Again, at the periodical meetings and games of Highland brigades, the 
massed bands of the battalions were always there playing a mighty skirl. 
There were, of course, piping competitions in conjunction with competitions 
in Highland dancing and sport. 

All these occasions did much to rob modern war of its dismal character, 
and bring back something of the glamour of arms, and the glory of strong 
men. 

But enough of general remarks. I wish to write of five typical scenes 
from the life of the war relating to pipes and the pipers. 

******** 

In the first I am standing at the entrance to one of the low dug-outs, 
covered over with turf, which used to lie, and perhaps still exist, a few 
hundred yards from the Cafe Beige up the road to Ypres. Most people who 
fought in that sector found a billet in them at some time, or knew them — 
filthy they were. 

Overhead a couple of aeroplanes are hovering, very high up. An occa- 
sional shell can be heard, coming from a long distance away, with a rolling 
noise. The shells are probably 9-inch or perhaps larger, and they are burst- 
ing with crash and splash in the fields around or near the road. 

From the direction of the Cafe Beige I see a company of men in kilts 
advancing, men heavily laden with all the usual impedimenta of packs, 
rifles, etc. They look, in the distance, tired and grim, and in formation they 
are straggling, owing to the appallingly muddy state of the road. 

A shell bursts in the field to the left of the road along which they are 
coming. There is a heavy cloud of smoke, and streams of mud and slime 
are spued upwards and around. For a moment the leader seems to hesitate, 
and the party halts. Then they move on again. 

Suddenly there is a sound as of tuning up, and two pipers commence 



THE PIPES IN THE WAR 241 

to play. The advancing men steady in formation and come slogging through 
the mud, with step almost rhythmic to the music. 

" Crash ! " Another shell bursts nearer them, splashing some of the 
platoon with mud. The pipes play on. 

" Crash ! " A third shell bursts short of them. 

The pipes play on, and the men march steadily past to the music of the 
pipes. They cover another hundred yards, and a shell bursts in the road 
where the platoon were marching a few seconds before. I say to myself, 
" Thank God, they got through in time." 

As I look back it seems to me that that was not too bad an example 
of steadiness of pipers and men under dangerous fire. But of course it was 
all just an everyday sort of thing— a few men relieving trenches with a 
couple of pipers to cheer them on the way up — part of the everyday life of 
war. 

The pipes only began to play after the shelling broke out. 

My second scene is an incident taken from life in France. I think the 
pipes did their share in fostering the entente, and the arrival of Highland 
battalions with their pipe-bands marching in front did much to engrave 
in the hearts of the French people memories which will be carried on from 
generation to generation. 

In this second scene I stood at the entrance to a French town when a 
very famous battalion entered the main street marching to attention, with 
pipe-band playing. It was the first Scottish battalion to enter that town. 

Near me stood a little girl in a white dress. Her face, on seeing the 
band, first expressed astonishment. The expression changed to pleased 
interest, and finally she burst into gleeful smiles. 

As the band came near her she danced along beside the pipers, a 
beautiful golden-haired child, supremely happy. 

The people standing around cheered and waved with French enthusiasm. 
To them undoubtedly, in one of the darkest hours of the war — those magni- 
ficent men and the music of the pipes bore a message of hope and deter- 
mination, with the promise of ultimate victory. 



242 THE PIPES OF WAR 

To any people who are inclined to be supercilious about pipe-music, 
the recollection of the unfeigned pleasure of a beautiful child on hearing 
the pipes for the first time has often seemed to me to supply an answer. 
Those who cannot understand pipe-music might be able to do so if they 
were ready to receive it in the same simple spirit. 

About the end of October 1915 the trenches on Hill 60 in front of Ypres, 
were in a particularly sodden state. The rotting sandbags which formed 
the parapets were a mass of oozing earth, continually being scattered by 
shell-fire and rebuilt again by the toilsome labours of mud-covered " Jocks." 

The Hun sniper, too, was exceptionally vigilant in these parts, and, as 
he had the advantage of ground and of enfilade fire from several points, 
to put a head above the parapet in daylight meant almost certain death. 
Men also were being continually wounded and killed while passing along 
the trenches at points where the parapet had become too low, and it had not 
been possible to build it up quickly enough. 

As the combined result of shell-fire, sniping, and the bad state of the 
trenches, the amount of work which could be done in daylight was small. 
Repairs were done at night. There were also, on account of these difficulties 
and others, very few loop-holes available, so that, excepting through peri- 
scopes, the average man saw very little of the enemy. He scarcely ever 
got a shot at him by day. I suppose it was the result of all these things 
put together which created the scene. 

On a very dull morning a party of Seaforths were gathered in a bay of 
one of the trenches. I was round the traverse in the next ba}'. One of 
the party of men was on sentry duty with a periscope ; the rest were cleaning 
rifles. 

Owing to the dullness of the day, mud and filth, the ensemble was dismal. 
Suddenly there sounded from the direction of Sanctuary Wood the music of 
pipes playing. Why they were playing then, or where exactly they were 
playing, I have never known, but there certainly floated across to the 
dismal trenches the music of " Horo, My Nut Brown Maiden." 

To us in the trenches the distant music sounded perfectly glorious, and 



THE PIPES IN THE WAR 243 

the burdens of the hour were for a time lifted away. That the men found it 
so was evident from their action. 

Everybody knows the soldier's version which runs to the same air, 
and it apparently struck the fancy of the men as applicable to the occasion, 
for there burst forth from the adjoining bay a cheerful chorus : 

" Aa canna see the tairget, 
Aa canna see the tairget, 
Oh, aa canna see the tairget, 
It's owre far awa." 

The last line was converted by one of the chorus party into the line : 

" For Jerry he's owre fly." 

On looking round the corner of the traverse I saw the concert-party 
incredibly cheerful, and entirely oblivious of war, mud or danger, for the 
pipes had asserted their sway. 

There are many marches which the pipers made, including marches to 
battle, of which I might write, but I think my second last reminiscence 
had best be taken from the journey of the conquering Second Army which 
tramped from Ypres to the Rhine on the last great triumphal march. 

Of the 250 miles odd which the Army covered, I am certain that the 
pipers of my battalion piped at least a good half, perhaps more. 

What could we have done without them on that march ? As we tramped 
through village after village and town after town, neath welcome banners 
and cheering crowds, men wearied with marching, not always too amply 
rationed, yet swung forward with assured tread to the lilt of the pipes through 
every village and town. 

Welcoming bands played the Marseillaise, the Brabanconne, and the 
British Anthem, and the crowds shouted their " Vive les Allies," etc. The 
pipes played their regimental and national marches in return, and if inter- 
communication through language was not perfect, yet there was complete 
accord through music. 



244 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Undoubtedly, on that never-to-be-forgotten march, the pipes were indis- 
pensable. 

******** 

The last scene is taken from Germany. Perhaps I should speak of 
massed bands parading in the main squares and streets of the great towns 
of the Rhine, bringing home to the Hun as forcibly as in any way the destruc- 
tion of his ill-judged schemes ; or perhaps I should speak of the pipers on 
some of the great occasions — presentations of medals, presentations of 
colours, etc. 

I prefer to write of a very simple event. Happening where it did, it 
seemed so homely. 

I was riding through a forest not far from Cologne when I heard the 
music of pipes. I turned off the road and proceeded along a pathway which 
led to a green sward in the forest. 

There I saw a solitary piper marching slowly up and down playing a 
lament. His loneliness seemed to me to symbolise two things — the com- 
pleteness of victory, and the detachment of the conquerors. The music 
sounded very beautiful among the trees. 

I did not interrupt the piper, but if I know anything at all of piping, 
I am sure that that piper in the forest felt for a little while almost as if he 
were treading his native heath again, and dreamt of the Highland hills and 
forests from which he had come. 

After all, in Germany, we were strangers in a strange land and not wishing 
to stay there. Having done our work, we said in our hearts, " let us away ! " 
for the Huns will always be Hunnish. But we are Highland, and the pipes 
are calling us home. 

******** 

Beat on drums ; let the pipes play and the banners be unfurled for every 
triumphal march that shall be. But when the marches are played let us 
never forget that every march has grown more glorious by the war and the 
blood of the men who fell ; that every march has woven around it a thousand 
memories of life and death, of hardship, of danger, and of victory. 

In days to come we will remember — to battle we went by that march ; 



THE PIPES IN THE WAR 245 

to Longueval we went by that march ; and from Loos we came by that one. 
And for every battle march that the pipers play, we know that a million 
feet and more have marched to its song. 

That record of great work — that, with death and other things they did 
not count — that is the Pipers' Record. 



THE OLDEST AIR IN THE WORLD 

By Neil Munro 

Col Maclean, on two sticks, and with tartan trousers on, came down 
between the whins to the poles where the nets were drying, and joined the 
Trosdale folk in the nets' shade. 'Twas the Saturday afternoon ; they were 
frankly idling, the township people — except that the women knitted, which 
is a way of being indolent in the Islands — and had been listening for an 
hour to an heroic tale of the old sea-robber days from Patrick Macneill, 
the most gifted liar in the parish. A little fire of green wood burned to keep 
the midges off, and it was hissing like a gander. 

" Take your share of the smoke and let down your weariness, darling," 
said one of the elder women, pushing towards the piper a herring firken. 
Nobody looked at his sticks nor his dragging limb — not even the children ; 
had he not been a Gael himself Maclean might have fancied his lameness 
was unperceived. He bitterly knew better, but pushed his sticks behind 
the nets as he seated himself, and seated, with his crutches absent, he was 
a fellow to charm the eye of maid or sergeant-major. 

" Your pipes might be a widow, she's so seldom seen or heard since you 
came home," said one of the fishermen. 

" And that's the true word," answered Col Maclean. " A widow indeed, 
without her man ! Never in all my life played I piob mhor but on my feet 
and they jaunty ! I'll never put a breath again in sheep-skin. If they had 
only blinded me ! " 

There was in the company, Margaret, daughter of the bailie ; she had 
been a toddling white-haired child when Col went to France, and had to 
be lifted to his knees ; now she got up on them herself at a jump, 

246 



THE OLDEST AIR IN THE WORLD 247 

and put her arms round his neck, tickling him with her fingers till he 
laughed. 

" Oh bold one ! Let Col be ! " her mother commanded ; " thou wilt 
spoil his beautiful tartan trews." 

" It is Col must tell a story now," said the little one, thinking of the 
many he used to tell her before he became a soldier. 

" It is not the time for wee folks stories," said the mother ; " but maybe 
he will tell us something not too bloody for Sunday's eve about the Wars." 

Col Maclean, for the first time, there and then, gave his tale of The 
Oldest Air in the World. 

" I was thinking to myself," said he, " as I was coming through the 
whins there, that even now, in creeks of the sea like this, beside their nets 
adrying, there must be crofter folk in France, and they at ceilidh like your- 
selves, telling of tales and putting to each other riddles." 

" Ubh ! ubh ! It is certain there are no crofters in France, whatever," 
said William-the-Elder. "It is wine they drink in France, as I heard tell 
from the time I was the height of a Lome shoe, and who ever heard of 
crofters drinking wine ? " 

" Wherever are country people and the sea beside them to snatch a 
meal from, you will find the croft," insisted Col the piper. " They have the 
croft in France, though they have a different name for it from ours, and 
I'll wager the bulk of the land they labour is as bare as a bore's snout, for 
that is what sheep and deer have left in Europe for the small spade-farmer." 

" Did'st see the crofting lands out yonder ? " asked Margaret's mother. 

" No," said the piper ; " but plenty I saw of the men they breed there ; 
I ate with them, and marched with them, and battled at their side, for we 
were not always playing the pipes, we music-fellows. 

" And that puts me in mind of a thing — there is a people yonder, over 
in France, that play the bagpipe — they call them Brettanach — the Bretons. 
They are the same folk as ourselves though kind of Frenchmen too, wine- 
drinking, dark and Papist. Race, as the old-word says, goes down to the 
rock, and you could tell at the first glance of a Brettanach that he was 



248 THE PIPES OF WAR 

kin to us though a kilt was never on his loins, and not one word in his head 
of the Gaelic language. Tis history ! Someway — some time — far back — 
they were sundered from us, the Brettanach, and now have their habitation 
far enough from Albyn of the mountains, glens and heroes. Followers of 
the sea, fishermen or farmers ; God-fearing, good hard drinkers, in their 
fashion — many a time I looked at one and said to myself, ' There goes a 
man of Skye or Lewis ! ' " 

" And the girls of them ? " said Ranald Gorm, with a twinkle of the eyes. 

" You have me there ! " said Col. " I never saw woman-kind of the 
Brettanach ; the war never went into their country, and the Bretons I 
saw were in regiments of the army, far enough from home like myself, in 
the champagne shires where they make the wine. 

" We came on them first in a town called Corbie, with a church so grand 
and spacious a priest might bellow his head off and never be heard by the 
poor in the seats behind. 'Twas on a week-day, a Mass was making ; that 
was the first and last time ever I played pipes in the House of God, 
and faith ! that not by my own desiring. 'Twas some fancy of the priests, 
connived between them and the Cornal. Fifteen of us marched the flag- 
stones of yon kirk of Corbie playing ' Fingal's Weeping.' " 

" A good brave tune ! " remarked the bailie. 

" A brave tune, and a bonny ! Til warrant yon one made the rafters 
shiver ! The kirk was filled with a corps of the tribe I mention — the Bre- 
tannach — and they at their Papist worshipping ; like ourselves, just country 
folk that would sooner be at the fishing or the croft than making warfare. 

" My eye fell, in particular, on a fellow that was a sergeant, most des- 
perate like my uncle Sandy — so like I could have cried across the kirk to 
him ' Oh uncle ! what do ye do so far from Salen ? ' The French, for or- 
dinary, are black as sloes, but he was red, red, a noble head on him like 
a bullock, an eagle nose, and a beard cut square and gallant. 

" When the kirk spilled out its folk, they hung awhile about the burial- 
yard as we do ourselves in Trosdale, spelling the names on the head-stones, 
gossiping, and by-and-bye slipped out, I doubt not, to a change-house for 
a dram, and all the pipers with them except myself." 




DUNIQUAICH, LOCH FYNE 
From the Water-colour Drawing by George Houston, A.R.S.A. 



I 



THE OLDEST AIR IN THE WORLD 249 

" God bless me! " cried Ronald Gorm. 

" Believe it or not, but I hung back and sought my friend the red one. 
He was sitting all his lone on a slab in the strangers' portion of the grave- 
yard, under yews, eating bread and onion and sipping wine from his flask 
of war. Now the droll thing is that though I knew he had not one word 
of Christian Gaelic in his cheek, 'twas the Gaelic I must speak to 
him. 

" ' Just man,' says I to him. ' Health to you and a hunter's hunger ! 
I was looking at you yonder in the kirk, and a gentleman more like my 
clansman Sandy Ruadh of Salen is surely not within the four brown borders 
of the world nor on the deeps of ocean. Your father must have come from 
the Western Isles, or the mother of you been wandering.' 

" Of all I said to him he knew but the one word that means the same 
thing, as they tell me, in all Celtdom — eaglais. To his feet got the French- 
man, stretched out to me his bread and wine, with a half-laugh on him 
most desperate like Uncle Sandy, and said eaglais too, with a nourish of the 
heel of his loaf at the kirk behind him to show he understood that, anyway. 
We sat on the slab, the pair of us, my pipes stretched out between us, and 
there I assure, folk, was the hour of conversation ! " 

" But if you could not speak each other's tongue ? " said a girl. 

" Tach! two men of the breed with a set of pipes between them can 
always follow one another. Tis my belief if I stood his words on end and 
could follow them backwards they would be good Gaelic of Erin. The better 
half of our speech was with our hands ; he had not even got the English ; 
and most of the time we talked pipe-music, as any man can do that's fit 
to pucker his lips and whistle. The Breton people canntarach tunes too, 
like ourselves — soft-warbling them to fix them in the memory, and blyth 
that morning was our warbling ; he could charm, my man, the very thrush 
from trees ! But Herself — the piob mhor — was an instrument beyond his 
fingering ; the pipes he used at home he called biornien, fashioned differently 
from ours. Yet the same wind blows through reeds in France or Scotland, 
and everywhere they sing of old and simple things ; you are deaf indeed if 
you cannot understand. 



250 THE PIPES OF WAR 

" He was from the seashore — John his name — a mariner to his trade — 
with a wife and seven children ; himself the son of a cooper. 

" I am a good hand at the talking myself, as little Margaret here will 
tell you, but his talk was like a stream in spate, and the arms of him went 
flourishing like drum-sticks. Keep mind of this — that the two of us, by now, 
were all alone in the kirk-yard, on a little hillock with the great big cliff 
of a kirk above us, and the town below all humming with the soldiers, like 
a byke of bees. 

" He bade me play on the pipes at last and I put them in my oxter 
and gave him ' Lochiel's awa' to France.' A fine tune ! but someway I 
felt I never reached him. I tried him then with bits of ' The Bugle 
Horn,' 'Take your gun to the Hill,' 'Bonnie Ann' and 'The Per- 
severing Lover ; ' he beat time with a foot to them, and clapped 
my shoulder, but for all that they said to him I might as well be playing 
on a fiddle. 

" It was only when I tried an old port-mor — " The Spoil of the Lowlands 
now graze in the Glen " that his whiskers bristled, and at that said I to my- 
self ' I have you Uncle Sandy ! ' 

" Before the light that flickered was gone from him I blew it up to a 
height again with ' Come to me Kinsman ! 

" He was like a fellow that would be under spells ! 

" ' The Good Being be about me ! ' cried he, and his eyes like flambeaux, 
' what tune is that ? 

" You never, never, never saw a man so much uplifted ! 

' ' They call it,' said I, ' Come to me Kinsman,' (Thigibh a so a charaid !), 
and it has the name, in the small Isles of the West, of the Oldest Air of the 
World. The very ravens know it ; what is it but the cry of men in trouble ? 
It's older than the cairns of Icolmkill, and cried the clans from out of the 
Isles to Harlaw. Listen you well ! ' and I played it to him again— not all 
the MacCrimmons that ever came from Skye could play it better ! For 
grand was the day and white with sun, and to-morrow we were marching. 
And many a lad of ours was dead behind us. 

" When I was done, he did a droll thing then, the red fellow — put his 



THE OLDEST AIR IN THE WORLD 251 

arms about my shoulders and kissed me on the face ! And the beard of 
him like a flaming whin ! 

" What must he do but learn it ? Over and over again I had to whistle 
it to him till he had it to the very finish, and all the time the guns were going 
in the east. 

" ' If ever you were in trouble,' I said to him— though of course he 
could not understand me, ' and you whistled but one blast of that air, it 
is Col Maclean would be at your side though the world were staving in below 
your feet like one of your father's barrels ! ' " 

II 

The day was done in Trosdale. Beyond the rim of the sea the sun had 
slid to make a Sabbath morning further round the world, and all the sky 
in the west was streaming fire. Over the flats of Heisker the light began 
to wink on the Monach islets. Ebbed tide left bare sand round Kirkibost, 
and the sea-birds settled on them, rising at times in flocks and eddying in 
the air as if they were leaves and a wind had blow them. Curlews were 
piping bitterly. 

Behind the creek where the folk were gathered on the sea-pinks, talking, 
Trosdale clachan sent up the reek of evening fixes, and the bairns were being 
cried in from the fields. 

The Catechist, sombre fellow, already into his Sabbath, though 'twas 
only Saturday nine o' the clock, came through the whins and cast about 
him a glance for bagpipes. He had seen Maclean's arrival with misgiving. 
A worthy man, and a face on him like the underside of a two-year skate- 
fish. 

Col Maclean turned on him a visage tanned as if it had been in the 
cauldron with the catechu of the barking nets. 

" Take you a firken too, and rest you, Catechist," said he. " You see 
I have not my pipes to-night, but I'm at sgeulachd." 

But the Catechist sat not ; and leaning against a net-pole sighed. 

" 'Twas two years after that," said Col, again into the rapture of his 



252 THE PIPES OF WAR 

story, " when my regiment went to the land of wine, where we battled beside 
the French. I assure you we did nobly ! nobly ! Nor, on the soul of me ! 
were the Frenchmen slack ! " 

" The French," ventured Patrick Macneill, " are renowned in story for 
all manly parts. Oh King ! 'tis they have suffered ! " 

" Tis myself, just man, that is not denying it ! We were yonder in 
a land like Keppoch desolate after the red cock's crowing. The stars them- 
selves, that are acquaint with grief, and have seen great tribulation in the 
dark of Time would sicken at the sight of it ! Nothing left of the towns 
but larochs — heaps of lime and rubble where the rat made habitation, and 
not one chimney reeking in a hundred miles. Little we ken of trees here in 
the Islands, but they were yonder planted thick as bracken and cut down 
to the stump the way you would be cutting winter kail. And the fields 
that the country folk had laboured ! — were the Minch drained dry, the 
floor of it would seem no likelier place for cropping barley or for pasturing 
goats. 

" There was a day of days, out yonder, that we mixed up with the 
French and cleared the breadth of a parish of am boche, who was ill to shift. 
But the mouth of the night brought him back on us most desperate altogether, 
and half we had gained by noon was lost by gloaming. 

" Five score and ten of our men were missing at the roll-call. 

" The Comal grunted. ' Every man of them out of Lewis ! ' says he ; 
' they're either dead or wandered. Go you out Col Maclean with your 
beautiful, lovely, splendid pipes, and gather at least the living.' 

" Not one morsel of meat had I eaten for twenty hours, and the inside 
of me just one hole full of hunger, but out went Col and his pipes to herd- 
ing ! 

" Oh King of the Elements ! but that was the night most foul, with 
the kingdom of France a rag for wetness, and mire to the hose-tops. Rain 
lashed ; a scourging wind whipped over the country, and it was stinking 
like a brock from tatters that had been men. The German guns were pelting 
it, the sound of them a bellow no more broken than the roar on skerries 
at Martinmas, the flash of them in the sky like Merry Dancers. 



THE OLDEST AIR IN THE WORLD 253 

" I got in a while to the length of a steading with a gable standing ; 
tuned up piob mhor and played the gathering. They heard me, the lads — 
the living of them ; two-over-twenty of them came up to me by the gable, 
with no more kenning of what airt they were in than if a fog had found 
them midway on the Long Ford of Uist. I led them back to King George's 
furrows where our folk were, and then, mo chreach ! when we counted them, 
one was missing ! 

" ' It is not a good herd you are, Maclean,' said the Comal, ' you will 
just go back and find Duncan Ban ; he's the only man in the regiment I 
can trust to clean my boots.' 

" So back went Col in search of Duncan." 

" Oh lad ! weren't you the gallant fellow ! " cried Margaret's mother, 
adoring. 

" I was that, I assure you ! If it were not the pipes were in my arm-pit 
like a girl, my feet would not keep up on me the way I would be pelting 
any other road than the way I had to go. But my grief ! I never got my 
man, nor no man after ever found him. I went to the very ditches where 
am boche was lying, and 't was there that a light went up that made the 
country round about as white-bright as the day, and I in the midst of it 
with my pipes in hand. They threw at me grey lead as if it had been gravel, 
and I fell." 

" Och, a mheudail bhochd ! — Oh treasure ! " said the women of Tros- 
dale all together. 

" I got to my knees in a bit and crawled, as it might be for a lifetime, 
one ache from head to heel, till I came to a hole as deep's a quarry where had 
been the crossing of roads, and there my soul went out of me. When I 
came to myself I was playing pipes and the day was on the land. The 
Good Being knows what I played, but who should come out across the 
plain to me but a Frenchman ! 

" He moved as spindrift from spindrift, 
As a furious winter wind — 
So swiftly, sprucely, cheerily, 
Oh ! proudly, 



254 THE PIPES OF WAR 

Through glens and high-tops, 

And no stop made he 

Until he came 

To the city and court of Maclean, 

Maclean of the torments, 

Playing his pipes." 

The Catechist writhed ; the people of Trosdale shivered ; Patrick 
Macneill wept softly, for Col Maclean, the cunning one, by the rhyming 
trick of the ancient sennachies, had flung them, unexpected, into the giddi- 
ness of his own swound, and all of them, wounded, dazed, saw the Frenchman 
come like a shadow into the world of shades. 

" He flung himself in the hole beside me, did the Frenchman, gave me 
a sup of spirits and put soft linen to my sores, and all the time grey lead 
was snarling over us. 

" ' Make use of thy good hale feet, lad,' said I to him, ' and get out of 
this dirty weather ! Heed not the remnants of Col Maclean. What fetched 
thee hither ? ' 

" He put his hand on my pipes and whistled a stave of the old tune. 

" ' How learned ye that ? ' I asked him. 

" Although he was Brettanach he had a little of the English. ' Red 
John our sergeant, peace be with him ! heard you playing it all last night,' 
said he, ' took a craze at the tune of you and went out to find you, but never 
came back. Then another man, peace be with him ! a cousin of John, 
heard your playing and went seeking you, but he came back not either. 
I heard you first, myself, no more than an hour ago, and had no sooner 
got your tune into my head than it quickened me like drink, and here am 
I, kinsman ! ' 

" ' Good lad ! ' I cried, ' all the waters in the world will not wash out 
kinship, nor the Gael be forsaken while there is love and song. ' 

" Vain tales ! Vain tales ! " groaned the Catechist, and his face like a 
skate. 



THE PIPES: ONSET 

(Somme, September, 1916) 
By Joseph Lee, Lieut. 
Dedicated to Major Angus MacGillivray. 

The cry is in my ear, 
The sight is in my eye, 

This is the dawning of the day 
That shall see me die : 

What is the piper playing 
That battles in my blood ? — 

Winds in it , 

Waves in it, 
Waters at the flood ; 

Sadness in it, 

Madness in it, 
Weeping mists and rain — ■ 
What is the piper playing 
That beats within my brain ? 

Sobbing and throbbing 
Like a soul's unrest ; 
I drink his madd'ning music in 
As milk at my mother's breast : 
Flame in it, 
Fame in it, 
Love and all desire ; 
255 



256 THE PIPES OF WAR 

The clean hills, 

The clear rills, 
The smouldering peat fire ; 

Glances sweet, 

Dancing feet, 
Beating on the floor ; 

Maidens fair, 

Comrades rare 
I shall meet no more. 

The cry is in my ear, 
The sight is in my eye, 

This is the morning of the day 
That shall see me die : 

What is the piper playing 
That surges in my blood ? 

The soft breeze 

In pine trees, 
The hawthorn i' the bud ; 

The lone tarn, 

The golden barn, 
Fields of waving grain — 
What is the piper playing 
That beats within my brain ? 

Red war screams from his reeds 
And in the thrumming drones 
There lurks the lapping of men's blood, 
And sobs, and dying groans : 
Night in it, 
Fight in it, 
Wraiths of stricken men, 
Ghosts of ancient clansmen 



THE PIPES: ONSET 257 

Sweeping down the glen ; 
Life in it, 
Strife in it, 
Whisp'rings — it is well, 

If you bear a foeman down 
Right to reddest hell ! 
* * * * 

What is the piper playing ? 

For now I may not hear . . . 
The glamour comes across my soul, 
And the cry is in my ear. 



FLESH TO THE EAGLES 

By Boyd Cable 

It was during the retreat of 1914 that a Highland regiment was quartered 
for a night in one of the French villages, and billetted in houses, barns, 
anywhere the hospitable villagers could give them room. The officers estab- 
lished their Mess and quarters in " The Chateau," a big house on the out- 
skirts of the village. Many of the villagers had already cleared out, but 
in the Chateau the officers found the mistress of the house, her daughter, 
and her servants, standing staunchly to their place ; the master of the 
house being, as they were told, in the French Army. 

Madame spoke English fairly well, the daughter very well — when she 
did speak, which was seldom. She was a young and pretty girl of perhaps 
fifteen to sixteen years of age, fresh come from a convent school, reserved, 
timid and shy, in the presence of the officers almost to a point of shrinking 
when they spoke to her. Yet, although they could see her shiver and blanch 
at the sound of the distant grumble of the guns, she supported her mother 
bravely and asserted stoutly that she was not afraid to stay, when the CO. 
and some of the other officers questioned the wisdom of the household 
waiting for the Germans to advance. 

" Perhaps, monsieur," said Madame, " your soldiers will possible arrest 
the advance before the Allemands arrive at us here. And if it is not so, it is, 
after all, soldiers of the Allemands that will come, and they will not harm 
women and old men and boys who make no provocation or resistance." 

Unfortunately the practices of German soldiers were not then sufficiently 
known to the officers to make them press their argument beyond reasonable 
limits, and they gave in reluctantly to Madame's reasoning. " We cannot the 

258 



FLESH TO THE EAGLES 259 

children and the very old to march away," she said, " and one could not go 
and leave them here. Me, I stay to speak with the enemy officers and see 
my people do nothing foolish. I cannot run away and leave them." 

So they left it at that. 

Madame gave them dinner that night in the dining-room, and it was 
after dinner that one of the regimental pipers was heard parading round and 
playing tune after tune. Madame and Mademoiselle were greatly interested 
and asked many questions. 

" But there," cried Madame at one tune, " there is the music most 
fierce. It sound — " 

"It is battle music, Madame," explained the CO. "Music of a war 
song of the Highlands — of the Ecossais. Ask Monsieur l'Adjutant for the 
words of the song." 

So the Adjutant recited " The Macgregors' Gathering," with all the 
fire and ardour of a fiery Scot, and a Macgregor at that. Madame sat with 
brows knit, plainly struggling to follow the English words ; her daughter, 
as plainly understanding them clearly, held her breath and listened spell- 
bound and wondering to the words. Her head lifted and her eye lit to some 
of the lines : 

While there's leaves in the forest and foam on the river, 
Macgregor, despite them, shall flourish for ever. 

But at others, delivered with fierce emphasis and dramatic fervour, she 
shrank back with quivering lip and pain on her face : 

If they rob us of name and -pursue us with beagles, 
Give their roofs to the flames, their flesh to the eagles. 

When the Adjutant had finished and had sat down, looking a little 
shame-faced at having allowed his feelings to so carry him away, Madame 
and the girl spoke rapidly in French for a minute. 

Then Madame shook her head. " But no," she said, " I do not like it, 
this song. It is cru-el, cru-el. How says it — ' The roof to the burning, 
and the bodies, the dead, the flesh, to the birds of prey. But no, that is 
the war of savage." 



2 6o THE PIPES OF WAR 

The CO tried to explain to her, while the Adjutant did so even more 
eagerly to the girl, that it was war of the most savage and relentless kind 
that ran in those far back days in the Highlands of Scotland ; but again 
Madame protested. " It is too cru-el. I do not like it that you make such 
song and such music now. War, it is no more so. What is it your song 
says of the burning of la maison ? " She made the Adjutant repeat the 
lines and repeated after him, " Ah, m'sieu, ' Give their roof to the flames, 
their flesh to the eagles.' That is, burn the shelter of the women and chil- 
dren, and leave the dead unbury. You would not do that ; even the Boche 
that we despise would not do this thing. It is cru-el, cru-el." 

Mademoiselle said nothing, but they could all see the shrinking in her 
eyes as she looked at them, the wonder if, even now, the Ecossais could 
be so savage as to make such war. The Adjutant set himself to remove 
such an idea of their barbarity from her mind, and with some success appar- 
ently, since there was little shrinking and no more than a faint blush of 
timid friendship when they said good-night and retired. 

Next morning the orders came, sharp, urgent and imperative, to move 
at once, and there was little time for farewells. But Madame and the girl 
were both out to see them off and watch the battalion tramp by. The pipes 
at their head were screaming their vengeful music, " Give their roof to the 
flames, their flesh to the eagles," until the Adjutant, seeing the protesting 
motion of Madame's hands to her ears, hurried to the pipers and asked them 
to change the tune. 

After the ebb of our retreat and the period of the Marne, came the 
full flood-tide of our advance, and the sweeping forward of the French and 
British over the ground the Germans had taken and held a space. As the 
luck had it, the same Highland battalion came back through the same village 
where they had billetted that night — or rather to the shell, the wreckage, 
the remains of the same village. The men by now were coming to know 
what sort of treatment had been served out to the conquered country by 
the Germans, and were angry enough at some of the sights they had seen, 
the tales they had heard. But the anger had been cold and impersonal until 



FLESH TO THE EAGLES 261 

now, when they came swinging in to this friendly spot, through the shattered 
houses and streets littered with broken bottles and household goods, saw 
the gaping windows to the houses, the smoke-blackened shells here and 
there, the signs of pillage and wanton destruction everywhere. The cavalry 
and an advance guard regiment had been through before them, but it was 
plain that no fighting had taken place here, that no shell-fire had wrought 
this damage, that cold-blooded " frightfulness " alone had to answer for it. 
They were roused to fresh wrath by what they saw, but to a still greater 
pitch of fury by the tales they heard from the quaking villagers who were 
left, or who came creeping in from the fields and ditches to which they had 
fled on word of approaching soldiers. The sights were no more than the 
men had been seeing in any of a dozen villages passed, the tales no more than 
they had heard a score of times in the past few days ; but in this village 
they had been made welcome, had been treated to the best, had made quick 
but happy friendships ; and they felt a personal injury and pity for the 
brutally treated villagers. 

The battalion halted there for an hour or so and ate their midday meal — 
or rather gave it to the hungry women and children and watched them eat 
— and heard fresh and more horrible tales and half-tales that were too bestial 
to be told in full. 

The moment the battalion had fallen out and he was free, the Adjutant 
had asked the Colonel if he might go to the Chateau and make enquiries. . . . 

But when he and another officer came there they found none to make 
enquiries of. The house still stood, intact so far as the building itself went, 
but otherwise no more than a litter of rubbish and wreckage. Every stick 
of furniture that would break was broken, every crock and dish and bottle 
was scattered in splinters over the floors, every curtain, blanket and sheet, 
every item of bed and table linen, every piece of clothing was torn, dirtied, 
and denied as completely as men and beasts could do it ; every shelf and 
door and balustrade and fitting was hacked and broken and wrenched 
out of place ; every room on the ground floor had been used as horses' 
stables and left as foul as a stable could be ; every upper room was so 
befouled that, by comparison, the places of the animals below was the cleaner. 



262 THE PIPES OF WAR 

The two officers hunted through the house, outside and round the out- 
buildings, and found no one ; and, nauseated by what they had seen and 
heart-sick at thought of the women who had been there, returned to the 
village. As they entered it again they heard pipe music softly played, 
and seeing down a bye-street a cluster of their men, and hearing the sound 
of a woman's voice raised loud above the pipe music, they turned off and 
pushed in to see what was afoot. 

They found a woman in the centre of a close-pressing ring of their men, 
a woman wild-eyed, with grey hair in disorder, with black and blue bruises 
on her face, with her clothing torn and grimed with dirt. 

" Good God ! " exclaimed the Adjutant. " Madame ! " 

He thrust a way through the men to her, but when he spoke to her and 
asked her to come with him, she clutched and held his wrist, and stood there 
and made him — short of using force to her — stand and listen with the men. 
A dozen times he tried to interrupt, but she would not be interrupted, so 
at last he left her to go on with her tale and asked the other officer to go 
and bring the CO. 

But before the CO. came, he, like the men, was under the spell of the 
woman and of her tale, was listening, like them, with his heart turning 
cold and a deadly bitter anger rising in his heart. She spoke to them in 
English, breaking off at times into voluble torrents of French, checking 
herself and going back and repeating as best she could in English again. 
But although French words and phrases and sentences were mixed through 
her English, the tale was horribly plain and clear, the stories detailed and 
circumstantial enough to make it evident they were desperately true. 

She told of women, girls, girl-children, outraged, and afterwards, in some 
cases, mutilated and bayoneted ; she told of old men and boys haled out 
and stood against a wall and shot while their women were made to stand 
and look on ; of one woman who refused to make coffee for the Germans 
until they dipped the head of her infant in a pan of boiling water ; of another 
woman who was crucified, pinned to the door with bayonets while the arm 
of her child was broken and its body was flung down on the ground before 
her and left there writhing ... all this and more she told, and helped 



FLESH TO THE EAGLES 263 

her story out with rapid gesticulations and imitative motions and sounds 
of the child squirming and whining and the helpless mother wrenching at 
the pinning bayonets, while the men pressed in, glowering and cursing 
under breath, and behind them the pipe music skirled and wailed " roofs 
to the flames, and their flesh to the eagles." 

And then, lastly, she told them of herself and her daughter, the girl of 
fifteen, fresh from a convent school, timid as a child and shrinking from 
the look, much less the touch of a man . . . and of what they had done 
to her, while they held her daughter and made her watch ; and then had 
done to the daughter, while she in turn was held to see and not allowed to 
look away or even close her ears to the cries. She told it all, sparing herself 
and her child no word and no item of their shame ; and then — this was 
just before the Colonel arrived — she paused and looked round at the ring 
of savage faces about her, and lifted her two hands and shook them above 
her head. 

" I am French, and you are Anglais," she cried, "but I am woman and 
you are men. I have told you, so that you may know the animals you fight. 
I have asked your music-man will he play this song you have, that with 
the music I say it to you ' Give their roofs to the flames, their flesh to the 
eagles.' And if ever you have Germans soldat at your mercy, and they 
cry for pity, remember this village, and its women and my daughter, and 
me. Give us revanche . . . their flesh to the eagles. . . ." 

The Colonel broke in here, and, finding she was not to be stopped, turned 
and ordered the men away, and when they had gone, handed Madame over 
to some of the village women who watched timidly from their doors. Madame 
had told nothing but truth they assured him. Mademoiselle ? Ah, ma'm- 
'zelle could not be seen ; she hid in a cellar and screamed hke one mad 
if any entered or spoke — like mad did one say, but truly she was mad ; 
and Madame scarcely less mad. 1 

They had one more glimpse of Madame as they marched out, a glimpse 
of her standing in a door and waving and calling something to the pipers 

1 All the atrocities mentioned above are not fiction but fact. Day and date, names and places can be 
given for all of them. 



264 THE PIPES OF WAR 

as they came past. They knew or guessed what she wanted and the tune 
they were playing swung abruptly into " The Gathering," and the battalion 
tramped past the woman to the vengeful skirl of " . . . flesh to the 
eagles." 

Affairs had not gone well with the battalion, or what was left of it, through 
the battle. They had been ordered to advance and take a certain position 
in what was supposed to be the flank, had forced their way forward over 
the open under a scourging shell-fire, had suffered heavy losses, and at last 
gained the point from which they were to make the final attacking rush. 
But now that they were here it seemed impossible for men to go further 
and live. A stretch of open still lay before them, and this was swept with 
a tornado of rifle and machine-gun fire. What was supposed to be a flank 
of the enemy had become a frontal position, strongly held and evidently 
meant to be bitterly defended. It was vital to the success of the day that 
it should be taken, for various tactical reasons we need not touch here. 
The Colonel had passed the word through his officers and N.C.O.'s of what 
they were needed to do, and, briefly, why and how much depended on 
them. 

The moment came. 

A battalion on their left surged out and went plunging across 
the open, the high-explosive shells bursting and flinging fountains of 
spouting black earth and smoke amongst them, the ground puffing and 
dust-spurting under the hailing bullets. The Highlanders were supposed 
to wait until this other battalion had gained a certain line before they, the 
Highlanders, attacked ; so they lay in their ditch, watching the line struggle 
forward and the men falling in swathes under the pouring fire, watched it 
stop at last and drop flat and then begin to break back to cover. It was 
no time to wait longer, and the Colonel, making up his mind swiftly, launched 
his attack. It was met by a devastating storm of fire, even heavier and more 
deadly than the one they had watched. The battalion, barely clear of their 
cover, wilted under the storm, hesitated, stopped, and began to fire back 
at the enemy they could not see. Those of the men who stood firing were 



FLESH TO THE EAGLES 265 

cut down quickly, the others dropped prone or jumped into shell-holes 
or such cover as they could find. The officers did their best, jumping up 
and running forward and calling on their men to follow. But few of them 
ran more than a score of paces before bullet or shell fragment found them, 
and they fell ; such men as rose and tried to follow only followed them 
into the next world. The air was alive and trembling to the whistle and 
whine and hiss of bullets, their snap and smack and crack, and to the quick 
following crash on crash of the earth shaking shell-bursts. 

Again some of the officers tried to rally and start the line forward ; but, 
by now, so great was the noise, so dense the air with smoke and dust, so 
chaotic and confused the whole business, that the officers' attempts resulted 
in no more than spasmodic and isolated movements of little groups, move- 
ments that were worse than useless, because each could be dealt with in 
detail, and, one after another, the sweeping machine-guns sluicing bullets 
on each and cutting them to pieces in turn. Those that made these separate 
attempts were mostly cut down ; those that watched their failure were 
more convinced than ever that the whole was useless. 

The Colonel, too, saw that it was useless and vain slaughter unless by 
some desperate chance the line should move together . . . and even now 
it was perhaps too late, because the battalion on the left, lying in the open 
and scourged with fire, was giving way solidly and struggling back to cover. 

It was a crisis in the battle, and where in the crisis many brave men 
had failed, one brave man tried and won. From somewhere down the line 
high over the roar of the battle there rose a wailing skirl of the pipes. There 
was no note of the music that was not familiar to every man there, that 
they did not know each word to fit to it. The pipes might have been crying 
the very words aloud to them instead of the music : 

" Thro' the depths of Loch Katrine the steed shall career, 
O'er the peaks 0' Ben Lomond the galley shall steer, 
And the rocks 0/ Craig Royston like icicles melt 
Ere our wrongs be forgot, ere our vengeance unfelt." 

It was the voice of their own Highlands, their own clansmen, their own 



266 THE PIPES OF WAR 

regiment, that was calling to those crouching men in the ditch. They 
stirred, lifting their heads and looking for the piper. They could not see 
him, but the pipes shrilled on : 

" Then gather, gather, gather . . ." 

The men knew what was coming. " Gather " sang the pipes, and, when 
they were ready gathered, the word or the sign would surely come. The 
music was rousing them to other memories beyond their Scotland and their 
name and fame in the Highlands. " Landless, landless, landless," cried 
the pipes, and the men remembered those women back in the village, house- 
less and homeless, tortured and shamed past telling, remembered too a 
woman's final word, " But we are women and you are men." 

Along the line the wild and useless fire was steadying and dying away ; 
they could see now that this was no time for shooting, but for the cold steel. 
The Colonel saw and felt that the moment had come, rose crouching to his 
knees, made ready to leap out and forward. He, too, had been looking for 
the piper without seeing sign of him. But now, just as he rose, — " Halloo, 
Hulloo . . . Gregorlach ! " skirled the pipes, and down the line a figure 
leaped from cover into full view, halted, marked time for a few steps to the 
beat of the music, moved steadily forward, the kilt swaying, shoulders and 
pipe drones swinging, streamers fluttering, and the pipes screaming their 
hardest. 

All along the line men were scrambling to their feet and into the open. 
" ... Gregorlach ! " 

The Colonel was out and running forward, the line was up and away — 
" Hulloo, Gregorlach ! " and the pipe streamers still fluttering and dancing 
ahead of the solid rushing wave of kilt and khaki and glinting steel. " Give 
their roofs to the flames. ..." 

In that rush many fell and died ; but at the end of it so did many Ger- 
mans. For this time no bullet storm could stay the charge, the position was 
reached and taken, and the cold steel came to its own again — came to its 
own and drove home the meaning of the music that alone had brought it 
there — " Their flesh . . . to the eagles." 



THE BLACK CHANTER 

By Charles Laing Warr 

It was April above Lucerne, in the year of grace nineteen hundred and 
fourteen, and everything was young. A witchery of sunlight and scent and 
blossom etherealised the earth and the heavens ; and fields, green as the 
green diamond at the heart of the world, rioted wantonly to kiss the white 
dazzling peaks that glittered in the sapphire sky. 

On a fallen tree, its bark all frosted with lichen, two young people sat 
at the edge of a pine copse. They were both in the springtide of life, and 
they sat in enchanted silence inhaling the perfume of the trees and listening 
to the birth song of an awakening universe. She was not much over twenty, 
perhaps, and she was enhaloed with the soul of France. It lurked in the 
dark glistening coils of her hair, in the gestures of her shoulders and white, 
nervous hands, her lips. Her eyes, half mystic, half tigerish, wells of lightly 
slumbering passion, told the eternal story of that indomitable race whose 
destiny it seems to have been to demonstrate to the world that the life of 
a nation's soul may be unquenchable, though drowned in every century 
with blood. 

He was obviously from across the Channel ; clean built, healthy and 
handsome. One versed in the characteristic physiognomy of the denizens 
of our islands would have told you after a moment's observation that he was 
a Celt. And indeed, the Honourable Gordon Niall, son and heir of the 
fifteenth Baron Niall of the Western Isles, could play the piob mor and 
speak the Gaelic as his mother tongue. Twelve years of public school and 
university life had left him still dreaming foolish dreams and seeing great 
visions. Which is a proof that he was born into this world a trifle late. 

267 



268 THE PIPES OF WAR 

They were happy, these two, in their nest in the hills. They looked 
out on the world as the good God made it. Among the flower-smothered 
fields stretched at their feet a placid-minded peasantry lived and moved 
and had their being. Content with their tree-bowered, log-built chalets 
and their daily bread, they follow the slow-footed oxen and their wooden 
ploughs, just as their fathers did a thousand years ago. From day to day 
their stainless, uneventful life unfolds to them the secret of the untroubled 
heart, and they believe in the beauty of the world they see and the goodness 
of the Creator they one day hope to see. They are simple folk, of course. 

Helene von Behr loved it as she looked. It made her remember so vividly 
an old-age worn chateau in the peace of southern France. She felt again 
in her inmost soul those scents of childhood which outlive all human forget- 
fulness. She sat and dreamed of it all, and as she dreamed her thoughts 
became words, and she told them to her companion, who listened with his 
blue eyes full of a boyish unconcealed adoration for the lovely girl beside 
him. Her eyes sometimes puzzled him ; they puzzled him now. A sad, 
lambent light was in them ; like sunset glints on the shadowing hills of 
vanished years. 

She talked on : about the moat round the grey creeper-covered house, 
the moat into which she had fallen one day when only six years old. And 
the forest — so deep and dark and wonderful — with the great oak, into 
whose branches Napoleon III. had climbed to smoke his everlasting cigarette 
in peace when he had been the unwelcome guest of her great-uncle, a grand 
seigneur who had despised the new regime. Old Jean Barbe, the coachman, 
was remembered too — old Jean, who was always cross but didn't mean to 
be ; and what a funny scar it was over his left eye where her white cat had 
scratched him ! 

Then there was the village cure. She said, with simple innocence, that 
her nurse had told her as a secret that it was whispered he was her uncle, 
and would have reigned in the chateau had he only travelled into this life 
down the broad road which leadeth from the altar. But, what a dear he 
was ! She remembered when she made her first confession to him, and how 
she had wondered if he was smiling, or angry, behind the grating when she 



THE BLACK CHANTER 269 

told that she had stolen a cigarette from the big silver box on the writing- 
table of M. le Vicomte de Fontaigne, her father, and had smoked it sur- 
reptitiously in the stable beside her pet horse. He used to dine with them 
every Wednesday evening ; and in the calm summer night the table was 
laid beneath the pear tree at the end of the terrace near the river, which 
glowed so red in the light of the westering sun. How shabby his soutane 
always was, and all brown with the stains of snuff ! 

So she rambled on and spoke of her father, that proud aristocrat, bearing 
a name to be found in the most abbreviated histories. She laughed when 
she said that he lived there in magnificent isolation, too proud to serve the 
Republic ! 

Then she sighed, and did not tell that nevertheless he had married 
her against her will to that dull old German diplomatist sitting down there 
in the Schweizerhof immersed in the voluminous correspondence which was 
the breath of his life : that correspondence which she secretly blessed in 
her heart for the free, careless hours it had given her these last ten days 
with this fresh-faced boy, the only occupant of the scantily filled hotel 
with whom her lord and master would allow her to associate. 

She sat silent, and gazed dreamily at the undulating countryside, radiant 
in bloom and light and colour, with old Pilatus in the distance, sentinel 
of ages. The shimmering sunshine quivered all over it, and the scattered 
chalets, and orchards pink and white with foam, seemed lulled to sleep 
in the security of God. Once a priest passed, trudging down the white 
dusty road beneath ; once a peasant, the smoke of his long black cigar 
hanging in a blue filmy wreath about his round felt hat. Far down in the 
valley tinkled the music of cow bells. A little stream, crystal clear, trickled 
at her feet . . . flies danced in clouds above the edging rushes. The warm 
smell of the earth was intoxicating like incense. . . . 

She was dimly conscious that her companion was whistling softly. 
He had a habit of doing this when deep in thought, and she recognised 
the odd little refrain. She had heard him whistle it a dozen times — queer, 
uncanny, elusive as the mountain mist, with the mystery of the hills in it, 
and sorrow, and the spirit of brave men. She glanced at him. She knew 



27 o THE PIPES OF WAR 

that this boy had begun to exercise a strange fascination over her, stronger 
and more dangerous than she dared to confess even to herself. It was 
not unnatural, for her life these last three years in that grim, dull old schloss 
in Hanover had been very lonely. The bud will not mate with the yellow 
leaf, but spring must call to spring ; albeit the mongers of the matrimonial 
market prattle as they please. 

" What is it you whistle, my Gordon ? " she asked suddenly. " There 
are strange things in the air. Has it a story from your Scottish hills ? " 

He sat back and laughed his gay laugh. 

" Yes, it has," he answered. " I'll tell it you, if it won't bore you." 

" But no : tell me," she said, and prepared to listen, her chin in her 
hand. 

It was a tune they played on the pipes, he said : and it was a wild, 
barbaric story of war and the fierce passion of men and the tottering fortunes 
of his race. Six hundred years ago Castle Niall had been besieged by a 
neighbouring clan, for the Niall of the day had carried off the daughter of 
its chief, and held her within his walls. The beleaguered garrison was on the 
verge of starvation, when to Niall came a dream which told him that deliver- 
ance would come from a black chanter which would drop from heaven upon 
the castle roof. Three times, and three times only, would it play a mysterious 
tune, which none but the head of the house would be able to awaken from 
the reed ; and in the hour of peril or distress the playing of the chanter would 
bring salvation. When the morning dawned grey over the castle ramparts, 
they found, lying on the roof, a black chanter as had been foretold. The 
chief blew on it with trembling lips, and lo ! it played of its own accord. 
Immediately Niall and his men sallied from the fortress and drove their 
enemies into the sea. 

In the intervening centuries the chanter had again been used and brought 
deliverance. Its virtue would be efficacious only once more. The strange, 
haunting air had become the battle charge of his race. It was that which 
he had been whistling. The last time it had been played, in the sixteenth 
century, the family piper had caught the air and fixed it indelibly on the 
scroll of memory. He laughed nervously when he had finished. He was 



THE BLACK CHANTER 271 

afraid she would treat it lightly. But he had told his tale with an old-world 
seriousness, and although she had felt inclined to smile when he had ended 
his recital of it, something in his face restrained her. Instead, she patted 
his brown curly head. 

" Come," she said, " it is late. We must go home." 

It was their last evening together, for Helene and her husband were 
leaving the following day. As they walked along under the chestnut trees 
on the Schweizerhof Quai, Niall was dull and silent. She had stirred the 
very depths of his young, impressionable heart, this girl. He didn't attempt 
to deceive himself : he knew he was passionately in love with her. He felt 
that he hated old von Behr. But — it was all so hopeless. 

That night he dined with them. The dinner was not a great success. 
They were all pre-occupied — Helene and Gordon with crowding thoughts 
that were very much akin, the Count with a disquieting dispatch from the 
Wilhelmstrasse and a severe attack of indigestion. At ten o'clock he ex- 
cused himself : he had writing to do. He pointedly suggested that his 
wife should go to bed ; and he made his adieux to Niall, remarking that 
they were leaving early in the morning and would not likely see him. Furious 
with stifled anger, the boy said a conventional good-bye to the woman 
he loved. She moved away. Count von Behr lingered for a moment, and 
then betook himself with shambling gait to his accustomed corner of the 
writing-room, which, for some reason, he preferred to his own private apart- 
ment. 

The moment he was out of sight Niall hurriedly left the lounge and 
hastened upstairs. On the first floor he saw her, obviously lingering, a 
little way down the corridor. She came back as she saw him approach. 
The boy blushed deeply as he took her hand, and stammered something 
about not being able to say good-bye in such a beastly cold fashion. His 
head seemed to be swimming. He had some confused impressions about 
the white of her evening gown and a great crimson rose at her breast. 

" My Gordon," she said softly, with that fascinating inability to control 
her r's that thrilled him; "Whistle me your tune once again — quickly, 



272 THE PIPES OF WAR 

for I must go. I shall remember you by it, boy. Perhaps, some day if 
we meet again, I may be able to whistle it to you ! " 

She smiled, but her eyes were moist. And Niall drew his parched lips 
together and managed to whistle the strange, mysterious air. He finished 
and stood awkwardly facing her, tall and distinguished in his evening 
clothes. No word of love had ever passed between them, but as they looked 
into each others eyes, each read the secret that nothing could hide. 

" Adieu, my Gordon," she whispered hastily. " You have been good 
to me. I won't forget you . . . and you'll help me often . . . but be 
sensible, boy — and forget me!" 

A moment later she was running down the corridor and vanished at the 
end. The boy stood for a minute or two rigid where he was, staring blankly 
at a red rose in his hands, his head reeling with the delicious joy of the 
knowledge that for one never-to-be-forgotten moment her arms had been 
thrown round his neck, and on his mouth her warm lips had pressed a 
swift, burning kiss. 

II 

Captain Gordon Niall of the Uist Highlanders lay flat on his face beside 
a loophole in the wall. With a subaltern, two men, and a stray sergeant of 
the Yorkshire Rifles, he occupied the remains of a former farmstead, now 
a jumbled heap of bricks and mortar. The only portion of this mass of 
refuse that looked like a house was a right angle formed by the ends of 
two walls which rose like a skeleton from the shattered piles of rafters, rub- 
bish, stones, lime, and dead bodies of mangled men. 

It was one of the supreme moments resultant upon the German break 
through near Armentieres, that grim, bloody month of April, 1918. The 
British line existed only in the imagination of an exhausted and bewildered 
Staff, their faculties half paralysed with fatigue and over work. No one 
knew with anything even approaching certainty what the situation was. 
Only one thing was certain because it was obvious, and that was that the 
very existence of our Armies was hanging in the balance. The British front 
was hopelessly, irretrievably broken ; and a disorganised rabble of tattered 



THE BLACK CHANTER 273 

regiments, half crazy with weariness and strain and hunger, were retreating 
in mixed, irregular bands back from the river Lys, through a withering 
hail of bullets and a raging tornado of shrapnel and high explosive ; vali- 
antly and uncomplainingly to take up new positions and renew the desperate 
struggle against overwhelming odds. 

Gordon Niall had arrived at the stage when all emotion had been frozen 
to its depths. He looked phlegmatically out upon a dreary, muddy country- 
side literally alive with the grey advancing hordes of the enemy. The little 
group huddled in the shelter of the tottering walls manipulated a Lewis 
gun with the dull ceaseless energy of men in a dream. Dirty, ragged, ver- 
minous, with a week's growth on their smoke-grimed emaciated faces, 
they were unquestioningly carrying out to the last their final act in the 
mighty drama of that last awful month which clouded their minds like 
a nightmare from Hell. 

They had been all through the sickening horror of the struggle on the 
Somme, and after three weeks hard fighting had arrived a week ago at 
Armentieres for a rest, to find themselves swirled into the vortex of the 
new German offensive. Gordon Niall as he stoically waited for death, 
knew very little about the facts of it all. He had been told that the Portu- 
guese who held the line on the left had broken ; and that out of the welter 
of shattered, scurrying, disordered units, he had been ordered to take up 
an advanced position, to stem the rush with a handful of men he had managed 
to gather round him out of the retreating forces. And there he was, with 
four others — all that were left — with the German masses two hundred yards 
ahead, and behind him the river Lys, its muddy waters splashing under the 
bursting barrage, ironically emphasising the fact that for him there was no 
retreat. 

It was only a matter of minutes, and at last the end came. A confused 
babel of sounds ; a smothering avalanche of men, stamping, yelling, push- 
ing ; the collapse of the whole universe about him ; a deadly pain in his 
head ; a strange, swift, kaleidoscopic vision of home ... his mother's 
face . . . then darkness. 

He didn't know how long afterwards it was that he felt himself jerked 



274 THE PIPES OF WAR 

roughly to his feet. As his senses slowly returned he realised that a German 
officer was searching him. He watched the man stupidly as he went through 
the papers in his pocket-book : then something fell from a letter to the 
ground, something brown like a dead leaf, and Niall lurched forward with 
a snarl. 

" Give it me ! " he said hoarsely. 

The officer looked up, surprised, and then down at his feet. He stooped 
and picked the little fragment from the ground, glanced at it casually, 
and handed it to Niall with a look of half amused wonder in his eyes. Then 
he went on reading. Niall thrust the recovered treasure into his tunic 
pocket — only a faded rose given to him four years ago by a girl at Lucerne, 
whose memory the passion of war had not succeeded in effacing. 

The officer soon finished, and Niall was marched off with a small escort. 
It all seemed like a bad dream, that scurry over the fire-swept zone, the 
arrival at the battered hamlet where more prisoners were waiting. Then 
the long weary march, hour after hour, their numbers constantly swelling, 
on through the fading twilight and a dark drizzling night. Like drunken 
men the straggling column reeled along, half delirious with hunger and 
fatigue, past stores and camps and dumps and villages, while ever past them 
the reserve masses of horse, foot and artillery incessantly pressed on the 
heels of the advancing German forces. At last, long after midnight, they 
reached a smallish town ; and, packed into an empty building, they fell 
on the cold concrete floor and slept the sleep of utter exhaustion. 

Early in the morning they were marched to the station, and Niall found 
himself in a third class compartment with eleven other officers. Some time 
before the train started a bowl of some sticky, soupy substance was handed 
in, with a loaf of bread ; and on this they subsisted during the twenty-six 
hours which elapsed before they were detrained at their destination, a 
dreary, drab little town ; and, cramped and weak as children, they marched 
two miles out into the country to the wire-encircled encampment which 
awaited their coming. 



THE BLACK CHANTER 275 

III 

Those unfortunates who endured the lonely monotonous horror of prison 
life in Germany will tell you what " barbed-wire madness " was. They will 
tell you of men who got the disease ; and of that furtive, piteous look that 
haunted the tragic sunken eyes of weary creatures who became frenzied 
with the longing for freedom. It is perhaps difficult to appreciate from the 
depths of an arm-chair the terrible gnawing pain of this consuming passion 
to which some natures were so very susceptible. But strong men who have 
lived, if only just lived, for three long ghastly months, without letters or 
parcels, on a diet of turnip-soup and small lumps of black bread, till the 
skin was stretched tight over their protruding cheek-bones like yellow 
parchment, their filthy, ragged clothes hanging like mildewed sacks on their 
emaciated bodies, and their hollow eyes gleaming like the eyes of famished 
beasts — they understand how easy it was to fall a prey to " barbed-wire 
madness." 

Gordon Niall got it, and got it badly. It was inevitable. The restless 
Celtic spirit was the first to fall a victim to the mania for escape. Five 
times he eluded his watchful guard, and five times was recaptured, sullen 
and still determined, taking his punishment of solitary confinement as a 
matter of course, with a purpose dogged and unbroken. For solitary confine- 
ment in cells was no cure for the disease : it was like malaria, once in the 
system it was ineradicable. The weeks dragged on. Parcels and letters 
arrived from home and conditions gradually improved, but Niall remained 
obsessed with his yearning for liberty. Other men who had escaped and 
been recaptured began to realise the futility of it, and the news which 
filtered through the German newspapers of the turn of the tide and the 
progress of the Allied forces tended to encourage them to settle down to 
await developments. And one night the camp was electrified with the 
announcement of the defection of Bulgaria. It was the beginning of the 
end, and the star of hope shone clear in the firmament. Yet it had no 
effect on Gordon Niall, for the following night he made yet another attempt 
to escape. 



276 THE PIPES OF WAR 

He had thought it out carefully ; and at midnight, three friends, strenu- 
ously protesting at his foolishness, hoisted him up to the little window 
of their hut which overlooked the prison yard. It was not more than twelve 
yards from the wire enclosure, and within four feet of it rose a telegraph 
pole. The window had been very carefully prepared, and it did not take 
Niall many minutes to remove the glass, drop the panes into the keeping 
of his friends below, and wriggle on to the narrow ledge. He listened care- 
fully, and looked up and down the yard, white in the searching glare of the 
great electric lamps which turned night into day. A high wind and a driving 
sleet favoured him, for the sentry who passed shortly afterwards on his beat 
by the barbed wire was walking quickly with his chin sunk in the collar of 
his coat. Niall waited till he had gone, then, crouching for a moment on 
the window ledge, he sprang forward, clutched at the telegraph pole, clung 
to it for a few seconds, then laboriously hauled himself up to the cross-bars. 
Here he rested for a while and allowed the sentry once more to pass. Then, 
judging that he would just have time to reach the further pole, which was 
a few feet on the far side of the wire, before the man returned, he commenced 
his perilous journey. Painfully and cautiously he straddled across the wires 
and began to work himself along. The swirling blasts of the strong wind 
more than once almost swept him from his precarious hold, and the icy rain 
numbed his cut and bleeding hands. Beneath his weight the wires swayed 
and sagged . . . yet he struggled on his desperate way. It was more 
difficult than he had supposed, and sick, with nervous strain and physical 
exhaustion, he determined to risk discovery and hang where he was, half- 
way across, until the sentry passed again. The minutes dragged, and then 
round the corner of the next hut the man appeared, his shoulders hunched 
in the driving rain, his eyes on the ground. Above him, clinging frantically 
to the wire, Niall waited, his heart in his mouth. The man walked almost 
beneath him, seeing nothing ; and in a few seconds the prisoner again began 
to toil along the wires. At length, almost fainting with fatigue and strain, 
he clutched his goal and drew himself across the cross-bars, and waited, 
panting, his heart throbbing as if it would burst, until the sentry should 
repass him. He soon approached. Nearer and nearer he came. He tramped 



THE BLACK CHANTER 277 

beneath the crouching figure on the top of the telegraph pole. Niall muttered 
a prayer of thankfulness for the fierce wind and the torrential rain. 

The blood suddenly roared in his ears with excitement . . . the man had 
stopped . . . was he going to look up ? ... he stamped his feet for a 
minute or two, then resumed his monotonous beat. 

Niall quickly clutched the pole with his arms and knees and slithered 
to the ground. Bending low he ran swiftly across the area illumined by the 
glare from the prison yard, and found himself in the enveloping darkness 
of the night. 

The fugitive had a roughly accurate knowledge of the immediate country- 
side, gained by constant observation during the occasional walks which had 
been permitted the prisoners, under escort. He purposed making for a thick 
wood which lay about two miles to the westward, and there concealing him- 
self during the following day when the hue and cry would be in full swing. 
When night again came round he would push ahead ; if possible, keeping 
a general course to the north-west, which, he anticipated, would in time 
bring him to some point on the Dutch frontier. He had saved up a quantity 
of food, which, with strict economy, he hoped might last him at a pinch 
for a fortnight. If, by that time, he had not reached the frontier, things 
might become awkward ; but this was an eventuality too distant to be 
considered at the moment. 

He found himself at the outskirts of the forest an hour later, and forged 
ahead through the crowding trees and thick undergrowth until dawn broke, 
when he searched about for a secure hiding-place. He resolved not to climb 
a tree as he felt that sleep was a necessity. Fortune favoured him by the 
discovery of a large fox-hole in a dense thicket ; and down this he forced 
his way feet first, carefully wound up his wrist watch, and in five minutes 
was fast asleep. 

It was one o'clock in the afternoon when he awoke. Scarcely a sound 
broke the tense silence of the wood. The rain had passed and the sun shone 
clear above the trees. He ate some biscuits and a meagre slice of tinned 
meat, washed his face and hands in a neighbouring stream, made some 



278 THE PIPES OF WAR 

rough calculations on a sheet of paper as to direction, and settled down 
to wait for nightfall. With the advent of dusk he again set off through the 
forest. 

For twelve long weary days and nights he successfully eluded capture 
and kept up the same monotonous round — hiding by day and pushing ahead 
by night. He had been forced on many occasions to retrace his steps or 
make circuitous rounds owing to coming suddenly on villages or towns, and 
he had not made the progress he had resolved to make. His food, too, 
he had miscalculated ; and at the close of the twelfth day he found himself 
with his rations at an end, and hopelessly befogged as to his whereabouts. 
For another day and night he held out bravely, and then narrowly avoided 
detection in a fruitless attempt to steal a chicken from a farmyard. At 
the expiry of a fortnight he was starving and in the throes of a fever. 

He came to a final decision. He would start again at dusk and press on. 
If by daylight there was no sign of the frontier he would give himself up. 
There was nothing else for it. He was in desperate straits : his clothes 
were torn to rags and he was almost overcome by the fierce grip of the fever 
that was rapidly consuming his little remaining strength. He had given up 
all hope of winning to the haven of neutral territory ; it might not be far 
away, perhaps, but his power of endurance was at an end. However, he 
would forge ahead that night, whatever happened. 

As soon as darkness rendered it safe he emerged from his concealment 
and struck westward along the edge of a rough country road. For hours 
he toiled along meeting with nobody, but making poor progress. He was 
becoming light-headed, and he lurched heavily as he walked. At intervals 
he burned and shivered and sweated fiercely. Time and again he fell on his 
face, but on each occasion he staggered to his feet and struggled ahead. 

The night wore on, and through the clouds on the eastern skyline a 
palish light began to filter. The skies grew dull grey and then softer like 
the wing of a dove. Over the fields and hedgerows the luminous glow grew 
clearer as the wheels of the Dawn rolled on, touching the bare branches of 
the trees and silvering the green stagnant water in the ditch, by whose 
edge reeled and pitched an exhausted atom of humanity. 



THE BLACK CHANTER 279 

Niall raised his bloodshot eyes to the heavens. 

" Well, this is the end of it," he muttered, " and probably the end of 
me too. I don't mind . . .it's been a good effort, and I'm so tired . . . 
my God, how tired I am ! " 

A hundred yards ahead a high wall began, evidently the bound of some 
large country residence, and not much further on was a small iron gate. 
Inside, a footpath led winding among the trees of a wide parkland. With 
shaking hands Niall unlatched the gate and followed the path. He could 
not see now where he was going : a red mist hung like a veil before his 
eyes. Once he ran against a tree, striking his head violently against the 
trunk. Dazedly he raised his hand to his forehead and felt it wet. . . . 
Shortly afterwards he reached the end of the parkland. Things grew clearer 
again, and he saw before him, not three hundred yards away, the grey 
battlemented towers of a stately castle. For a few moments he stared at 
it in a fuddled manner, then he collapsed into a ditch full of rotting leaves. 

When he regained consciousness it was night. He must have lain there 
all day. Slowly past events came back to him, and he raised himself with 
difficulty on his elbow and looked at the winking lights in the castle windows. 
The fever did not trouble him now : all he was conscious of was a fierce, 
overpowering craving for food and warmth and rest. The twinkle of the 
lights called to him. It was a German house, certainly, but he would get 
something to eat there, and they would let him rest — how he wanted rest ! 
His thoughts flew back to his home in the distant western isles. Would 
they be thinking of him ? he wondered. Thank God, they couldn't see him 
now. His mother, and Eileen his sister . . . they would be in the old library 
where they always sat at night, that vast stone-walled room above the 
cliff where the moaning of the sea rose eternally. And his father would be 
asleep in the red leather chair by the gun-room fire. He smiled as the 
vision rose before him. Would he ever see it again ? Great God, why did 
men want to kill one another ? . . . 

His rambling thoughts switched off in another direction ... if they 
could see him now, perhaps his old father would go to the glass case on the 



2 8o THE PIPES OF WAR 

library wall, take from its resting place the black chanter, and blow on it 
for the last time ! He laughed hoarsely — a good joke that ! Delirious and 
cracked, his voice suddenly croaked forth the weird notes of the 
black chanter's tune. Horrible and broken it rose on the still night air. 

In a few moments the delirium passed, and with a mighty effort he got 
on his hands and knees. Painfully and slowly he began to crawl across 
the damp grass of the park towards the shadowy mass of the silent castle. 

" They'll give me food," he gasped ..." and let me rest." 



IV 

The Countess von Behr sat in a deep chair by the open fireplace of her 
boudoir in the Schloss Bersenburg. On the white marble mantelshelf a 
painted china clock pointed to a quarter past eleven. The luxuriously 
furnished room was in deep shadow, the only light coming from two massive 
silver candelabra upon the grand piano in a recess by the window. The 
nickering glow from the red embers lit up fitfully the face of the woman who 
gazed abstractedly into the fire. 

Four years of mental strain and suffering had left their mark on Helene 
von Behr, for there were lines about her eyes and her mouth had grown 
harder. These years had fallen with tragic weight upon the shoulders of 
the exiled girl, doomed by the exigencies of the times to live alone in this 
vast gloomy house, her heart in bleeding France, her body in a country 
which by hereditary instinct she had always disliked, but now hated with 
all the intensity of her passionate southern heart. So she had dragged out 
her solitary days in the seclusion of the Schloss, one of that vast multitude, 
young in years but old in suffering, whose souls have been ruthlessly crushed 
beneath the iron wheels of the chariots of war. 

The Count had been keenly alive to the delicacy of his domestic situation, 
and from the outbreak of hostilities, though he had been almost constantly 
resident in Berlin owing to his important connection with the Foreign 
Office, he had deemed it the prudent course to leave his French wife in the 
solitariness of his country home ; a policy which saved both himself and her 



THE BLACK CHANTER 281 

from inevitable embarrassments which might at once prove detrimental 
to the interests of the one, and intolerable to the other. 

The unutterable agony of the weary months in a position which was 
both false and horrible to her, conscious as she could not fail to be of the 
veiled contempt and cleverly concealed hostility of her servants, and the 
less disguised dislike of her few neighbours, had told heavily, upon the 
lonely woman. Two months ago things had become almost insufferable 
when the news came that the Vicomte de Fontaigne had been laid in a sol- 
dier's grave. To fight for the Republic was one thing, but to fight for France 
was quite another : and so, at the hour of crisis, like the rest of his order, 
the haughty nobleman had put his politics in his pocket and offered his 
services to the Government. The grief of her father's death, borne alone, 
friendless and exiled, had almost crushed Helene. Yet it seemed as if her 
perplexities were never to end : for that very afternoon a telegram had 
come intimating in crude staring words, that the Count von Behr had been 
shot dead in the Wilhelmstrasse while endeavouring from a window to 
appease a revolutionary mob. 

She had tried to analyse her feelings when the news was conveyed to her. 
She had never loved him, but in his own blunt way he had been kind and 
considerate to her ; and the sudden tears which she shed were from the 
heart, for she sincerely regretted his death. Yet despite this fact she could 
not stifle the insistent thought that she was free — free to go back to France 
and to the Chateau Fontaigne, that pearl of her soul, when this holocaust 
of death was past and over ; a thought rendered doubly moving by the 
knowledge that the dawn was already breaking ! She had often wondered 
what it would be like in the future for a child of France to be wedded for 
ever to a German. 

As she sat before the fire she felt restless and ill at ease. Her jumbled 
thoughts refused to be focussed on any one aspect of her affairs. She felt 
something strange in the atmosphere, something that oppressed her. It 
seemed in the air, it was all around, real yet indefinable. Time and again 
she looked round half nervously as if expecting to find someone in the room 
with her. . . . 



282 THE PIPES OF WAR 

She settled deeper into her chair and listlessly watched a morsel that 
fell red from the fire ... it grew pink and then grey. It still smoked a 
little, then died. As the lonely woman stared into the embers there sud- 
denly rose before her a bo}dsh face, so clear and vivid that she was startled 
by it. There was pain in the eyes that looked at her, pain and dull weari- 
ness, and the dumb suffering of a yearning spirit. Helene shivered. . . . 
How often during these last years had that face risen before her, and the 
sunlight and happiness of ten brief days in a deserted Lucerne had fallen 
on her tired heart like the dew of heaven. She had never forgotten him — 
how could she ? She had wondered so often where he was. She knew he 
was not dead : for he was first in that list of names which she had given 
to a friend in Berne, desiring him to keep her acquainted with their fortunes. 
She often thought, had she done wrong that night when she kissed his 
young mouth ? But it didn't really matter, after all : she had done him 
no harm, and long ago he would have forgotten her. Men forgot so quickly. 
For his own sake she hoped he had : yet — in spite of herself she prayed that 
he hadn't. And as she looked ahead, to-night, to her coming liberty, she 
wondered. . . . But the face in the fire made her uneasy. A queer tune 
throbbed in her head — his tune ! She had heard it in her thoughts all night ; 
wild, unrythmical, it seemed to have vibrated in the stillness of the shadowy 
room — mysterious, passionate, compelling. Once it had been so realistic 
that she had been convinced that she actually heard it — out in the night ; 
and she had pulled aside the curtains and peered out into the darkness. 

She stretched her arms above her head. She felt stifled : surely the 
room was very hot. Rising, she moved restlessly to the window and looked 
out. It was a clear, starry night ; with a silver moon peeping from behind 
some scudding clouds. She lingered, gazing up at the beauty of the heavens. 
Then, just as she was about to let the thick curtain drop, suddenly, muffled 
yet distinct, she heard a man's voice rise on the night air. It cried one 
English word — " Help ! " 

For a minute she stood startled and irresolute, then she flung open the 
window. Below, on the white of the wide gravel sweep, she could dimly 
see a dark form lying stretched before the massive steps of the doorway. 



THE BLACK CHANTER 283 

She leaned over the edge and called. No answer came. She 
drew back into the room and touched the electric bell. A few seconds 
later, an old sleepy-eyed footman appeared, their last remaining man- 
servant. 

" Quick," she cried, " there is a man lying outside on the gravel. I 
think he is dead. Get some help and bring him into the hall. I'll come 
down myself immediately." 

The man bowed solemnly and withdrew ; and when five minutes later 
she descended the broad oak staircase, Helene saw an excited knot of 
servants depositing a human burden on the great fur rug before the cavernous 
hall fireplace. She approached and looked down upon the form of a man, 
little more than a skeleton, his clothes ragged and smeared with filth, his 
thin sunken face bearded and dirty. The cluster of servants stared at 
him open-mouthed. 

The sick man moved an arm. He drowsily muttered a few words ; 
feebly, but Helene and the domestics heard them : 

" Must be near the frontier now. . . . Thank God ! " 

" English," said the old footman resentfully, but a quick look from his 
mistress silenced any further remark. She despatched the man for the 
local doctor and sent the women for blankets, hot water, brandy, pillows ; 
and she herself knelt by the miserable creature and gently loosened his 
ragged coUar. The emaciated face recalled nothing to her as she looked — ■ 
but, a few seconds later, Gordon Niall opened his eyes, and, trembling like an 
aspen leaf, and white to the lips, Helene von Behr recognised him. 

" Mother of God ! " she gasped. 

The floodgates of memory opened and the great waters poured over her 
soul. She felt the walls and the floor of the vast gloomy hall reeling about 
her ; but, with an almost superhuman effort of will, she regained her com- 
posure, and met the eyes that looked into her ashen face with a look of 
wonder and amazement. The fever seemed to have left him, and for the 
moment Niall was perfectly conscious. She bent down and pillowed his head 
on her arm. 

" Helene," he whispered, " is it you ? . . . where am I ? " 



284 THE PIPES OF WAR 

" It's all right, dear," she said soothingly. " You're quite safe. Don't 
speak — you must rest." 

The servants returned and Niall was made as comfortable as possible. 
Helene thought rapidly. At all costs she must be alone with him for a time. 
She dismissed the whispering women upon various errands. Yes, she said 
to their enquiries, she would stay with him till they returned. 

When they were alone Niall looked up. 

" I escaped, you know," he said weakly. " I've had an awful time — 
but I'm safe now, Helene, am I not ? . . . across the frontier, eh ? " 

" Yes, yes, my Gordon," she answered, smoothing back his matted hair, 
" you're across the frontier, and you'll soon be well." She almost choked 
as she remembered that the frontier was only five miles away. 

He sighed contentedly and closed his eyes. For a while he lay very 
still ; then he spoke, with difficulty. 

" My left tunic pocket," he gasped, " feel in it, Helene . . . that's 
right . . . now, open that flap." 

From the tattered leather pocket-book she pulled out a dried withered 
flower. His eyes gleamed as he saw it. He turned his face to her. 

" Your rose," he whispered — " at Lucerne, you know." 

A severe fit of shivering seized him. His eyes closed. From the corners 
of his mouth two thin rivulets of blood began to trickle ... he opened 
his eyes. 

" Helene," he muttered spasmodically, " Helene — the frontier ... I 
must get across the frontier . . . before the morning." 

The end was near and she knew it. With her left hand she extracted 
from her bosom a little gold crucifix and held it before the dying eyes. 
In a voice, choked with emotion, she said in his ear, 

" Say after me, my Gordon . . . ' Jesu, have mercy ! ' ' 

" Jcsu — have — mercy ! " 

" Now, and in the hour of death " — 

" Now, and — in — the hour of — death " — 

" Have mercy on me, a sinner ! " 

" Have mercy — on — me — a sinner I " — 



THE BLACK CHANTER 285 

He shivered as in a blast of icy wind, then smiled like a tired child and 
nestled his head against her breast. And very quietly he crossed the silent 
frontier of that shadowy country, whence no traveller returns. 

The servants were clustered about her, and the stout village doctor 
was bending over the thin body stretched on the fur rug ; but Helene, her 
head bowed, neither looked up nor spoke. . . . 



THE PIPES 

By Edmund Candler 

On Christmas night the pipers came into the mess. They had piped the 
regiment across many a hot place in France and escorted bombing parties 
down many a German trench. In one action four out of the eight were hit 
and two killed. They touch a chord deep down somewhere which no doubt 
has its proper scientific name. The eye of the piper which conceals his 
gladness, denying all rapture, is a key to the undemonstrative temper of 
the men who would rather die than throw up their bonnets and shout. 

A subaltern of nineteen years put the case for the pipes to me in his own 
eloquent slang. 

" Of course I get cold feet sometimes " he said, " like everyone else. 
But the pipes soon warm one. MacFarlane, the Company Piper, piped us 
across on the 25th, the regimental slogan, you know. By Jove, it was top- 
hole." 

We called him the Chicken. Being bigger in the beam than in the 
shoulders and having a slightly forward stoop he looked in his kilt like a 
preternaturally large nestling just emerged from the egg. To see him 
walking reminded one of a determined young chicken. He had an assur- 
ance unnatural in the new-born which set off his callowness and puzzled one. 
It was not side. To hear him talk made one smile. You would think he 
had plumbed experience and was already convinced about the main issues 
of life, celibacy or marriage, the rights and wrongs of Demos, peace and war, 
and the like. One smiled in sympathy, not in derision, accepting the in- 
disputable explanation that the Chicken had had special privileges in the egg. 
And one thanked the war for an ingenuousness of speech, the bloom of 

286 



THE PIPES 287 

which would have been rubbed off in a week of peace-time conditions in a 
mess. 

" MacFarlane was killed with a bombing party," the subaltern went on. 
" They let hell loose, — all their machine guns, rifle grenades, trench mortars, 
and every rifle thirty rounds at least. Our fellows came in half an hour 
afterwards, having been snug in a shell-hope through the whole show. Only 
two of our men were hit — by a trench mortar. One was MacFarlane. It 
was a horrid sight — made me feel a bit green. Nothing was left of them, 
and you couldn't tell who they were save by their identity discs. I put a 
sentry by the traverse on both sides and gave orders that no one was to pass. 
It wouldn't have done for these young recruits to see the mess," this pink- 
faced subaltern of nineteen explained with paternal solicitude. 

His tenderness for the recruits amused me, for the absence of down on 
his chin made the Chicken look younger than his years. But I marvelled 
more at the complacency with which he found himself in command. He 
spoke of his blooded veterans — Perthshires, if you please, the salt of the 
British Army, as if he were a huntsman holding them in the leash ; yet it 
was only in spirit that he had attained to man's estate. One phrase struck 
me. He was describing the capture of Hun murderers, or if not actual 
murderers the comrades and accomplices of murderers, men whom his 
Highlanders wanted to kill. 

" They were all holding up their hands," the boy told me, " and trembling 
with funk and holding out pictures of their Fraus and kids, and calling out 
' Don't shoot, Kamarade ! Don't shoot ! ' and my men wanted to shoot 
them. The Perthshires had been out for blood since the 9th of May when 
the Huns had burnt their wounded comrades, shooting them with petrol 
bullets so that their clothes burst into flame and they died in agony, and men 
who couldn't stick the sight of it any longer crept out of their trenches, in 
spite of orders, to drag them in and were burnt alive too. That day my 
company swore that they would take no more Prussian prisoners, and now 
word had been passed round by the Brigade, ' The 15th Prussians are in 
front of you, who burnt the men of your regiment. You will know how to 
behave.' My men wanted to shoot them all down, make the place a shambles ; 



288 THE PIPES OF WAR 

but, of course, I wouldn't have it. I told them they had to take the men 
prisoners." 

" Did they obey you ? " I asked. 

The Nestling looked at me in surprise as if I were a very ignorant person. 

" Obey ! They knew very well that the first man who fired I'd blow out 
his brains with my revolver." 

After all, the Chicken's assurance was a compliment to the regiment, 
where discipline is an elemental fact. And it spoke well for the boy too, 
that he realized what admission into that Kingdom, or corporation, meant, 
— all self and chickenhood being merged in the subaltern of the Perthshires, 
whose powers were as natural and inalienable as the properties of carbon or 
oxygen. 

Yet this callow youth on whom authority sat so lightly spurned his 
profession. It appeared that he had ambitions. He scoffed at the idea 
of sticking in the army after the war. He wanted " to do something," he 
said. I could not understand how he could resist the glamour of it all. 
His Colonel thought well of him and he knew it. The O.C., a reserved man, 
and sparing of praise, had been talking to me about the Chicken before dinner ; 
he told me that the boy had the right spirit and no fear in him. " I sent him 
on a patrol," he said, " a day or two after he arrived at the front, to a build- 
ing between the lines which was supposed to be occupied by Germans. My 
orders were, ' Find out if the house is held. Find out for yourself, remember, 
and don't take your men's word for it. They'll always see Germans, 
especially on a wet night when they want to be snug in the trenches.' " 

The Subaltern had the sight of an owl, but he was determined not to come 
back until he had seen Germans. So far he had seen none, having arrived 
at the trenches straight from Winchester, where he held a commission in the 
O.T.C. and had just won a scholarship for New College. He swore he would 
see Germans that night or promenade the empty house between the lines. 

A slip of a moon showed above the clouds and the rain ceased when they 
were within fifty yards of the building. The Corporal touched the Sub- 
altern's sleeve and said, " They're there, Sir. I can see about a dozen of 
them." 



THE PIPES 289 

" Where ? I don't see." 

" Straight ahead, Sir, by the wall." 

The Chicken approached nearer. Within forty — thirty yards. The 
Corporal warned him again in a throaty whisper : — " There's 'arf a company, 
Sir, lining the side of the house. We're almost agin them." 

Still the Chicken could not see. He gave the order to move forward. 

At fifteen yards the Germans opened fire. A quick volley. The patrol 
threw themselves flat. Luckily they were concealed in a slight depression, 
and in a few seconds the moon went under a dark cloud. 

The Subaltern whispered the order to return the enemy's fire, and his 
four men blazed away into the shadow under the house. The Germans 
replied vigorously ; by a miracle none of the little party were hit. Then 
the Huns turned the machine gun on to them from somewhere farther back. 
The Subaltern heard the spray of bullets coming nearer, spattering the earth, 
searching every inch of soil, passing with a thirsty sucking noise overhead. 
He was the most exposed of his party, but he felt for the body of the dead 
man he had stumbled against, and drew it into a close embrace. The 
current of lead passed an inch over them where they lay interlaced, the hve 
man clinging for life to the dead. The fire dropped. The body received a 
bullet and shook as if it were wrestling with him. It's head butted his own. 
A faint smell of cigar fume clung to its moustache. The boy had let the 
situation go for a moment, and was wondering, with a detachment at which 
he was surprised, whether all Germans smoked Havanas in the trenches, 
when a new kind of explosion added to the din. It was " A " Company's 
patrol bombing the house. The little scouting party received their first 
casualty from them. The man behind the Chicken uttered a cry of pain. 
A splinter from a bomb had taken away part of his right ear. 

This extended attack was too much for the Huns, who thought the 
whole line was advancing and decamped. The moon peeped out again as 
they were going off, and the Subaltern, Corporal and the two men accounted 
for at least half a dozen of them. These dark figures which rolled up like 
rabbits were the first Germans the Chicken had seen. 

The Subaltern entered the house with the two privates and sent the 



2 9 o THE PIPES OF WAR 

Corporal back to tell the Colonel that we were in possession. He had taken 
a rather important Observation Post marked 2.22 on the map. 

I had some of the story from the boy and some from the Colonel, but I 
will let the boy finish it. 

" The next day we had some burying," he said. " From the new post 
we could send out patrols to bring in our fellows who had been knocked out 
on the 12th. You won't mind me talking about things which make you 
feel a bit squeamish, will you, Sir ? " — the boy called everybody above the 
age of forty " Sir " — " Tell me to shut up if it is too beastly ; but, you see, 
most of these bodies had been out for six weeks and were more or less decom- 
posed. We dug a shallow trench towards them, threw out a hook on a bit 
of rope and drew them in. We had to find their identification discs. It 
was not a pleasant business taking off a man's shirt and not always easy, 
and my Corporal being sick every minute didn't help things either. I 
generally went for their pockets for letters ; that was easier, but ..." I 
omit here some details which are too unpleasant to print. " The Corporal 
with his weak stomach was a bit of a nuisance, especially at night, for if the 
Germans heard him they would send up a flare." 

Then he told me about a frontal attack at Loos. The Chicken had seen 
and suffered more and lived more in six months in France, and done 
more for England than I had in two score odd years. He was clearly 
a born soldier. He was happy in the regiment and quite one of them 
— one of the new incarnation at least who approximate in some ways to the 
old. I could not see what more he desired. 

" You really think of throwing up the army after the war ? " I asked. 
The Chicken turned on me the wistful smile that talk of " after the war " 
evoked among the sanguine at the time. " In war time of course everybody 
has got to be a soldier," he said, " but in peace time — no thank you ! " 

" But what are you going to do ? " 

" Anything, but inspect meat and tunic buttons. Something that counts. 
I suppose I shall go into the Bar or Parliament." 

I would have asked him if he really thought these talking shops counted 
more than the Perthshires ; but the pipes were coming in again and they 



THE PIPES 291 

were playing the regimental slogan. It gave one the most extraordinary 
feeling in the pit of one's stomach and all down one's back. 

" I'm not sure, though," the boy said ingenuously when they had gone out, 
" I may stick to the regiment on the chance of another show." 

I understood, I had passed through the two moods myself in a long route 
march when the pipes took over charge from the brass band. 



GLASGOW : PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY ROBERT 



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